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4x4
Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, and is typically linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive-shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges. A four-wheeled vehicle with torque supplied to both axles is described as "all-wheel drive" (AWD)
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Four-wheel Drive (other)
A four-wheel drive vehicle is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously. The term, or 4 Wheel Drive, may also refer to:Four Wheel Drive, a vehicle manufacturer Four-wheel driving, the sport of off-roading Four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive
in Formula OneEntertainment[edit]4 Wheel Drive (band) Steve Walwyn
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Pedrail Wheel
The pedrail wheel is a type of wheel developed in the early 20th century for all-terrain locomotion. They consist of a series of "feet" (pedes in Latin) connected to pivots on a wheel. As the wheel turns, the feet come into contact with the ground, and rotate so they remain flat to the ground as the wheel moves over them. Pedrail wheels may be simple systems with the feet connected to a rigid wheel, but more complex systems including various built-in suspension systems were designed to improve performance on uneven ground. The system was used in agricultural machinery. Pedrail wheels should not be confused with dreadnaught wheels which have articulated rails attached at the rim for the wheel to roll over (also known as endless railway wheels)
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Ring Gear
An epicyclic gear train consists of two gears mounted so that the center of one gear revolves around the center of the other. A carrier connects the centers of the two gears and rotates to carry one gear, called the planet gear, around the other, called the sun gear. The planet and sun gears mesh so that their pitch circles roll without slip. A point on the pitch circle of the planet gear traces an epicycloid curve. In this simplified case, the sun gear is fixed and the planetary gear(s) roll around the sun gear. An epicyclic gear train can be assembled so the planet gear rolls on the inside of the pitch circle of a fixed, outer gear ring, or ring gear, sometimes called an annular gear
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Multi-plate Clutch
A clutch is a mechanical device which engages and disengages power transmission especially from driving shaft to driven shaft. In the simplest application, clutches connect and disconnect two rotating shafts (drive shafts or line shafts). In these devices, one shaft is typically attached to an engine or other power unit (the driving member) while the other shaft (the driven member) provides output power for work. While typically the motions involved are rotary, linear clutches are also possible. In a torque-controlled drill, for instance, one shaft is driven by a motor and the other drives a drill chuck
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Shear Stress
A shear stress, often denoted τ (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section. Shear stress
Shear stress
arises from the force vector component parallel to the cross section
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Dilatant
A dilatant (also termed shear thickening) material is one in which viscosity increases with the rate of shear strain. Such a shear thickening fluid, also known by the initialism STF, is an example of a non-Newtonian fluid. This behaviour is usually not observed in pure materials, but can occur in suspensions.A dilatant is a non- Newtonian fluid where the shear viscosity increases with applied shear stress. This behavior is only one type of deviation from Newton’s Law, and it is controlled by such factors as particle size, shape, and distribution. The properties of these suspensions depend on Hamaker theory and Van der Waals forces
Van der Waals forces
and can be stabilized electrostatically or sterically. Shear thickening behavior occurs when a colloidal suspension transitions from a stable state to a state of flocculation
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Exponential Growth
Exponential growth
Exponential growth
is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent. Exponential decay occurs in the same way when the growth rate is negative. In the case of a discrete domain of definition with equal intervals, it is also called geometric growth or geometric decay, the function values forming a geometric progression
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Traction Control System
A traction control system (TCS), also known as ASR (from German: Antriebsschlupfregelung, lit. 'engine slippage regulation'), is typically (but not necessarily) a secondary function of the electronic stability control (ESC) on production motor vehicles, designed to prevent loss of traction of driven road wheels
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Hybrid Vehicle
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor,[1] e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged
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Bramah Joseph Diplock
Bramah Joseph Diplock
Bramah Joseph Diplock
was an English inventor who invented the pedrail wheel in 1903[1][2] and the pedrail chaintrack, a type of caterpillar track, in 1910. Pedrail Transport Company[edit] Diplock founded the Pedrail Transport Company of Fulham, which at the outbreak of World War I
World War I
was the only British company still manufacturing "caterpillar" continuous tracks.[3] A demonstration of the system's ability to support a large load for trench warfare was made on 16 February 1915 to Winston Churchill, and may have been influential in the development of the tank.[4] See also[edit]James BoydellNotes[edit]^ Motor Vehicles for Business Purposes by A. J. Wallistayler p.271 ^ Popular Science Sep 1933, p.96 ^ Men, ideas, and tanks by J. P. Harris, p.18 ^ Men, ideas, and tanks by J. P
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Traction Engine
A traction engine is a self-propelled steam engine used to move heavy loads on roads, plough ground or to provide power at a chosen location. The name derives from the Latin tractus, meaning 'drawn', since the prime function of any traction engine is to draw a load behind it. They are sometimes called road locomotives to distinguish them from railway locomotives – that is, steam engines that run on rails. Traction engines tend to be large, robust and powerful, but heavy, slow, and difficult to manoeuvre. Nevertheless, they revolutionized agriculture and road haulage at a time when the only alternative prime mover was the draught horse. They became popular in industrialised countries from around 1850, when the first self-propelled portable steam engines for agricultural use were developed
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Ferdinand Porsche
Ferdinand Porsche[3] (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche
Porsche
car company. He is best known for creating the first gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle (Lohner-Porsche), the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Beetle, the Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
SS/SSK, several other important developments and Porsche
Porsche
automobiles
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Driveshaft
A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft (prop shaft), or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load
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Series Hybrid
Hybrid vehicle
Hybrid vehicle
drivetrains transmit power to the driving wheels for hybrid vehicles. A hybrid vehicle has multiple forms of motive power. Hybrids come in many configurations. For example, a hybrid may receive its energy by burning petroleum, but switch between an electric motor and a combustion engine. Electrical vehicles have a long history combining internal combustion and electrical transmission –as in a diesel-electric powertrain–, although they have mostly been used for rail locomotives. A diesel-electric powertrain fails the definition of hybrid because the electrical drive transmission directly replaces the mechanical transmission rather than being a supplementary source of motive power. One of the earliest forms of hybrid land vehicle is the 'trackless' trolleybus of the 1930s, which normally used traction current delivered by wire
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Hub Motor
The wheel hub motor (also called wheel motor, wheel hub drive, hub motor or in-wheel motor) is an electric motor that is incorporated into the hub of a wheel and drives it directly.Contents1 History 2 Uses in current and future vehicles2.1 Concept cars3 Mechanism 4 Comparison with conventional EV design in automobiles4.1 Drive by wire 4.2 Weight savings 4.3 Unsprung weight
Unsprung weight
concerns5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]The Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybrid, the world's first gasoline-electric hybrid automobile, used wheel hub motors.[1][2]First wheel motor concept: Wellington Adams of St. Louis first conceived of building an electric motor directly in the vehicle wheel, though it was attached via complicated gearing
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