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48bit In computer architecture , 48BIT integers can represent 281,474,976,710,656 (248 or 2.814749767×1014) discrete values. This allows an unsigned binary integer range of 0 through 281,474,976,710,655 (248 − 1) or a signed two\'s complement range of 140,737,488,355,328 (247) through 140,737,488,355,327 (247 − 1). A 48BIT memory address can directly address every byte of 256 tebibytes of storage. 48BIT can refer to any other data unit that consumes 48 bits (6 octets ) in width. Examples include 4 8bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers , address buses , or data buses of that size. WORD SIZEComputers with 4 8bit words include the AN/FSQ32 , CDC 1604/upper3000 series , BESM6 , Ferranti Ferranti Atlas , and Burroughs large systems (B5xxxB8xxx, most of which additionally had a 3 or 4bit type tag) [...More...]  "48bit" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Octupleprecision Floatingpoint Format In computing , OCTUPLE PRECISION is a binary floatingpoint based computer number format that occupies 32 bytes (256 bits ) in computer memory. This 256bit octuple precision is for applications requiring results in higher than quadruple precision . This format is rarely (if ever) used and very few things support it [...More...]  "Octupleprecision Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decimal Floating Point DECIMAL FLOATINGPOINT (DFP) arithmetic refers to both a representation and operations on decimal floatingpoint numbers. Working directly with decimal (base10) fractions can avoid the rounding errors that otherwise typically occur when converting between decimal fractions (common in humanentered data, such as measurements or financial information) and binary (base2) fractions. The advantage of decimal floatingpoint representation over decimal fixedpoint and integer representation is that it supports a much wider range of values. For example, while a fixedpoint representation that allocates 8 decimal digits and 2 decimal places can represent the numbers 123456.78, 8765.43, 123.00, and so on, a floatingpoint representation with 8 decimal digits could also represent 1.2345678, 1234567.8, 0.000012345678, 12345678000000000, and so on [...More...]  "Decimal Floating Point" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decimal32 Floatingpoint Format In computing , DECIMAL32 is a decimal floatingpoint computer numbering format that occupies 4 bytes (32 bits) in computer memory. It is intended for applications where it is necessary to emulate decimal rounding exactly, such as financial and tax computations. Like the binary16 format, it is intended for memory saving storage. Decimal32 supports 7 decimal digits of significand and an exponent range of −95 to +96, i.e. ±0.000000×10^−95 to ±9.999999×10^96. (Equivalently, ±0000000×10^−101 to ±9999999×10^90.) Because the significand is not normalized (there is no implicit leading "1"), most values with less than 7 significant digits have multiple possible representations; 1×102=0.1×103=0.01×104, etc. Zero has 192 possible representations (384 when both signed zeros are included) [...More...]  "Decimal32 Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decimal64 Floatingpoint Format In computing , DECIMAL64 is a decimal floatingpoint computer numbering format that occupies 8 bytes (64 bits) in computer memory. It is intended for applications where it is necessary to emulate decimal rounding exactly, such as financial and tax computations. Decimal64 supports 16 decimal digits of significand and an exponent range of −383 to +384, i.e. ±0.000000000000000×10^−383 to ±9.999999999999999×10^384. (Equivalently, ±0000000000000000×10^−398 to ±9999999999999999×10^369.) In contrast, the corresponding binary format, which is the most commonly used type, has an approximate range of ±0.000000000000001×10^−308 to ±1.797693134862315×10^308. Because the significand is not normalized, most values with less than 16 significant digits have multiple possible representations; 1×102=0.1×103=0.01×104, etc. Zero has 768 possible representations (1536 if you include both signed zeros ) [...More...]  "Decimal64 Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Quadrupleprecision Floatingpoint Format In computing , QUADRUPLE PRECISION (or QUAD PRECISION) is a binary floatingpoint based computer number format that occupies 16 bytes (128 bits) in with precision more than twice the 53bit double precision . This 128bit quadruple precision is designed not only for applications requiring results in higher than double precision, but also, as a primary function, to allow the computation of double precision results more reliably and accurately by minimising overflow and roundoff errors in intermediate calculations and scratch variables [...More...]  "Quadrupleprecision Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Doubleprecision Floatingpoint Format DOUBLEPRECISION FLOATINGPOINT FORMAT is a computer number format that occupies 8 bytes (64 bits) in computer memory and represents a wide, dynamic range of values by using a floating point . Doubleprecision floatingpoint format Doubleprecision floatingpoint format usually refers to BINARY64, as specified by the IEEE 754 standard , not to the 64bit decimal format DECIMAL64. In older computers, different floatingpoint formats of 8 bytes were used, e.g., GWBASIC 's doubleprecision data type was the 64bit MBF 64bit MBF floatingpoint format [...More...]  "Doubleprecision Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

128bit Floating Point Format In computing , QUADRUPLE PRECISION (or QUAD PRECISION) is a binary floatingpoint based computer number format that occupies 16 bytes (128 bits) in with precision more than twice the 53bit double precision . This 128bit quadruple precision is designed not only for applications requiring results in higher than double precision, but also, as a primary function, to allow the computation of double precision results more reliably and accurately by minimising overflow and roundoff errors in intermediate calculations and scratch variables [...More...]  "128bit Floating Point Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

256bit Floating Point Format In computing , OCTUPLE PRECISION is a binary floatingpoint based computer number format that occupies 32 bytes (256 bits ) in computer memory. This 256bit octuple precision is for applications requiring results in higher than quadruple precision . This format is rarely (if ever) used and very few environments support it [...More...]  "256bit Floating Point Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Halfprecision Floatingpoint Format In computing , HALF PRECISION is a binary floatingpoint computer number format that occupies 16 bits (two bytes in modern computers) in computer memory . In IEEE 7542008 the 16bit base 2 format is officially referred to as BINARY16. It is intended for storage of many floatingpoint values where higher precision is not needed, not for performing arithmetic computations. Although implementations of the IEEE Halfprecision floating point are relatively new, several earlier 16bit floating point formats have existed including that of Hitachi's HD61810 DSP of 1982, Scott's WIF and the 3dfx Voodoo Graphics processor . Nvidia Nvidia and Microsoft Microsoft defined the HALF datatype in the Cg language , released in early 2002, and implemented it in silicon in the GeForce FX , released in late 2002 [...More...]  "Halfprecision Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Singleprecision Floatingpoint Format SINGLEPRECISION FLOATINGPOINT FORMAT is a computer number format that occupies 4 bytes ( 32 bits ) in computer memory and represents a wide dynamic range of values by using a floating point . In IEEE 7542008 the 32bit 32bit base2 format is officially referred to as BINARY32. It was called SINGLE in IEEE 7541985 . In older computers, different floatingpoint formats of 4 bytes were used, e.g., GWBASIC 's singleprecision data type was the 32bit 32bit MBF floatingpoint format. One of the first programming languages to provide single and doubleprecision floatingpoint data types was Fortran . Before the widespread adoption of IEEE 7541985 , the representation and properties of the double float data type depended on the computer manufacturer and computer model [...More...]  "Singleprecision Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decimal128 Floatingpoint Format In computing , DECIMAL128 is a decimal floatingpoint computer numbering format that occupies 16 bytes (128 bits) in computer memory. It is intended for applications where it is necessary to emulate decimal rounding exactly, such as financial and tax computations. Decimal128 supports 34 decimal digits of significand and an exponent range of −6143 to +6144, i.e. ±0.000000000000000000000000000000000×10^−6143 to ±9.999999999999999999999999999999999×10^6144. (Equivalently, ±0000000000000000000000000000000000×10^−6176 to ±9999999999999999999999999999999999×10^6111.) Therefore, decimal128 has the greatest range of values compared with other IEEE IEEE basic floating point formats. Because the significand is not normalized, most values with less than 34 significant digits have multiple possible representations; 1×102=0.1×103=0.01×104, etc. Zero has 12288 possible representations (24576 if you include both signed zeros ) [...More...]  "Decimal128 Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Computer Architecture In computer engineering , COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems . Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design , and implementation [...More...]  "Computer Architecture" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Bit The BIT (a portmanteau of BINARY DIGIT) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications . A binary digit can have only one of two values , and may be physically represented with a twostate device. These state values are most commonly represented as either a 0or1. The two values of a binary digit can also be interpreted as logical values (true/false, yes/no), algebraic signs (+/−), activation states (on/off), or any other twovalued attribute. The correspondence between these values and the physical states of the underlying storage or device is a matter of convention, and different assignments may be used even within the same device or program . The length of a binary number may be referred to as its bitlength . In information theory , one bit is typically defined as the uncertainty of a binary random variable that is 0 or 1 with equal probability, or the information that is gained when the value of such a variable becomes known [...More...]  "Bit" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Octet (computing) The OCTET is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that consists of eight bits . The term is often used when the term byte might be ambiguous, as the byte has historically been used for storage units of a variety of sizes. The term octad(e) for eight bits is no longer common. CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Octad * 2 Unit multiples * 3 Use in internet protocol addresses * 4 References * 5 External links DEFINITIONA variablelength sequence of octets, as in Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), is referred to as an octet string. The international standard IEC 600272, chapter 3.8.2, states that a byte is an octet of bits. However, the unit byte has historically been platform dependent and has represented various storage sizes in the history of computing. Due to the influence of several major computer architectures and product lines, the byte became overwhelmingly associated with eight bits [...More...]  "Octet (computing)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Address Bus An ADDRESS BUS is a computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) that is used to specify a physical address . When a processor or DMA enabled device needs to read or write to a memory location, it specifies that memory location on the address bus (the value to be read or written is sent on the data bus ). The width of the address bus determines the amount of memory a system can address. For example, a system with a 32BIT address bus can address 232 (4,294,967,296) memory locations. If each memory location holds one byte, the addressable memory space is 4 GB. IMPLEMENTATIONEarly processors used a wire for each bit of the address width. For example, a 16bit address bus had 16 physical wires making up the bus. As the buses became wider and lengthier, this approach became expensive in terms of the number of chip pins and board traces. Beginning with the Mostek 4096 DRAM, address multiplexing implemented with multiplexers became common [...More...]  "Address Bus" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 