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3749 Balam
3749 Balam, provisionally known as 1982 BG1, is a stony Florian asteroid and rare trinary system orbiting in the inner regions of asteroid belt. It was discovered on 24 January 1982, by American astronomer Edward Bowell at Lowell's Anderson Mesa Station
Anderson Mesa Station
near Flagstaff, Arizona, and named after Canadian astronomer David Balam.[15] Balam measures approximately 5 kilometers in diameter. Its two minor-planet moons have an estimated diameter of 1.66 and 1.84 kilometers, respectively.Contents1 Orbit and classification 2 Physical characteristics 3 Trinary asteroid3.1 Outer satellite 3.2 Inner satellite4 Naming 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksOrbit and classification[edit] Balam is a member of the Flora family, a very large group of stony asteroids in the inner main-belt. It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 2.0–2.5 AU once every 3 years and 4 months (1,222 days)
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List Of Minor Planet Discoverers
This is a list of all astronomers who are credited by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) with the discovery of one or several minor planets.[1] A second table lists all institutional discoverers of minor planets such as observatories and surveys (see § Discovering dedicated institutions). As of March 2018[update], the MPC credits a total of 514,567 numbered minor planets to 1014 astronomers and 234 institutional discoverers (e.g. observatories, telescopes and surveys), respectively. For a detailed description of the table's content, see § Notes.Contents1 Discovering astronomers 2 Discovering dedicated institutions 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksDiscovering astronomers[edit]Astronomer Discoveries DOB–DOD Country Link-label; info, links, and notes Name(s) at MPC CiteHiroshi Abe (astronomer) 28 1958–pres.H. Abe; H. Abe MPCMasanao Abe 2 1967–pres.M. Abe; disc: MPC and MPC M. Abe MPCMark Abraham (astronomer) 3 n.a.M. Abraham; amateur, Src M
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Minor-planet Moon
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun
Sun
(or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.[a] Before 2006 the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU) officially used the term minor planet, but during that year's meeting it reclassified minor planets and comets into dwarf planets and small Solar System
Solar System
bodies (SSSBs).[1] Minor planets can be dwarf planets, asteroids, trojans, centaurs, Kuiper belt
Kuiper belt
objects, and other trans-Neptunian objects.[2] As of 2018, the orbits of 757,626 minor planets were archived at the Minor Planet Center, 516,386 of which had received permanent numbers (for the complete list, see index).[3] The first minor planet to be discovered was Ceres in 1801
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Standard Asteroid Physical Characteristics
For the majority of numbered asteroids, almost nothing is known apart from a few physical parameters and orbital elements and some physical characteristics are often only estimated
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Mass
Mass
Mass
is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.[1] It also determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies. The basic SI unit
SI unit
of mass is the kilogram (kg). In physics, mass is not the same as weight, even though mass is often determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale, rather than balance scale comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon
Moon
would weigh less than it does on Earth
Earth
because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics, mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object
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Density
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho), although the Latin letter D can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume:[1] ρ = m V displaystyle rho = frac m V where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume,[2] although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called specific weight. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy, purity and packaging
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Rotation Period
In astronomy, the rotation period of a celestial object is the time that it takes to complete one revolution around its axis of rotation relative to the background stars. It differs from the planet's solar day, which includes an extra fractional rotation needed to accommodate the portion of the planet's orbital period during one day.Contents1 Measuring rotation 2 Earth 3 Rotation period
Rotation period
of selected objects 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMeasuring rotation[edit] For solid objects, such as rocky planets and asteroids, the rotation period is a single value. For gaseous/fluid bodies, such as stars and gas giants, the period of rotation varies from the equator to the poles due to a phenomenon called differential rotation. Typically, the stated rotation period for a gas giant (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) is its internal rotation period, as determined from the rotation of the planet's magnetic field
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Geometric Albedo
In astronomy, the geometric albedo of a celestial body is the ratio of its actual brightness as seen from the light source (i.e. at zero phase angle) to that of an idealized flat, fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section. (This phase angle refers to the direction of the light paths and is not a phase angle in its normal meaning in optics or electronics.) Diffuse scattering implies that radiation is reflected isotropically with no memory of the location of the incident light source. Zero phase angle corresponds to looking along the direction of illumination
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Asteroid Spectral Types
An asteroid spectral type is assigned to asteroids based on their emission spectrum, color, and sometimes albedo (reflectivity). These types are thought to correspond to an asteroid's surface composition. For small bodies that are not internally differentiated, the surface and internal compositions are presumably similar, while large bodies such as Ceres and Vesta are known to have internal structure. Over the years, there has been a number of surveys that resulted in a set of different taxonomic systems such as the Tholen, SMASS and Bus–DeMeo classification.[1]Contents1 Present-day classifications1.1 Overview Tholen and SMASS 1.2 S3OS2 1.3 Bus–DeMeo classification 1.4 Tholen classification1.4.1 Inconsistent data 1.4.2 Multiple types 1.4.3 Flags1.5 SMASS classification 1.6 Color
Color
indices2 Appraisal 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksPresent-day classifications[edit] The present-day classification was initiated by Clark R
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S-type Asteroid
S-type asteroids, or silicaceous asteroids, are of a stony composition, hence the name. Approximately 17% of asteroids are of this type, making it the second most common after the carbonaceous C-type.Contents1 Characteristics 2 S-group asteroids2.1 SMASS classification 2.2 Tholen classification 2.3 Stony asteroid families3 See also 4 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] S-types asteroids, with an astronomical albedo of typically 0.20,[1] are moderately bright and consist mainly of iron- and magnesium-silicates. They are dominant in the inner part of the asteroid belt within 2.2 AU, common in the central belt within about 3 AU, but become rare farther out. The largest is 15 Eunomia
15 Eunomia
(about 330 km wide across its longest dimension), with the next largest members by diameter being 3 Juno, 29 Amphitrite, 532 Herculina
532 Herculina
and 7 Iris
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Asteroid
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System. The larger ones have also been called planetoids. These terms have historically been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun
Sun
that did not show the disc of a planet and was not observed to have the characteristics of an active comet
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Asteroid Belt
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars
Mars
and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called asteroids or minor planets
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Kirkwood Gap
A Kirkwood gap
Kirkwood gap
is a gap or dip in the distribution of the semi-major axes (or equivalently of the orbital periods) of the orbits of main-belt asteroids. They correspond to the locations of orbital resonances with Jupiter. For example, there are very few asteroids with semimajor axis near 2.50 AU, period 3.95 years, which would make three orbits for each orbit of Jupiter
Jupiter
(hence, called the 3:1 orbital resonance). Other orbital resonances correspond to orbital periods whose lengths are simple fractions of Jupiter's
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Longitude Of The Ascending Node
The longitude of the ascending node (☊ or Ω) is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. It is the angle from a reference direction, called the origin of longitude, to the direction of the ascending node, measured in a reference plane.[1] The ascending node is the point where the orbit of the object passes through the plane of reference, as seen in the adjacent image. Commonly used reference planes and origins of longitude include:For a geocentric orbit, Earth's equatorial plane as the reference plane, and the First Point of Aries
First Point of Aries
as the origin of longitude. In this case, the longitude is also called the right ascension of the ascending node, or RAAN
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Ecliptic
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun appears to follow over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system
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Southwest Research Institute
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, is one of the oldest and largest independent, nonprofit, applied research and development (R&D) organizations in the United States. Founded in 1947 by oil businessman Thomas Slick, Jr., SwRI provides contract research and development services to government and industrial clients. The institute consists of nine technical divisions that offer multidisciplinary, problem-solving services in a variety of areas in engineering and the physical sciences. The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, also operates on the SwRI grounds. More than 4,000 projects are active at the institute at any given time. These projects are funded almost equally between the government and commercial sectors
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