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31 March Incident
The 31 March Incident
31 March Incident
(Turkish: 31 Mart Vakası, 31 Mart Olayı, 31 Mart Hadisesi, or 31 Mart İsyanı) was the defeat of the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 by the Hareket Ordusu ("Army of Action"), which was the 11th Salonika Reserve Infantry Division of the Third Army stationed in the Balkans
Balkans
and commanded by Mahmud Shevket Pasha
Mahmud Shevket Pasha
on 24 April 1909. The counter coup began on 31 March on the Rumi calendar, which was the official calendar of the Ottoman Empire, corresponding to 13 April 1909 on the Gregorian calendar now used in Turkey. The rebellion had begun on 13 April 1909 and was put down by 24 April 1909
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History Of The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was founded by Osman I. As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople
Constantinople
(today named Istanbul) in 1453, the state grew into a mighty empire. The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary
Hungary
in the northwest; and from Egypt
Egypt
in the south to the Caucasus
Caucasus
in the north. The empire came to an end in the aftermath of its defeat by the Allies in World War I
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Second Constitutional Era
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.[1] These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a written constitution; if they are written down in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified constitution. Some constitutions (such as the constitution of the United Kingdom) are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties.[2] Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted
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Reactionary
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society. As an adjective, the word reactionary describes points of view and policies meant to restore the status quo ante.[1] Political reactionaries are largely found on the right-wing of a political spectrum, though left-wing reactionaries can also exist.[2] Reactionary
Reactionary
ideologies can also be radical, in the sense of political extremism, in service to re-establishing the status quo ante
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Grand Vizier
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier
Vizier
(Turkish: Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.[1] He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state; the viziers in conference were called "Kubbealtı viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under the dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.Contents1 Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire 2 Grand Viziers of the Mughal Empire 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesGrand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire[edit] Main article: List of Ottoman Grand ViziersSeal of the Ottoman Grand VizierThe term “vizier” was originally a denomination used by the Abbasid Dynasty in the 8th century AD
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Ottoman General Election, 1908
General elections were held in November and December 1908 for all 288 seats of the Chamber of Deputies of the Ottoman Empire. They were the first elections contested by political parties.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Electoral system 3 Results 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] The Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
in July resulted in the restoration of the 1876 constitution, ushering in the Second Constitutional Era, and the reconvening of the 1878 parliament, bringing back many of the surviving members of that parliament; the restored parliament's single legislation was a decree to formally dissolve itself and call for new elections. Electoral system[edit] The elections were held in two stages. In the first stage, voters elected secondary electors (one for the first 750 voters in a constituency, then one for every additional 500 voters)
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Ottomanism
Ottomanism
Ottomanism
(Turkish: Osmanlılık or Osmanlıcılık) was a concept which developed prior to the First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire. Its proponents believed that it could solve the social issues that the empire was facing. Overview[edit] Ottomanism
Ottomanism
was strongly influenced by thinkers such as Montesquieu
Montesquieu
and Rousseau
Rousseau
and the French Revolution. It promoted equality among the millets. The idea originated amongst the Young Ottomans
Young Ottomans
in areas such as the acceptance of all separate ethnicities in the Empire regardless of their religion, i.e. they were all 'Ottomans' with equal rights. Put simply, Ottomanism
Ottomanism
stated that all subjects were equal before the law
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Ottoman Turkish Language
Ottoman Turkish (/ˈɒtəmən/; Turkish: Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى‎, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"; Turkish: Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language
Turkish language
that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic
Arabic
and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet
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Mehmed V
Mehmed V. Reşâd (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Turkish: Beşinci Mehmet Reşat or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan. He was the son of Sultan Abdülmecid I.[2] He was succeeded by his half-brother Mehmed VI. His nine-year reign was marked by the cession of the Empire's North African territories and the Dodecanese Islands, including Rhodes, in the Italo-Turkish War, the traumatic loss of almost all of the Empire's European territories west of Constantinople in the First Balkan War, and the entry of the Empire into World War I,[3] which would ultimately lead to the end of the Ottoman Empire.Contents1 Birth 2 Reign 3 Death 4 Decorations and awards 5 Family 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBirth[edit] He was born at the Topkapı Palace, Constantinople.[1] Like many other potential heirs to the throne, he was confined for 30 years in the Harems of the palace
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Şişli
Şişli
Şişli
(pronounced [ˈʃiʃli]) is one of 39 districts of Istanbul, Turkey. Located on the European side of the city, it is bordered by Beşiktaş
Beşiktaş
to the east, Sarıyer
Sarıyer
to the north, Eyüp
Eyüp
and Kağıthane
Kağıthane
to the west, and Beyoğlu
Beyoğlu
to the south. In 2009, Şişli had a population of 316,058.[5]Contents1 History 2 The centre of Şişli
Şişli
today 3 Business and shopping 4 Neighbourhoods 5 Politics 6 Places of interest 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Until the 1800s, Şişli
Şişli
was open countryside, used for hunting and agriculture and leisure
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Balkans
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe
Europe
with various and disputed definitions.[1][2] The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
that stretch from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea. The Balkan Peninsula
Peninsula
is bordered by the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
on the northwest, the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
on the southwest, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined
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Third Army (Ottoman Empire)
Associated articlesDunsterforce Norperforcev t e Erzurum
Erzurum
OffensiveAzkani Village Battle of Koprukoy Hassankale Kargabazar Dag Deve-Boyun Ridge Fort TafetThe Third Army was originally established in the Balkans
Balkans
and later defended the northeastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Its initial headquarters was at Salonica, where it formed the core of the military forces that supported the Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
of 1908. Many of its officers who participated in the Revolution, including Enver Pasha
Enver Pasha
and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, rose to fame and power. By 1911, the Army had been moved to Erzincan
Erzincan
in northeastern Anatolia, and with the onset of World War I, it was moved to Erzurum
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Turkish Language
Turkey
Turkey
(official), Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(official),
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Ottoman Decline Thesis
The Ottoman decline thesis
Ottoman decline thesis
or Ottoman decline paradigm (Turkish: Osmanlı Gerileme Tezi) refers to a now-obsolete[1] historical narrative which once played a dominant role in the study of the history of the Ottoman Empire. According to the Decline Thesis, following a golden age associated with the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566), the empire gradually entered into a period of all-encompassing stagnation and decline from which it was never able to recover, lasting until the empire's dissolution in 1923.[2] This thesis was used throughout most of the twentieth century as the basis of both Western and Republican Turkish[3] understanding of Ottoman history
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