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2909 BC
The 30th century BC was a century which lasted from the year 3000 BC to 2901 BC.Contents1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Fiction 5 ReferencesEvents[edit]Stele bearing the name of DjetBefore 3000 BC: Image of a deity, detail from a cong recovered from Tomb 12, Fanshan, Yuyao, Zhejiang, is made. Neolithic
Neolithic
period. Liangzhu culture. It is now kept at Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Provincial Museum, Hangzhou. c. 3000 BC: Early agriculture in North Africa. 3000 BC
3000 BC
– 2600 BC: Early Harappan period continues in the Indus Valley c. 3000 BC: Neolithic period
Neolithic period
ends. c. 3000 BC: Djer, third pharaoh of united Egypt, starts to reign. c. 3000 BC: Troy
Troy
is founded. c
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3rd Millennium BC
The 3rd millennium BC spanned the years 3000 through 2001 BC. This period of time corresponds to the Early to Middle Bronze
Bronze
Age, in which imperialism, or the desire to conquer, grew to prominence in the city-states of the Middle East
Middle East
and throughout Eurasia. The civilization of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
rose to a peak with the Old Kingdom. World population
World population
is estimated to have doubled in the course of the millennium, to some 30 million people.Contents1 Overview 2 Events 3 Environmental changes 4 Significant people 5 Cultures 6 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 7 Cultural landmarks 8 Centuries 9 ReferencesOverview[edit] Bronze
Bronze
Agev t e↑ Chalcolithic Near East
Near East
(c
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Ötzi
Ötzi
Ötzi
(German pronunciation: [ˈœtsi] ( listen); also called the Iceman, the Similaun
Similaun
Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE.[2] The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, hence the nickname "Ötzi", near Similaun
Similaun
mountain and Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy.[3][better source needed] He is Europe's oldest known natural human mummy, and has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
Europeans
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Jōmon Period
The Jōmon period
Jōmon period
(縄文時代, Jōmon jidai) is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between c. 14,000–300 BCE,[1][2] recently refined to about 1000 BCE,[1][3][4] during which Japan
Japan
was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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First Dynasty
The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty I)[1] covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt. It immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, possibly by Narmer, and marks the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period, a time at which power was centered at Thinis. The date of this period is subject to scholarly debate about the Egyptian chronology. It falls within the early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and is variously estimated to have begun anywhere between the 34th and the 30th centuries BC
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Semerkhet
Semerkhet
Semerkhet
is the Horus name
Horus name
of an early Egyptian king who ruled during the first dynasty. This ruler became known through a tragic legend handed down by the ancient Greek historian, Manetho, who reported that a calamity of some sort occurred during Semerkhet's reign
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Djet
Djet, also known as Wadj, Zet, and Uadji (in Greek possibly the pharaoh known as Uenephes or possibly Atothis), was the fourth pharaoh of the First Dynasty. Djet's Horus name means "Horus Cobra"[2] or "Serpent of Horus".Contents1 Family 2 Reign 3 Tomb 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyFamily[edit] Djet's queen was his sister Merneith, who may have ruled as a pharaoh in her own right after his death. There is a possibility that a lady called Ahaneith
Ahaneith
was also one of his wives. Djet
Djet
and Merneith's son was Den, and their grandson was Anedjib. Reign[edit]Ita, cartouche name of Djet
Djet
in the Abydos king list.How long Djet
Djet
ruled is unknown. Only one Sekar festival is attested by ivory labels dating to his reign, whose duration is estimated to be anywhere between six and ten years
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Merneith
Merneith
Merneith
(also written Meritneith and Meryt-Neith) was a consort and a regent of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
during the first dynasty. She may have been a ruler of Egypt in her own right, based on several official records – if this was the case, she may have been the first female pharaoh and the earliest queen regnant in recorded history. Her rule occurred around 2950 BC[1] for an undetermined period. Merneith’s name means "Beloved by Neith" and her stela contains symbols of that deity. She may have been Djer's daughter, and was probably Djet's senior royal wife. The former meant that she would have been the great-granddaughter of unified Egypt's first Pharaoh, Narmer
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Den (pharaoh)
Den, also known as Hor-Den, Dewen and Udimu, is the Horus name
Horus name
of a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period who ruled during the First Dynasty of Egypt. He is the best archaeologically-attested ruler of this period. Den is said to have brought prosperity to his realm and numerous innovations are attributed to his reign. He was the first to use the title "King of Lower and Upper Egypt", and the first depicted as wearing the double crown (red and white). The floor of his tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab
Umm el-Qa'ab
near Abydos is made of red and black granite, the first time in Egypt this hard stone was used as a building material
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Anedjib
Anedjib, more correctly Adjib and also known as Hor-Anedjib, Hor-Adjib and Enezib, is the Horus name
Horus name
of an early Egyptian king who ruled during the 1st dynasty. The Egyptian historian Manetho named him "Miebîdós" and credited him with a reign of 26 years,[1] whilst the Royal Canon of Turin credited him with an implausible reign of 74 years.[2] Egyptologists and historians now consider both records to be exaggerations and generally credit Adjib with a reign of 8–10 years.[3]Contents1 Name sources 2 Identity 3 Reign 4 Tomb 5 Finds associated to Anedjib 6 External links 7 ReferencesName sources[edit]Cartouche name Merbiape from the Abydos King ListAdjib is well attested in archaeological records
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Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Pharaoh
(/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/, /fɛr.oʊ/[1][2] or /fær.oʊ/;[2] Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 30 BCE,[3] although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Nesu Bety, and the Nebty name. The Golden Horus
Horus
and Nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator
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First Dynasty Of Egypt
The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty I)[1] covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt. It immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, possibly by Narmer, and marks the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period, a time at which power was centered at Thinis. The date of this period is subject to scholarly debate about the Egyptian chronology. It falls within the early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and is variously estimated to have begun anywhere between the 34th and the 30th centuries BC
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Egyptian Hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
(/ˈhaɪrəˌɡlɪf, -roʊ-/[2][3]) were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. It combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.[4][5] Cursive hieroglyphs
Cursive hieroglyphs
were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from demotic. The use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC (Naqada III),[1] with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty
Second Dynasty
(28th century BC)
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Norte Chico Civilization
The Norte Chico civilization
Norte Chico civilization
(also Caral
Caral
or Caral-Supe civilization)[NB 1] was a complex pre-Columbian era society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. The civilization flourished between the fourth and second millennia BC, with the formation of the first city generally dated to around 3500 BC, at Huaricanga, in the Fortaleza area.[1] It is from 3100 BC onward that large-scale human settlement and communal construction become clearly apparent,[2] which lasted until a period of decline around 1800 BC.[3] Since the early 21st century, it has been established as the oldest known civilization in the Americas. This civilization flourished along three rivers, the Fortaleza, the Pativilca, and the Supe. These river valleys each have large clusters of sites
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Potter's Wheel
In pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping (known as throwing) of round ceramic ware. The wheel may also be used during the process of trimming the excess body from dried ware, and for applying incised decoration or rings of colour. Use of the potter's wheel became widespread throughout the Old World
Old World
but was unknown in the Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
New World, where pottery was handmade by methods that included coiling and beating. A potter's wheel may occasionally be referred to as a "potter's lathe". However, that term is better used for another kind of machine that is used for a different shaping process, turning, similar to that used for shaping of metal and wooden articles. The techniques of jiggering and jolleying can be seen as extensions of the potter's wheel: in jiggering, a shaped tool is slowly brought down onto the plastic clay body that has been placed on top of the rotating plaster mould
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