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2909 BC
The 30TH CENTURY BC is a century which lasted from the year 3000 BC to 2901 BC. CONTENTS * 1 Events * 2 Significant people * 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions * 4 Fiction * 5 References EVENTS Stele bearing the name of Djet * Before 3000 BC: Image of a deity, detail from a cong recovered from Tomb 12, Fanshan, Yuyao , Zhejiang , is made. Neolithic period
Neolithic period
. Liangzhu culture . It is now kept at Zhejiang Provincial Museum , Hangzhou
Hangzhou
. * c. 3000 BC: Early agriculture in North Africa
North Africa
. * 3000 BC – 2600 BC: Early Harappan period continues in the Indus Valley * c. 3000 BC: Neolithic period
Neolithic period
ends. * c. 3000 BC: Djer , third pharaoh of united Egypt
Egypt
, starts to reign. * c
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Den (Pharaoh)
DEN, also known as HOR-DEN, DEWEN and UDIMU, is the Horus name of a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period who ruled during the First Dynasty of Egypt . He is the best archaeologically -attested ruler of this period. Den is said to have brought prosperity to his realm and numerous innovations are attributed to his reign. He was the first to use the title "King of Lower and Upper Egypt", and the first depicted as wearing the double crown (red and white). The floor of his tomb at Umm el-Qa\'ab near Abydos is made of red and black granite , the first time in Egypt this hard stone was used as a building material. During his long reign he established many of the patterns of court ritual and royalty used by later rulers and he was held in high regard by his immediate successors
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Merneith
MERNEITH (also written MERITNEITH and MERYT-NEITH) was a consort and a regent of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
during the first dynasty . She may have been a ruler of Egypt in her own right, based on several official records – if this was the case, she may have been the first female pharaoh and the earliest queen regnant in recorded history . Her rule occurred around 2950 BC for an undetermined period. Merneith’s name means "Beloved by Neith
Neith
" and her stela contains symbols of that deity . She may have been Djer 's daughter, and was probably Djet 's senior royal wife. The former meant that she would have been the great-granddaughter of unified Egypt's first Pharaoh, Narmer
Narmer
. She was also the mother of Den , her successor
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Anedjib
ANEDJIB, more correctly ADJIB and also known as HOR-ANEDJIB, HOR-ADJIB and ENEZIB, is the Horus name of an early Egyptian king who ruled during the 1st dynasty . The Egyptian historian Manetho named him "Miebîdós" and credited him with a reign of 26 years, whilst the Royal Canon of Turin credited him with an implausible reign of 74 years. Egyptologists and historians now consider both records to be exaggerations and generally credit Adjib with a reign of 8–10 years. CONTENTS * 1 Name sources * 2 Identity * 3 Reign * 4 Tomb * 5 Finds associated to Anedjib * 6 External links * 7 References NAME SOURCES Cartouche name MERBIAPE from the Abydos King List Adjib is well attested in archaeological records. His name appears in inscriptions on vessels made of schist , alabaster , breccia and marble . His name is also preserved on ivory tags and earthen jar seals. Objects bearing Adjib's name and titles come from Abydos and Sakkara
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Pharaoh
PHARAOH (/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/ , /fɛr.oʊ/ or /fær.oʊ/ ; Coptic : Ⲫⲁⲣⲁⲱ) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE . In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Nesu Bety, and the Nebty name. The Golden Horus
Horus
and Nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator. He owned all of the land in Egypt, enacted laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt from invaders as the commander-in-chief of the army
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First Dynasty Of Egypt
The FIRST DYNASTY of ancient Egypt (DYNASTY I) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt. It immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt , possibly by Narmer , and marks the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period , a time at which power was centered at Thinis . The date of this period is subject to scholarly debate about the Egyptian chronology
Egyptian chronology
. It falls within the early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and is variously estimated to have begun anywhere between the 34th and the 30th centuries BC. In a 2013 study based on radiocarbon dates, the beginning of the First Dynasty - the accession of Hor-Aha
Hor-Aha
- was placed at 3100 BC give or take a century (3218–3035, with 95% confidence)
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Djet
DJET, also known as WADJ, ZET, and UADJI (in Greek possibly the pharaoh known as UENEPHES or possibly ATOTHIS), was the fourth pharaoh of the First Dynasty . Djet's Horus name means "Horus Cobra" or "Serpent of Horus". CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Reign * 3 Tomb * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography FAMILYDjet's queen was his sister Merneith , who may have ruled as a pharaoh in her own right after his death. There is a possibility that a lady called Ahaneith was also one of his wives. Djet and Merneith's son was Den , and their grandson was Anedjib . REIGN ITA, cartouche name of Djet in the Abydos king list . How long Djet ruled is unknown. Only one Sekar festival is attested by ivory labels dating to his reign, whose duration is estimated to be anywhere between six and ten years. According to Wolfgang Helck he reigned 10 years. From a calendar entry, Djer is known to have died on a 7 Peret III while Djet began his reign on 22 Peret IV
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Semerkhet
SEMERKHET is the Horus name of an early Egyptian king who ruled during the 1st dynasty . This ruler became known through a tragic legend handed down by ancient Greek historian Manetho , who reported that a calamity of some sort occurred during Semerkhet's reign. The archaeological records seem to support the view that Semerkhet
Semerkhet
had a difficult time as king and some early archaeologists even questioned the legitimacy of Semerkhet's succession to the Egyptian throne. CONTENTS * 1 Length of reign * 2 Name sources * 3 Identity * 4 Reign * 5 Tomb * 6 References * 7 External links LENGTH OF REIGN Manetho named Semerkhet
Semerkhet
SEMêMPSéS and credited him with a reign of 18 years, whilst the Royal Canon of Turin credited him with an implausibly long reign of 72 years
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Aegean Bronze Age
AEGEAN CIVILIZATION is a general term for the European Bronze
Bronze
Age civilizations of Greece
Greece
around the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
. There are three distinct but communicating and interacting geographic regions covered by this term: Crete
Crete
, the Cyclades
Cyclades
and the Greek mainland. Crete
Crete
is associated with the Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
from the Early Bronze
Bronze
Age. The Cyclades
Cyclades
converge with the mainland during the Early Helladic ("Minyan ") period and with Crete
Crete
in the Middle Minoan period. From ca. 1450 BC (Late Helladic, Late Minoan), the Greek Mycenaean civilization
Mycenaean civilization
spreads to Crete
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Jōmon Period
The JōMON PERIOD (縄文時代, Jōmon jidai) is the time in Japanese prehistory , traditionally dated between c. 14,000 – 300
300
BCE , while recently revised until 1000 BCE, when Japan
Japan
was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity. The name "cord-marked" was first applied by the American scholar Edward S. Morse , who discovered sherds of pottery in 1877 and subsequently translated it into Japanese as jōmon. The pottery style characteristic of the first phases of Jōmon culture was decorated by impressing cords into the surface of wet clay and is generally accepted to be among the oldest in East Asia and the world. The Jomon period was rich in tools and jewelry made from bone, stone, shell, and antler; pottery figurines and vessels; and lacquerware
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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo " * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * * Go-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan
Japan
shown in green—claimed, but uncontrolled shown in light green Capital and largest city
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First Dynasty
The FIRST DYNASTY of ancient Egypt (DYNASTY I) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt. It immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt , possibly by Narmer , and marks the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period , a time at which power was centered at Thinis
Thinis
. The date of this period is subject to scholarly debate about the Egyptian chronology
Egyptian chronology
. It falls within the early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and is variously estimated to have begun anywhere between the 34th and the 30th centuries BC. In a 2013 study based on radiocarbon dates, the beginning of the First Dynasty - the accession of Hor-Aha
Hor-Aha
- was placed at 3100 BC
3100 BC
give or take a century (3218–3035, with 95% confidence)
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Ötzi
ÖTZI (German pronunciation: ( listen ); also called THE ICEMAN, the SIMILAUN MAN, the MAN FROM HAUSLABJOCH, the TYROLEAN ICEMAN, and the HAUSLABJOCH MUMMY) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived around 3,300 BCE, more precisely between 3359 and 3105 BCE, with a 66 percent chance that he died between 3239 and 3105 BCE. The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps
Ötztal Alps
, hence the nickname "Ötzi", near Similaun mountain and Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy. He is Europe's oldest known natural human mummy, and has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology
South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology
in Bolzano , South Tyrol , Italy
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Egyptian Hieroglyphs
EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS (/ˈhaɪrəˌɡlɪf, -roʊ-/ ) were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
. It combined logographic , syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from demotic. Use of hieroglyphic writing arises from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age , around the 32nd century BC ( Naqada III
Naqada III
), with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty (28th century BC)
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Mesoamerica
MESOAMERICA is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas
Americas
, extending from approximately central Mexico
Mexico
through Belize
Belize
, Guatemala
Guatemala
, El Salvador
El Salvador
, Honduras
Honduras
, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and northern Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Americas
in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is one of six areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, and the second in the Americas
Americas
along with Norte Chico (Caral-Supe) in present-day northern coastal Peru
Peru

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Ancient Near East
Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia * Akkadian Empire * Assyria * Babylonia * Neo-Assyrian Empire *
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