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19th-century French Literature
French and Francophone literatureFrench literature By category French languageFrench literary historyMedieval 16th century • 17th century 18th century • 19th century 20th century • ContemporaryFrancophone literatureFrancophone literature Literature of Quebec Postcolonial literature Literature of HaitiFrench-language authorsChronological listFrench writersWriters • Novelists Playwrights • Poets Essayists Short story writersFormsNovel • Poetry • PlaysGenresScience fiction • Comics FantastiqueMovementsNaturalism • Symbolism Surrealism
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Émile Zola
Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (/ˈzoʊlə/;[1] French: [e.mil zo.la]; 2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902)[2] was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus, which is encapsulated in the renowned newspaper headline J'accuse
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Louis XVIII Of France
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "The Desired" (le Désiré),[1][2] was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who ruled as King of France
King of France
from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the First French Empire, and again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon
Napoleon
I from Elba. Until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence
Count of Provence
as brother of King Louis XVI
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Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert
(French: [ɡystav flobɛʁ]; 12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist. Highly influential, he has been considered the leading exponent of literary realism in his country. He is known especially for his debut novel Madame Bovary
Madame Bovary
(1857), his Correspondence, and his scrupulous devotion to his style and aesthetics. The celebrated short story writer Guy de Maupassant
Guy de Maupassant
was a protégé of Flaubert.Contents1 Life1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Personal life 1.3 Writing career2 Perfectionist style 3 Legacy 4 Bibliography4.1 Major works 4.2 Adaptations 4.3 Correspondence (in English) 4.4 Biographical and other related publications5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksLife[edit] Early life and education[edit] Flaubert was born on 12 December 1821, in Rouen, in the Seine-Maritime department of Upper Normandy, in northern France
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Albert Camus
Albert Camus
Albert Camus
(/kæˈmuː/;[2] French: [albɛʁ kamy] ( listen); 7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism. He wrote in his essay The Rebel that his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism while still delving deeply into individual freedom. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
at the age of 43 in 1957, the second youngest recipient in history.[3] Camus did not consider himself to be an existentialist despite usually being classified as a follower of it, even in his lifetime.[4] In a 1945 interview, Camus rejected any ideological associations: "No, I am not an existentialist
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Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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First Consul
The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France
France
from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804. By extension, the term The Consulate also refers to this period of French history. During this period, Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte, as First Consul, established himself as the head of a more authoritarian, autocratic, and centralized republican government in France
France
while not declaring himself sole ruler. Due to the long-lasting institutions established during these years, Robert B
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Literary Theory
The literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.[1] However, literary scholarship since the 19th century often includes—in addition to, or even instead of literary theory in the strict sense—considerations of intellectual history, moral philosophy, social prophecy, and other interdisciplinary themes which are of relevance to the way humans interpret meaning.[1] In humanities in modern academia, the latter style of scholarship is an outgrowth of critical theory and is often called simply "theory".[2] As a consequence, the word "theory" has become an umbrella term for a variety of scholarly approaches to reading texts
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Theatre Of The Absurd
The Theatre of the Absurd
Theatre of the Absurd
(French: théâtre de l'absurde [teɑtʁ(ə) də lapsyʁd]) is a post–World War II designation for particular plays of absurdist fiction written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1950s, as well as one for the style of theatre which has evolved from their work
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First French Empire
French Revolutionary Wars •  Constitution adopted 18 May 1804 •  Coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon
I 2 December 1804 •  Treaty of Tilsit 7 July 1807 •  Invasion of Russia 24 June 1812 •  Treaty of Fontainebleau 11 April 1814 •  Hundred Days 20 March – 7 July 1815Area •  1812 [4] 860,000 km2 (330,000 sq
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Existentialism
Existentialism
Existentialism
(/ɛɡzɪˈstɛnʃəlɪzəm/)[1] is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,[2][3][4] shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual.[5] While the predominant value of existentialist thought is commonly acknowledged to be freedom, its primary virtue is authenticity.[6] In the view of the existe
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Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s in France, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself.[1] Its aim was to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality".[2][3][4] Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact
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Symbolism (arts)
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal. The works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired greatly and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé
and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers
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Bourbon Dynasty, Restored
The Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1814 until the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830. The brothers of executed Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI of France
came to power and reigned in highly conservative fashion, and exiled supporters of the monarchy returned to France. They were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by the French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon
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French Comics
Franco- Belgian comics
Belgian comics
(French: bande dessinée franco-belge; Dutch: Franco-Belgische strip) are comics that are created for French-Belgian (Wallonia) and/or French readership
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