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1971 San Fernando Earthquake
The 1971 San Fernando earthquake
1971 San Fernando earthquake
(also known as the Sylmar earthquake) occurred in the early morning of February 9 in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains
San Gabriel Mountains
in southern California. The unanticipated thrust earthquake had a moment magnitude between 6.5 and 6.7 (as determined by independent institutions) and had a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). The event was one in a series that affected the Los Angeles area in the late 20th century. Damage was locally severe in the northern San Fernando Valley
San Fernando Valley
and surface faulting was extensive to the south of the epicenter in the mountains, as well as urban settings along city streets and neighborhoods
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Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
Universal Time
(abbreviated to UTC) is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude;[1] it does not observe daylight saving time
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Santa Barbara Channel
The Santa Barbara Channel
Santa Barbara Channel
is a portion of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
which separates the mainland of California
California
from the northern Channel Islands. It is generally south of the city of Santa Barbara, and west of the city of Ventura. It trends east-west, is approximately 130 kilometres (70 nmi) long and averages about 45 kilometres (24 nmi) across, becoming narrowest at its easternmost extremity where Anacapa Island
Anacapa Island
is about 30 kilometres (16 nmi) from the mainland
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Channel Islands Of California
The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
are an archipelago of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
off the coast of southern California
California
along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States
United States
of America. Five of the islands are part of Channel Islands
Channel Islands
National Park, and the waters surrounding these islands make up Channel Islands
Channel Islands
National Marine Sanctuary. The islands were first colonized by the Chumash and Tongva Native Americans 13,000 years ago, who were then displaced by European settlers who used the islands for fishing and agriculture. The U.S. military uses the islands as training grounds, weapons test sites, and as a strategic defensive location
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Little San Bernardino Mountains
The Little San Bernardino Mountains
San Bernardino Mountains
are a short mountain range of the Transverse Ranges, located in southern California
California
in the United States. They extend for approximately 40 mi (64 km) southeast from the San Bernardino Mountains
San Bernardino Mountains
through San Bernardino and Riverside Counties to near the northeast edge of the Salton Sink
Salton Sink
and Salton Sea. The community of Palm Springs looks north and northeast across the Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
to the range.Contents1 Geography 2 Habitats 3 Aqueduct 4 See also 5 ReferencesGeography[edit] The range transitions the separation from the Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
in the Colorado Desert
Colorado Desert
on the south to the Mojave Desert
Mojave Desert
on the north
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San Jacinto Fault Zone
The San Jacinto Fault Zone
San Jacinto Fault Zone
(SJFZ) is a major strike-slip fault zone that runs through San Bernardino, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties in Southern California. The SJFZ is a component of the larger San Andreas transform system and is considered to be the most seismically active fault zone in the area. Together they relieve the majority of the stress between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. The SJFZ itself consists of many individual fault segments, some of which have only been individualized as recently as the 1980s, but activity along the line of faults has been documented since the 1890s. One segment of the SJFZ, the Anza seismic gap, has not experienced any major activity since instrumental records have been kept
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Strike And Dip
Strike and dip
Strike and dip
refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature. The strike line of a bed, fault, or other planar feature, is a line representing the intersection of that feature with a horizontal plane. On a geologic map, this is represented with a short straight line segment oriented parallel to the strike line. Strike (or strike angle) can be given as either a quadrant compass bearing of the strike line (N25°E for example) or in terms of east or west of true north or south, a single three digit number representing the azimuth, where the lower number is usually given (where the example of N25°E would simply be 025), or the azimuth number followed by the degree sign (example of N25°E would be 025°). The dip gives the steepest angle of descent of a tilted bed or feature relative to a horizontal plane, and is given by the number (0°-90°) as well as a letter (N,S,E,W) with rough direction in which the bed is dipping downwards
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Paleomagnetism
This term is also sometimes used for natural remanent magnetization.Magnetic stripes are the result of reversals of the Earth's field and seafloor spreading. New oceanic crust is magnetized as it forms and then it moves away from the ridge in both directions. The models show a ridge (a) about 5 million years ago (b) about 2 to 3 million years ago and (c) in the present.[1] Paleomagnetism
Paleomagnetism
(or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field
Earth's magnetic field
in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form. This record provides information on the past behavior of Earth's magnetic field and the past location of tectonic plates
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Pacific Plate
The Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean. At 103 million square kilometres (40,000,000 sq mi), it is the largest tectonic plate.[2] The Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
contains an interior hot spot forming the Hawaiian Islands.[3] Hillis and Müller are reported to consider the Bird's Head Plate
Bird's Head Plate
to be moving in unison with the Pacific Plate.[4] Bird considers them to be unconnected.[5]Contents1 Boundaries 2 Paleo-geology of the Pacific Plate 3 References 4 External linksBoundaries[edit] The north-eastern side is a divergent boundary with the Explorer Plate, the Juan de Fuca Plate
Juan de Fuca Plate
and the Gorda Plate
Gorda Plate
forming respectively the Explorer Ridge, the Juan de Fuca Ridge
Juan de Fuca Ridge
and the Gorda Ridge
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North American Plate
The North American Plate
North American Plate
is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, extreme northeastern Asia, and parts of Iceland
Iceland
and the Azores. It extends eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
and westward to the Chersky Range
Chersky Range
in eastern Siberia. The plate includes both continental and oceanic crust. The interior of the main continental landmass includes an extensive granitic core called a craton. Along most of the edges of this craton are fragments of crustal material called terranes, accreted to the craton by tectonic actions over a long span of time
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Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics
(from the Late Latin
Late Latin
tectonicus, from the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to building")[1] is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth
Earth
between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (the crust and upper mantle), is broken into tectonic plates. The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates
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Terrane
A terrane in geology, in full a tectonostratigraphic terrane, is a fragment of crustal material formed on, or broken off from, one tectonic plate and accreted or "sutured" to crust lying on another plate. The crustal block or fragment preserves its own distinctive geologic history, which is different from that of the surrounding areas — hence the term "exotic" terrane. The suture zone between a terrane and the crust it attaches to is usually identifiable as a fault. Older usage of terrane simply described a series of related rock formations or an area having a preponderance of a particular rock or rock groups.Contents1 Overview 2 Tectonostratigraphic
Tectonostratigraphic
terranes 3 References 4 External linksOverview[edit] A tectonostratigraphic terrane is not necessarily an independent microplate in origin, since it may not contain the full thickness of the lithosphere
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San Cayetano Fault
The San Cayetano Fault is an east-west trending thrust fault in Ventura County, Southern California. It stretches for 45 kilometers (28 mi), north of the city of Ventura, near the Topatopa Mountains, Piru, Fillmore, Santa Paula, Sulphur Springs, and Ojai. Geology[edit] The last known surface rupture was less than 5,000 years ago. Recent research indicates that the San Cayetano fault may have been the source of the December 21, 1812 earthquake. Depending on location, the fault has an estimated slip rate between 1.3–9 millimeters (0.051–0.354 in). The recurrence rate between events is uncertain, but if the fault is associated with the 1812 event, it may be able to produce earthquakes approaching 6.5 – 7.3 in magnitude. References[edit]Dolan, J. F.; Rockwell, T. K. (2001), "Paleoseismologic Evidence for a Very Large (Mw >7), Post-A.D
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International Seismological Centre
International
International
mostly means something (a company, language, or organization) involving more than a single country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries. For example, international law, which is applied by more than one country and usually everywhere on Earth, and international language which is a language spoken by residents of more than one country.Contents1 Origin of the word 2 Meaning in particular fields 3 See also 4 References 5 External links 6 SourcesOrigin of the word[edit] The term international was coined by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
in his Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation, which was printed for publication in 1780 and published in 1789
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Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
( /kwəˈtɜːrnəri/) is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era in the geologic time scale of the
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California Earthquake Forecast
The 2015 Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3, or UCERF3, is the latest official earthquake rupture forecast (ERF) for the state of California, superseding UCERF2. It provides authoritative estimates of the likelihood and severity of potentially damaging earthquake ruptures in the long- and near-term. Combining this with ground motion models produces estimates of the severity of ground shaking that can be expected during a given period (seismic hazard), and of the threat to the built environment (seismic risk)
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