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1956 Treason Trial
The Treason
Treason
Trial was a trial in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
in which 156 people, including Nelson Mandela, were arrested in a raid and accused of treason in South Africa in 1956. The main trial lasted until 1961, when all of the defendants were found not guilty. During the trials, Oliver Tambo
Oliver Tambo
left the country and was exiled. Whilst in other European and African countries, he started an organisation which helped bring publicity to the African National Congress's cause in South Africa. Some of the defendants were later convicted in the Rivonia Trial
Rivonia Trial
in 1964. Chief Luthuli has said of the Treason
Treason
Trial:The treason trial must occupy a special place in South African history
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Apartheid
Apartheid
Apartheid
(South African English pronunciation: /əˈpɑːrteɪd/; Afrikaans: [aˈpartɦəit], lit. "separateness") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation and discrimination that existed in South Africa
South Africa
between 1948 and 1994. The system was based on white supremacy and the repression of the black majority (Africans, coloureds and Asian South Africans) for the benefit of the politically and economically dominant Afrikaners
Afrikaners
and other whites
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P. W. Botha
Pieter Willem Botha, DMS ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
pronunciation: [ˈpitər ˈvələm ˈbʊəta]; 12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006), commonly known as "P. W." and Die Groot Krokodil ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for "The Big Crocodile"), was the leader of South Africa
South Africa
from 1978 to 1989, serving as the last Prime Minister from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive State President from 1984 to 1989. First elected to Parliament in 1948, Botha was an outspoken opponent of majority rule and international communism. However, his administration did make concessions towards political reform, whereas internal unrest saw widespread human rights abuses at the hands of the government. Botha resigned the leadership of the ruling National Party in February 1989 after suffering a stroke and six months later was coerced to leave the presidency as well. In F. W
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Afrikaner Broederbond
The Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Broederbond (AB) (meaning Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Brotherhood) or Broederbond was a secret, exclusively male and Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Calvinist organisation in South Africa dedicated to the advancement of Afrikaner interests. It was founded by H. J. Klopper (af), H. W. van der Merwe, D. H. C. du Plessis and Rev. Jozua Naudé[1] in 1918 and was known as Jong Zuid Afrika (Young South Africa) until 1920, when it became the Broederbond.[2][3] Its large influence within South African political and social life, sometimes compared to that of Masons in Freemason
Freemason
conspiracy theories,[citation needed] came to a climax with the rise of apartheid, which was largely designed and implemented by Broederbond members
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National Party (South Africa)
The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997. It first became the governing party of the country in 1924. It was in opposition during the World War II
World War II
years but it returned to power and was again in the government from 4 June 1948 until 9 May 1994. At this time, it began implementing its policy of racial segregation, known as "Apartheid". The policies of the party also included the establishment of a republic, and the promotion of Afrikaner culture.[1] During the 1980s, large fractions of the party's support base whose members were unhappy about the party's gradual dismantling of the apartheid system left for the Conservative Party. After 1990, the National Party opened up its membership to all racial groups and rebranded itself a civic nationalist, rather than an ethnic nationalist, conservative political force
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Congress Of South African Trade Unions
The Congress of South African Trade Unions
Congress of South African Trade Unions
(COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa
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South African Council Of Churches
The South African Council of Churches (SACC) is an interdenominational forum in South Africa. It was a prominent anti-apartheid organisation during the years of apartheid in South Africa. Its leaders have included Desmond Tutu, Beyers Naudé
Beyers Naudé
and Frank Chikane
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South African Defence Force
The South African Defence Force
South African Defence Force
(SADF) comprised the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. Shortly before the state reconstituted itself as a republic in 1961, the former Union Defence Force was officially succeeded by the SADF, which was established by the Defence Act (No. 44) of 1957
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South African Indian Congress
The South African Indian Congress (SAIC) was an organisation founded in 1921 in Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal), South Africa. The congress is famous for its strong participation by Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
and other prominent South African Indian figures during the time. Umar Hajee Ahmed Jhaveri was elected the first president of the South African Indian Congress
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South African Musicians' Alliance
The South African Musicians' Alliance (SAMA) is a union, artist collective, and resistance movement formed by musicians in South Africa who opposed the censorship and suppression of the apartheid regime.[1] The alliance was formed sometime before 1983.[2] SAMA musicians flouted the government's imposed racial segregation and restrictions on music content.[1] Three of SAMA's priorities were freedom of speech, freedom of movement, and freedom of association.[1] One prominent spokesperson of the organisation was pianist Rashid Lanie.[3][4] See also[edit]Internal resistance to apartheidReferences[edit]^ a b c Hall, Patricia (ed.). " Censorship
Censorship
from Apartheid
Apartheid
to Post- Apartheid
Apartheid
South Africa". The Oxford Handbook of Music Censorship. Oxford University Press. p. 597. Retrieved 2017-11-26.  ^ Ansell, Gwen, ed. (2005). "Jazz for the Struggle, and the Struggle for Jazz"
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South African Police
The South African Police
South African Police
(SAP) was the national police force and law enforcement agency in South Africa
South Africa
from 1913 to 1994; it was the de facto police force in the territory of South West Africa
South West Africa
(Namibia) from 1939 to 1981
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South African Communist Party
The South African Communist Party (SACP) is a communist party in South Africa. It was founded in 1921, was declared illegal in 1950 by the governing National Party, and participated in the struggle to end the apartheid system. It is a partner of the Tripartite Alliance
Tripartite Alliance
with the African National Congress
African National Congress
and the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and through this it influences the South African government.Contents1 History1.1 Apartheid 1.2 Post-apartheid2 General Secretaries 3 Chairs 4 Prominent members of the Central Committee of the SACP 5 See also 6 Literature 7 Notes and references 8 External linksHistory[edit] The Communist Party of South Africa
South Africa
was founded in 1921 by the joining together of the International Socialist League and others under the leadership of Willam H. Andrews
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State Security Council
The State Security Council (SSC) was formed in South Africa
South Africa
in 1972 to advise the government on the country's national policy and strategy concerning security, its implementation and determining security priorities. Its role changed through the prime ministership's of John Vorster and PW Botha
PW Botha
(later State President), being little used during the formers and during the latter’s, controlling all aspects of South African public's lives by becoming the Cabinet. During those years he would implement a Total National Strategy, Total Counter-revolutionary Strategy and finally in the mid-eighties, established the National Security Management System (NSMS). After FW de Klerk's rise to the role of State President, the Cabinet would eventually regain control of the management of the country
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Steve Biko
Bantu Stephen Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African anti-apartheid activist. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he was at the forefront of a grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s. His ideas were articulated in a series of articles published under the pseudonym Frank Talk. Raised in a poor Xhosa family, Biko grew up in Ginsberg township in the Eastern Cape. In 1966, he began studying medicine at the University of Natal, where he joined the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS). Strongly opposed to the apartheid system of racial segregation and white-minority rule in South Africa, Biko was frustrated that NUSAS and other anti-apartheid groups were dominated by white liberals, rather than by the blacks who were most affected by apartheid
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Pan Africanist Congress Of Azania
The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (once known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC) is a South African Black Nationalist movement that is now a political party. It was founded by an Africanist group, led by Robert Sobukwe, that broke away from the African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC).[2]Contents1 History 2 Ideology 3 Leadership struggles 4 Election results4.1 National elections 4.2 Provincial elections 4.3 Municipal elections5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Main article: History of the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania The PAC was formally launched on 6 April 1959 at Orlando Communal Hall in Soweto. A number of African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC) members broke away because they objected to the substitution of the 1949 Programme of Action with the Freedom Charter
Freedom Charter
adopted in 1955
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Mangosuthu Buthelezi
Mangosuthu Buthelezi
Mangosuthu Buthelezi
(born 27 August 1928) is a South African politician and Zulu tribal leader who founded the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) in 1975 and was Chief Minister of the KwaZulu
KwaZulu
bantustan until 1994. He was Minister of Home Affairs of South Africa
South Africa
from 1994 to 2004. His praise name is Shenge. Throughout most of the apartheid era, Buthelezi was considered one of the foremost black leaders. He played a key role in creating a framework for a negotiated solution to South Africa's racial conflict, signing the landmark Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith
Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith
in 1974 with Harry Schwarz. During the CODESA negotiations of the early 1990s, he represented the IFP
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