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1938 Kırşehir Earthquake
The 1938 Kırşehir earthquake
1938 Kırşehir earthquake
occurred at 12:59 local time on 19 April. It had an estimated magnitude of 6.7 and a maximum intensity of IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale, causing 224 casualties. See also[edit]List of earthquakes in 1938 List of earthquakes in TurkeyReferences[edit]^ NGDC. "Comments for the Significant Earthquake". Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi. "Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) List of earthquakes 1900 - 2004 (Büyük Depremler)" (in Turkish)
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Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
Universal Time
(abbreviated to UTC) is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude;[1] it does not observe daylight saving time
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List Of Earthquakes In 1938
This is a list of earthquakes in 1938. Only magnitude 6.0 or greater earthquakes appear on the list. Lower magnitude events are included if they have caused death, injury or damage. Events which occurred in remote areas will be excluded from the list as they wouldn't have generated significant media interest. All dates are listed according to UTC
UTC
time. This was once again a very busy year with 22 events reaching 7.0+. Topping the list was a huge quake which struck the Banda Sea, Indonesia
Indonesia
in February. At a magnitude of 8.5 this was one of the largest earthquakes of all time. Despite the large size no deaths were reported. Considering the array of large events, the death toll for the year was only 296. Turkey
Turkey
saw the majority of the deaths due to a 6.6 magnitude event in April. November 1938 saw a series of large quakes strike off the east coast of Honshu, Japan
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1881 Chios Earthquake
The 1881 Chios
Chios
earthquake occurred at 13:40 local time (11:30 UTC) on 3 April. It caused severe damage on the island of Chios
Chios
and also affected Çeşme
Çeşme
and Alaçatı
Alaçatı
on the coast of Turkey. The earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.3 and there were an estimated 7,866 casualties
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557 Constantinople Earthquake
The 557 Constantinople
Constantinople
earthquake took place on the night of December 14. This earthquake, described in the works of Agathias, John Malalas and Theophanes the Confessor, caused great damage to Constantinople, then capital of the Byzantine Empire, and a region frequently afflicted with earthquakes.[2] More minor quakes had preceded the large event, including two in April and October respectively.[3] The main quake in December was of unparalleled ferocity, and "almost completely razed" the city
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International Seismological Centre
International
International
mostly means something (a company, language, or organization) involving more than a single country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries. For example, international law, which is applied by more than one country and usually everywhere on Earth, and international language which is a language spoken by residents of more than one country.Contents1 Origin of the word 2 Meaning in particular fields 3 See also 4 References 5 External links 6 SourcesOrigin of the word[edit] The term international was coined by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
in his Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation, which was printed for publication in 1780 and published in 1789
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141 Lycia Earthquake
The 141 Lycia
Lycia
earthquake occurred in the period AD 141 to 142. It affected most of the Roman provinces of Lycia
Lycia
and Caria
Caria
and the islands of Rhodes, Kos, Simi and Serifos.[1][2][3] It triggered a severe tsunami which caused major inundation.[4] The epicenter for this earthquake is not well constrained, with locations suggested at the northern end of Rhodes,[5] on the Turkish mainland north of Rhodes near Marmaris[3] and beneath the sea to the east of Rhodes.[4] See also[edit]List of historical earthquakesReferences[edit]^ Tek A.T. "The Coins of Gordianus III found at Arykanda. Evidence for an Earthquake Relief Fund in Lycia?" (PDF). p. 951. Retrieved 8 February 2015.  ^ Erel T.L. & Adatepe F. (2007). "Traces of Historical earthquakes in the ancient city life at the Mediterranean region" (PDF). Journal of Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment
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AD 17 Lydia Earthquake
The AD 17 Lydia
Lydia
earthquake caused the destruction of at least twelve cities in the region of Lydia
Lydia
in the Roman province
Roman province
of Asia in Asia Minor. The earthquake was recorded by the Roman historians Tacitus
Tacitus
and Pliny the Elder, and the Greek historians Strabo
Strabo
and Eusebius. Pliny called it "the greatest earthquake in human memory".[1] The city of Sardis, the former capital of the Lydian Empire, was the most affected and never completely recovered from the destruction.[2]Contents1 Damage 2 Earthquake 3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 ReferencesDamage[edit] Historical records list up to fifteen towns and cities that were destroyed or damaged by the earthquake: Sardis, Magnesia, Temnos, Philadelphia, Aegae, Apollonis, Mostene, Hyrkanis, Hierapolis, Myrina, Cyme, Tmolus, Pergamon, Ephesus
Ephesus
and Kibyra
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Mercalli Intensity Scale
The Mercalli intensity scale is a seismic intensity scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake. It measures the effects of an earthquake. It is distinct from the moment magnitude (Mw) usually reported for an earthquake, which is a measure of the energy released (sometimes misreported as the Richter magnitude, ML). The intensity of an earthquake is not entirely determined by its magnitude. It is not based on first physical principles, but is, instead, empirically based on observed effects.[1] The Mercalli scale quantifies the effects of an earthquake on the Earth's surface, humans, objects of nature, and man-made structures on a scale from I (not felt) to XII (total destruction).[2][3] Values depend upon the distance from the earthquake, with the highest intensities being around the epicentral area. Data gathered from people who have experienced the quake are used to determine an intensity value for their location
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Surface Wave Magnitude
The surface wave magnitude ( M s displaystyle M_ s ) scale is one of the magnitude scales used in seismology to describe the size of an earthquake. It is based on measurements in Rayleigh surface waves that travel primarily along the uppermost layers of the Earth. It is currently used in People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
as a national standard (GB 17740-1999) for categorising earthquakes.[1] Surface wave magnitude was initially developed in 1950s by the same researchers who developed the local magnitude scale ML in order to improve resolution on larger earthquakes:[2]The successful development of the local-magnitude scale encouraged Gutenberg and Richter to develop magnitude scales based on teleseismic observations of earthquakes
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Advanced National Seismic System
The Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) is a collaboration of the U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Geological Survey
(USGS) and regional, state, and academic partners that collects and analyzes data on significant earthquakes to provide near real-time (generally within 10 to 30 minutes[1]) information to emergency responders and officials, the news media, and the public.[2] Such information is used to anticipate the likely severity and extent of damage, and to guide decisions on the responses needed.[3] Data is collected by eleven regional seismic networks and the National Seismic Network ("ANSS backbone") of dedicated stations, with additional inputs from overseas seismic networks
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1941 Van–Erciş Earthquake
The 1941 Van–Erciş earthquake
1941 Van–Erciş earthquake
occurred at 23:53 local time on 10 September. It had an estimated surface wave magnitude of 5.9 and a maximum intensity of VIII (Severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale, causing 192 casualties. See also[edit]List of earthquakes in Turkey List of earthquakes in 1941References[edit]^ NGDC. "Comments for the Significant Earthquake". Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi. "Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) List of earthquakes 1900 - 2004 (Büyük Depremler)" (in Turkish)
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1949 Karlıova Earthquake
The 1949 Karlıova earthquake occurred at 18:43 UTC on 17 August with an epicenter near Karlıova in Bingöl Province, Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. It had an estimated magnitude of 6.7,[1] a maximum felt intensity of X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale, and caused 320 casualties.[2]Contents1 Tectonic setting 2 Characteristics 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTectonic setting[edit] The Karlıova region is the location of the triple junction between the boundaries of the Eurasian Plate, Anatolian Plate and the Arabian Plate, the North Anatolian Fault, East Anatolian Fault and the Mus fold and thrust belt, which passes to the east into the Zagros fold and thrust belt. The earthquake occurred at the eastern end of the North Anatolian Fault.[3] Characteristics[edit] The seismic moment estimated for this earthquake is 3.5E+26, equivalent to a magnitude of 7.1 on the moment magnitude scale
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1942 Niksar–Erbaa Earthquake
The 1942 Niksar–Erbaa earthquake
1942 Niksar–Erbaa earthquake
occurred at 16:03 local time on 20 December. It had an estimated surface wave magnitude of 7.0 and a maximum felt intensity of IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale, causing 3,000 casualties. See also[edit]List of earthquakes in 1942 List of earthquakes in TurkeyReferences[edit]^ Kaptan, C. (15 April 2008). "Akinci HEPP Seismic Risk Assessment" (PDF). Retrieved 31 August 2010.  ^ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi. "Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) List of earthquakes 1900–2004 (Büyük Depremler)" (in Turkish)
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