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1822 Geographical, Statistical, And Historical Map Of Florida By Henry Charles Carey, Isaac Lea And
—George Santayana History
History
(from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.[3][4] Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events
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History Of The World
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies. Humanity's written history was preceded by its prehistory, beginning with the Palaeolithic Era ("Early Stone Age"), followed by the Neolithic
Neolithic
Era ("New Stone Age"). The Neolithic
Neolithic
saw the Agricultural Revolution begin, between 8000 and 5000 BCE, in the Near East's Fertile Crescent. The Agricultural
Agricultural
Revolution marked a fundamental change in history, with humans beginning the systematic husbandry of plants and animals.[2] As agriculture advanced, most humans transitioned from a nomadic to a settled lifestyle as farmers in permanent settlements
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Natural History
Natural history
Natural history
is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study
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Old Welsh
Old Welsh (Welsh: Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.[2] The preceding period, from the time Welsh became distinct from Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
around 550, has been called "Primitive"[2] or "Archaic Welsh".[3]Contents1 Texts1.1 Surrexit Memorandum1.1.1 Text 1.1.2 Translation 1.1.3 Features2 See also 3 References 4 External linksTexts[edit] The oldest surviving text entirely in Old Welsh is understood to be that on a gravestone now in Tywyn
Tywyn
church--the Cadfan Stone--thought to date from the 7th century
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Old English
Old English
Old English
(Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon,[2] is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French
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Old French
Old French
Old French
(franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d'oïl, contrasting with the langue d'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France
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Anglo-Norman Language
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language
Norman language
that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles
British Isles
during the Anglo-Norman period.[2] When William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
led the Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
in 1066, he, his nobles, and many of his followers from Normandy, but also those from northern and western France, spoke a range of langues d'oïl (northern varieties of Gallo-Romance). One of these was Old Norman, also known as "Old Northern French". Other followers spoke varieties of the Picard language
Picard language
or western French. This amalgam developed into the unique insular dialect now known as Anglo-Norman French, which was commonly used for literary and eventually administrative purposes from the 12th until the 15th century
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Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
(ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
(1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.[2] This stage of the development of the English language
English language
roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English
Middle English
developed out of Late Old English, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar, pronunciation and orthography. Writing customs during Middle English
Middle English
times varied widely, but by the end of the period, about 1470, aided by the invention of the printing press, a standard based on the London
London
dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established
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Ancrene Wisse
Ancrene Wisse (also known as the Ancrene Riwle[1] or Guide for Anchoresses) is an anonymous monastic rule (or manual) for female anchorites ("anchoresses") written in the early 13th century. The work consists of eight parts. Parts 1 and 8 deal with what is called the "Outer Rule" (relating to the anchoresses' exterior life), while Parts 2–7 deal with the "Inner Rule" (relating to the anchoresses' interior life). The didactic and devotional material is supplemented by illustrations and anecdotes, many drawn from everyday life.[2]Contents1 Community 2 Language and textual criticism 3 Surviving manuscripts 4 Notes 5 References 6 Editions 7 Further reading 8 External linksCommunity[edit] The adoption of an anchorite life was widespread all over medieval Europe, and was especially popular in England. By the early thirteenth century, the lives of anchorites or anchoresses was considered distinct from that of hermits
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John Gower
John Gower
John Gower
(/ˈɡaʊ.ər/; c. 1330 – October 1408) was an English poet, a contemporary of William Langland and the Pearl Poet, and a personal friend of Geoffrey Chaucer. He is remembered primarily for three major works, the Mirour de l'Omme, Vox Clamantis, and Confessio Amantis, three long poems written in French, Latin, and English respectively, which are united by common moral and political themes.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Chaucer influence 4 Manuscripts 5 List of works 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksLife[edit] Few details are known of Gower's early life
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Confessio Amantis
Confessio Amantis
Confessio Amantis
("The Lover's Confession") is a 33,000-line Middle English poem by John Gower, which uses the confession made by an ageing lover to the chaplain of Venus as a frame story for a collection of shorter narrative poems. According to its prologue, it was composed at the request of Richard II. It stands with the works of Chaucer, Langland, and the Pearl poet as one of the great works of late 14th-century English literature. The Index of Middle English Verse shows that in the era before the printing press it was one of the most-often copied manuscripts (59 copies) along with Canterbury Tales (72 copies) and Piers Plowman
Piers Plowman
(63 copies).[1] In genre it is usually considered a poem of consolation, a medieval form inspired by Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy
Consolation of Philosophy
and typified by works such as Pearl
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /ˈrɛnəsɑːns/)[a] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance
Renaissance
and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages.[1][2] The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban,[a] PC KC (/ˈbeɪkən/;[5] 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author. He served both as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor
Lord Chancellor
of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism.[6] His works argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive reasoning and careful observation of events in nature. Most importantly, he argued this could be achieved by use of a sceptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves
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Memory
Memory
Memory
is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Memory
Memory
is vital to experiences and related to limbic systems, it is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action.[1] If we could not remember past events, we could not learn or develop language, relationships, nor personal identity (Eysenck, 2012). Often memory is understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicit functioning that is made up of a sensory processor, short-term (or working) memory, and long-term memory (Baddely, 2007).[better source needed] This can be related to the neuron
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Boeotia
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (/biˈoʊʃiə, -ʃə/; Greek: Βοιωτία, Modern Greek: [vi.oˈti.a], Ancient Greek: [bojɔːtía]; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece
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Science
Science
Science
(from the Latin
Latin
word scientia, meaning "knowledge")[1] is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the univers
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