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166P/NEAT
166P/NEAT
166P/NEAT
is a periodic comet and centaur in the outer Solar System. It was discovered by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking
Near Earth Asteroid Tracking
(NEAT) project in 2001 and initially classified a comet with provisional designation P/2001 T4 (NEAT), as it was apparent from the discovery observations that the body exhibited a cometary coma. It is one of few known bodies with centaur-like orbits that display a coma, along with 60558 Echeclus, 2060 Chiron, 165P/LINEAR and 167P/CINEOS. It is also one of the reddest centaurs.[6] 166P/NEAT
166P/NEAT
has a perihelion distance of 8.56 AU,[1] and is a Chiron-type comet with (TJupiter > 3; a > aJupiter).[1] References[edit]^ a b c "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 166P/NEAT
166P/NEAT
(2001 T4)" (2008-03-02 last obs). Retrieved 2008-09-14.  ^ " 166P/NEAT
166P/NEAT
Orbit". Minor Planet Center
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Near Earth Asteroid Tracking
Near-Earth Asteroid
Asteroid
Tracking (NEAT) was a program run by NASA
NASA
and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, surveying the sky for near-Earth objects. NEAT was conducted from December 1995 until April 2007, at GEODSS
GEODSS
on Hawaii
Hawaii
(Haleakala-NEAT; 566), as well as at Palomar Observatory
Palomar Observatory
in California (Palomar-NEAT; 644)
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Provisional Designation In Astronomy
Provisional designation in astronomy is the naming convention applied to astronomical objects immediately following their discovery. The provisional designation is usually superseded by a permanent designation once a reliable orbit has been calculated
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System
JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris
Ephemeris
System provides easy access to key Solar System data and flexible production of highly accurate ephemerides for Solar System objects. Osculating elements at a given epoch are always an approximation to an object's orbit (i.e. an unperturbed conic orbit or a "two-body" orbit)
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Syuichi Nakano
Syuichi Nakano (中野 主一, Nakano Shuichi, born September 11, 1947) is a Japanese astronomer. He specializes in the study of comets, in particular calculating their orbits and making predictions about when periodic comets will return for another perihelion approach. It is considerably more difficult to predict the orbits of comets than of other types of Solar System
Solar System
objects, since their orbits are susceptible not only to perturbations from the planets but also to non-gravitational forces due to the release of gaseous material in the form of a comet's coma and tail. He is affiliated with the Computing & Minor Planet
Planet
Sections (Center for Astrodynamics) of the Oriental Astronomical Association in Sumoto, Japan. He publishes the Nakano Notes on comet observations and ephemerides. In 2001 he won the Amateur Achievement Award of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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Minor Planet Center
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars. Under the auspices of the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU), it operates at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, which is part of the Center for Astrophysics along with the Harvard College Observatory.[1] The MPC runs a number of free online services for observers to assist them in observing minor planets and comets. The complete catalogue of minor planet orbits (sometimes referred to as the "Minor Planet Catalogue") may also be freely downloaded. In addition to astrometric data, the MPC collects light curve photometry of minor planets
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Tisserand's Parameter
Tisserand's parameter (or Tisserand's invariant) is a value calculated from several orbital elements (semi-major axis, orbital eccentricity and inclination) of a relatively small object and a larger "perturbing body". It is used to distinguish different kinds of orbits
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List Of Non-periodic Comets
The following is a list of comets with a very high eccentricity (generally 0.99 or higher) and a period of over 1,000 years that don't quite have a high enough velocity to escape the Solar System. Often, these comets, due to their extreme semimajor axes and eccentricity, will have small orbital interactions with planets and minor planets, most often ending up with the comets fluctuating significantly in their orbital path
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Meteor Shower
A meteor shower is a celestial event in which a number of meteors are observed to radiate, or originate, from one point in the night sky. These meteors are caused by streams of cosmic debris called meteoroids entering Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
at extremely high speeds on parallel trajectories. Most meteors are smaller than a grain of sand, so almost all of them disintegrate and never hit the Earth's surface
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Solar System
The Solar System[a] is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun
Sun
and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly.[b] Of those objects that orbit the Sun
Sun
directly, the largest eight are the planets,[c] with the remainder being smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System
Solar System
bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun
Sun
indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury.[d] The Solar System
Solar System
formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth
Earth
and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal
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Orbital Inclination
Orbital inclination
Orbital inclination
measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case for a circular orbit is that it is tilted, spending half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern
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Julian Year (astronomy)
In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of 7004864000000000000♠86400 SI seconds each.[1][2][3][4] The length of the Julian year is the average length of the year in the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
that was used in Western societies until some centuries ago, and from which the unit is named. Nevertheless, because astronomical Julian years are measuring duration rather than designating dates, this Julian year does not correspond to years in the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
or any other calendar
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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Orbital Eccentricity
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptic orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, and greater than 1 is a hyperbola. The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
is a conic section. It is normally used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a Klemperer rosette
Klemperer rosette
orbit through the galaxy.Contents1 Definition 2 Etymology 3 Calculation 4 Examples 5 Mean eccentricity 6 Climatic effect 7 Exoplanets 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 External linksDefinition[edit]e=0e=0.5Orbits in a two-body system for two values of the eccentricity, e.In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit
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Astronomical Unit
The astronomical unit (symbol: au,[1][2][3] ua,[4] or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth
Earth
to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth
Earth
orbits the Sun, from a maximum (aphelion) to a minimum (perihelion) and back again once a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth's aphelion and perihelion, it was defined exactly as 7011149597870700000♠149597870700 metres or about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles) since 2012.[5] The astronomical unit is used primarily for measuring distances within the Solar System
Solar System
or around other stars
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