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16bit In computer architecture, 16bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 16 bits (2 octets) wide. Also, 16bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 16bit microcomputers are computers in which 16bit microprocessors were the norm. A 16bit register can store 216 different values. The signed range of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits is −32,768 (−1 × 215) through 32,767 (215 − 1); the unsigned range is 0 through 65,535 (216 − 1). Since 216 is 65,536, a processor with 16bit memory addresses can directly access 64 KB (65,536 bytes) of byteaddressable memory [...More...]  "16bit" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Bus (computing) In computer architecture, a bus[1] (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components (wire, optical fiber, etc.) and software, including communication protocols.[2] Early computer buses were parallel electrical wires with multiple hardware connections, but the term is now used for any physical arrangement that provides the same logical function as a parallel electrical bus [...More...]  "Bus (computing)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Precision (computer Science) In computer science, the precision of a numerical quantity is a measure of the detail in which the quantity is expressed. This is usually measured in bits, but sometimes in decimal digits. It is related to precision in mathematics, which describes the number of digits that are used to express a value. Rounding error[edit] Further information: Floating point Precision is often the source of rounding errors in computation. The number of bits used to store a number will often cause some loss of accuracy. An example would be to store "sin(0.1)" in IEEE single precision floating point standard [...More...]  "Precision (computer Science)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Application Software An application program (app or application for short) is a computer program designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user. Examples of an application include a word processor, a spreadsheet, an accounting application, a web browser, a media player, an aeronautical flight simulator, a console game or a photo editor [...More...]  "Application Software" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Bit The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit)[1] is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications. A binary digit can have only one of two values, and may be physically represented with a twostate device. These state values are most commonly represented as either a 0or1. The two values of a binary digit can also be interpreted as logical values (true/false, yes/no), algebraic signs (+/−), activation states (on/off), or any other twovalued attribute. The correspondence between these values and the physical states of the underlying storage or device is a matter of convention, and different assignments may be used even within the same device or program [...More...]  "Bit" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Computer Architecture In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems [...More...]  "Computer Architecture" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Address Bus An address bus is a computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) that is used to specify a physical address. When a processor or DMAenabled device needs to read or write to a memory location, it specifies that memory location on the address bus (the value to be read or written is sent on the data bus). The width of the address bus determines the amount of memory a system can address. For example, a system with a 32bit address bus can address 232 (4,294,967,296) memory locations. If each memory location holds one byte, the addressable memory space is 4 GB. Implementation[edit] Early processors used a wire for each bit of the address width [...More...]  "Address Bus" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Memory Address In computing, a memory address is a reference to a specific memory location used at various levels by software and hardware [...More...]  "Memory Address" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

32bit Floatingpoint Format Singleprecision floatingpoint format Singleprecision floatingpoint format is a computer number format, usually occupying 32 bits 32 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point. A floating point variable can represent a wider range of numbers than a fixed point variable of the same bit width at the cost of precision. A signed 32bit 32bit integer variable has a maximum value of 231 − 1 = 2,147,483,647, whereas an IEEE 754 IEEE 754 32bit 32bit base2 floatingpoint variable has a maximum value of (2 − 2−23) × 2127 ≈ 3.402823 × 1038 [...More...]  "32bit Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decimal32 Floatingpoint Format In computing, decimal32 is a decimal floatingpoint computer numbering format that occupies 4 bytes (32 bits) in computer memory. It is intended for applications where it is necessary to emulate decimal rounding exactly, such as financial and tax computations. Like the binary16 format, it is intended for memory saving storage. Decimal32 supports 7 decimal digits of significand and an exponent range of −95 to +96, i.e. ±0.000000×10^−95 to ±9.999999×10^96. (Equivalently, ±0000000×10^−101 to ±9999999×10^90.) Because the significand is not normalized (there is no implicit leading "1"), most values with less than 7 significant digits have multiple possible representations; 1×102=0.1×103=0.01×104, etc [...More...]  "Decimal32 Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

64bit Floatingpoint Format Doubleprecision floatingpoint format Doubleprecision floatingpoint format is a computer number format, usually occupying 64 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point. Floating point Floating point is used to represent fractional values, or when a wider range is needed than is provided by fixed point (of the same bit width), even if at the cost of precision. Double precision may be chosen when the range and/or precision of single precision would be insufficient. In the IEEE 7542008 standard, the 64bit base2 format is officially referred to as binary64; it was called double in IEEE 7541985. IEEE 754 specifies additional floatingpoint formats, including 32bit base2 single precision and, more recently, base10 representations. One of the first programming languages to provide single and doubleprecision floatingpoint data types was Fortran [...More...]  "64bit Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Singleprecision Floatingpoint Format Singleprecision floatingpoint format Singleprecision floatingpoint format is a computer number format, usually occupying 32 bits 32 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point. A floating point variable can represent a wider range of numbers than a fixed point variable of the same bit width at the cost of precision. A signed 32bit 32bit integer variable has a maximum value of 231 − 1 = 2,147,483,647, whereas an IEEE 754 IEEE 754 32bit 32bit base2 floatingpoint variable has a maximum value of (2 − 2−23) × 2127 ≈ 3.402823 × 1038 [...More...]  "Singleprecision Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Doubleprecision Floatingpoint Format Doubleprecision floatingpoint format Doubleprecision floatingpoint format is a computer number format, usually occupying 64 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point. Floating point Floating point is used to represent fractional values, or when a wider range is needed than is provided by fixed point (of the same bit width), even if at the cost of precision. Double precision may be chosen when the range and/or precision of single precision would be insufficient. In the IEEE 7542008 standard, the 64bit base2 format is officially referred to as binary64; it was called double in IEEE 7541985. IEEE 754 specifies additional floatingpoint formats, including 32bit base2 single precision and, more recently, base10 representations. One of the first programming languages to provide single and doubleprecision floatingpoint data types was Fortran [...More...]  "Doubleprecision Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Quadrupleprecision Floatingpoint Format In computing, quadruple precision (or quad precision) is a binary floatingpointbased computer number format that occupies 16 bytes (128 bits) in with precision more than twice the 53bit double precision. This 128bit quadruple precision is designed not only for applications requiring results in higher than double precision,[1] but also, as a primary function, to allow the computation of double precision results more reliably and accurately by minimising overflow and roundoff errors in intermediate calculations and scratch variables. William Kahan, primary architect of the original IEEE754 floating point standard noted, "For now the 10byte Extended format is a tolerable compromise between the value of extraprecise arithmetic and the price of implementing it to run fast; very soon two more bytes of precision will become tolerable, and ultimately a 16byte format.. [...More...]  "Quadrupleprecision Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Octupleprecision Floatingpoint Format In computing, octuple precision is a binary floatingpointbased computer number format that occupies 32 bytes (256 bits) in computer memory. This 256bit 256bit octuple precision is for applications requiring results in higher than quadruple precision [...More...]  "Octupleprecision Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decimal Floatingpoint Decimal Decimal floatingpoint (DFP) arithmetic refers to both a representation and operations on decimal floatingpoint numbers. Working directly with decimal (base10) fractions can avoid the rounding errors that otherwise typically occur when converting between decimal fractions (common in humanentered data, such as measurements or financial information) and binary (base2) fractions. The advantage of decimal floatingpoint representation over decimal fixedpoint and integer representation is that it supports a much wider range of values. For example, while a fixedpoint representation that allocates 8 decimal digits and 2 decimal places can represent the numbers 123456.78, 8765.43, 123.00, and so on, a floatingpoint representation with 8 decimal digits could also represent 1.2345678, 1234567.8, 0.000012345678, 12345678000000000, and so on [...More...]  "Decimal Floatingpoint" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 