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10th Edition Of Systema Naturae
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum.Contents1 Starting point 2 Revisions 3 Animals3.1 Mammalia 3.2 Aves 3.3 Amphibia 3.4 Pisces 3.5 Insecta 3.6 Vermes4 Plants 5 References 6 External linksStarting point[edit] Before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae. The first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
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Mole (animal)
12 genera, see textMoles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle (i.e., fossorial). They have cylindrical bodies, velvety fur, very small, inconspicuous ears and eyes,[1] reduced hindlimbs and short, powerful forelimbs with large paws adapted for digging
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Anteater
Cyclopedidae Myrmecophagidae Anteater
Anteater
is a common name for the four extant mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua[1] (meaning "worm tongue") commonly known for eating ants and termites.[2] The individual species have other names in English and other languages. Together with the sloths, they are within the order Pilosa
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Sturgeon
Acipenserinae Scaphirhynchinae See text for genera and species.Play media Beluga sturgeon
Beluga sturgeon
in an aquarium. Sturgeon
Sturgeon
is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae. Their evolution dates back to the Triassic some 245 to 208 million years ago.[2] The family is grouped into four genera: Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus
Scaphirhynchus
and Pseudoscaphirhynchus. Four species may now be extinct.[3] Two closely related species, Polyodon spathula (paddlefish) and Psephurus gladius
Psephurus gladius
(Chinese paddlefish, possibly extinct) are of the same order, Acipenseriformes, but are in the family Polyodontidae
Polyodontidae
and are not considered to be "true" sturgeons
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population densitySynonyms Species
Species
synonymy[1]aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 capensis Broom, 1917 columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 patagonus Bory de St
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Colugo
Colugos (/kəˈluːɡoʊz/[2][3]) are arboreal gliding mammals found in Southeast Asia. Just two extant species[1] make up the entire family Cynocephalidae
Cynocephalidae
(/ˌsaɪnoʊˌsɛfəˈlaɪdiː, -ˌkɛ-/[4]) and order Dermoptera. They are the most capable gliders of all gliding mammals, using flaps of extra skin between their legs to glide from higher to lower locations. They are also known as cobegos or flying lemurs, although they are not true lemurs but are named due to their resemblance.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Status 3 Classification and evolution3.1 Synonyms4 References 5 External linksCharacteristics[edit] Colugos are tree-dwelling mammals. They reach lengths of 35 to 40 cm (14 to 16 in) and weigh 1 to 2 kg (2.2 to 4.4 lb).[5] They have long, slender front and rear limbs, a medium-length tail, and a relatively light build
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Bat
(traditional):Megachiroptera Microchiroptera(recent):Yinpterochiroptera YangochiropteraWorldwide distribution of bat speciesBats are mammals of the order Chiroptera;[a] with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. Bats are more manoeuvrable than birds, flying with their very long spread-out digits covered with a thin membrane or patagium. The smallest bat, and arguably the smallest extant mammal, is Kitti's hog-nosed bat, which is 29–34 mm (1.14–1.34 in) in length, 15 cm (5.91 in) across the wings and 2–2.6 g (0.07–0.09 oz) in mass. The largest bats are the flying foxes and the giant golden-crowned flying fox, Acerodon jubatus, which can weigh 1.6 kg (4 lb) and have a wingspan of 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in). The second largest order of mammals, bats comprise about 20% of all classified mammal species worldwide, with over 1,200 species
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Elephant
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae
Elephantidae
and the order Proboscidea. Three species are currently recognised: the African bush elephant ( Loxodonta
Loxodonta
africana), the African forest elephant
African forest elephant
(L. cyclotis), and the Asian elephant
Asian elephant
( Elephas
Elephas
maximus). Elephants are scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia
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Sloth
Bradypodidae Megalonychidae †Megatheriidae †Mylodontidae †NothrotheriidaeSloths are arboreal mammals noted for slowness of movement and for spending most of their lives hanging upside down in the trees of the tropical rainforests of South America
South America
and Central America. The six species are in two families: two-toed sloths and three-toed sloths. In spite of this traditional naming, all sloths actually have three toes. The two-toed sloths have two digits, or fingers, on each forelimb.[3] The sloth is so named because of its very low metabolism and deliberate movements, sloth being related to the word slow
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Pangolin
     Manis crassicaudata      Manis pentadactyla      Manis javanica      Manis culionensis      Phataginus tricuspis      Phataginus tetradactyla      Smutsia gigantea      Smutsia temminckiiPangolins or scaly anteaters[1] are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale"). The one extant family, Manidae, has three genera: Manis, which comprises four species living in Asia; Phataginus, which comprises two species living in Africa; and Smutsia, which comprises two species also living in Africa.[2] These species range in size from 30 to 100 cm (12 to 39 in). A number of extinct pangolin species are also known. Pangolins have large, protective keratin scales covering their skin, and they are the only known mammals with this feature
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Arachnid
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata. All arachnids have eight legs, although the front pair of legs in some species has converted to a sensory function, while in other species, different appendages can grow large enough to take on the appearance of extra pairs of legs. The term is derived from the Greek word ἀράχνη (aráchnē), from the myth of the hubristic human weaver Arachne
Arachne
who was turned into a spider.[1] Spiders are the largest order in the class, which also includes scorpions, ticks, mites, harvestmen, and solifuges.[2] Almost all extant arachnids are terrestrial, living mainly on land. However, some inhabit freshwater environments and, with the exception of the pelagic zone, marine environments as well
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Pinniped
Pinnipeds,[a] commonly known as seals,[b] are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals. They comprise the extant families Odobenidae
Odobenidae
(whose only living member is the walrus), Otariidae
Otariidae
(the eared seals: sea lions and fur seals), and Phocidae
Phocidae
(the earless seals, or true seals). There are 33 extant species of pinnipeds, and more than 50 extinct species have been described from fossils
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Hyena
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina[1]) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae /haɪˈɛnɪdiː/. With only four extant species, it is the fifth-smallest biological family in the Carnivora, and one of the smallest in the class Mammalia.[2] Despite their low diversity, hyenas are unique and vital components of most African ecosystems.[3] Although phylogenetically they are closer to felines and viverrids, and belong to the feliform category, hyenas are behaviourally and morphologically similar to canines in several elements of convergent evolution; both hyenas and canines are non-arboreal, cursorial hunters that catch prey with their teeth rather than claws
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Mongoose
Top right: Cynictis
Cynictis
penicillata Bottom left: Galerella
Galerella
sanguinea Bottom right: Herpestes
Herpestes
edwardsiiScientific classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaOrder: CarnivoraSuborder: FeliformiaFamily: Herpestidae Bonaparte, 1845Type genusHerpestes Illiger, 1811GeneraAtilax Bdeogale Crossarchus Cynictis Dologale Galerella Helogale Herpestes Ichneumia Liberiictus Mungos Paracynictis Rhynchogale SuricataSynonymsCynictidae, Cope, 1882 Herpestoidei, Winge, 1895 Mongotidae, Pocock, 1920 Rhinogalidae, Gray, 1869 Suricatidae, Cope, 1882 Suricatinae, Thomas, 1882 Mongoose
Mongoose
is the popular English name for 29 of the 34[2] species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia
Eurasia
and mainland Africa
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Civet
A civet /ˈsɪvɪt/ is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia. The best-known civet species is the African civet, Civettictis
Civettictis
civetta,[1] which historically has been the main species from which was obtained a musky scent used in perfumery
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Bear
†Amphicynodontinae †Hemicyoninae †Ursavinae †Agriotheriinae Ailuropodinae Tremarctinae UrsinaeBears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae. They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found on the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Common characteristics of modern bears include large bodies with stocky legs, long snouts, small rounded ears, shaggy hair, plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws, and short tails. While the polar bear is mostly carnivorous, and the giant panda feeds almost entirely on bamboo, the remaining six species are omnivorous with varied diets. With the exception of courting individuals and mothers with their young, bears are typically solitary animals
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