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.30 Caliber
The 7.62 mm caliber (sev-INN-poy-INT-six-TOO) is a nominal caliber used for a number of different cartridges. Historically, this class of cartridge was commonly known as .30 caliber, the imperial unit equivalent, and was most commonly used for indicating a class of full-power military main battle rifle (MBR) cartridges. The measurement equals 0.30 inches or three decimal lines, written .3″ and read as three-line.[1] The 7.62 mm designation refers to the internal diameter of the barrel at the lands (the raised helical ridges in rifled gun barrels)
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.308 Norma Magnum
The .308 Norma Magnum (7.62×65mmBR) cartridge was created by Nils Kvale at Norma, Sweden. Like the larger .358 Norma Magnum it is based on the .300 H&H Magnum.[1] The length of the case is the longest that would fit in a standard Mauser action. While it appeared to have a bright future initially, it was soon superseded in popularity by the .300 Winchester Magnum. The first, and one of the few, manufacturers to offer rifles in .308 Norma Magnum was Schultz & Larsen of Denmark and they still are. In the late 1940s, Kvale designed a wildcat called 8mm Kvale. It was intended for use in the German surplus 8mm Mauser M98 that flooded the American market after the war and was therefore nicknamed 'Poor Man's Magnum'. Kvale used the case from the .300 H&H Magnum and reduced the rim diameter so it would fit the bolt of a Mauser M98
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Mosin–Nagant
The 3-line rifle M1891 (Russian: трёхлинейная винтовка образца 1891 года, tryokhlineynaya vintovka obraztsa 1891 goda), colloquially known in the West as Mosin–Nagant and in Russia as Mosin's rifle (Russian: винтовка Мосина, ISO 9: vintovka Mosina), is a five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine–fed, military rifle developed from 1882 to 1891, and used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations. It is one of the most mass-produced military bolt-action rifles in history with over 37 million units having been made since its inception in 1891, and, in spite of its age, it has been used in various conflicts around the world up to the present day
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AKM
The AKM (Russian: модернизи́рованный Автома́т Кала́шникова, tr. modernizírovannyj Avtomát Kalášnikova, lit. 'Modernised Automatic Kalashnikov Rifle') is a 7.62×39mm assault rifle designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is a common modernised variant of the AK-47 rifle developed in the 1940s. Introduced into service with the Soviet Army in 1959, the AKM is the prevalent variant of the entire AK series of firearms and it has found widespread use with most member states of the former Warsaw Pact and its African and Asian allies as well as being widely exported and produced in many other countries. The production of these rifles was carried out at both the Tula Arms Plant and Izhmash
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RPK
The RPK (Ruchnoy Pulemyot Kalashnikova, Russian: РПК Ручной пулемёт Калашникова or "Kalashnikov hand-held machine gun") is a 7.62×39mm light machine gun of Soviet design, developed by Mikhail Kalashnikov in the early 1960s, parallel with the AKM assault rifle. It was created as part of a program designed to standardize the small arms inventory of the Soviet Army, where it replaced the 7.62×39mm RPD light machine gun. The RPK continues to be used by the armed forces of countries of the former Soviet Union and certain African and Asian nations. The RPK is also manufactured in Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia. The RPK functions identically to the AK-47. It also uses the same 7.62×39mm ammunition
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RPD
The RPD (Russian: ручной пулемёт Дегтярёва Ruchnoy Pulemyot Degtyaryova, English: Degtyaryov hand-held machine gun) is a 7.62mm light machine gun developed in the Soviet Union by Vasily Degtyaryov for the 7.62×39mm M43 intermediate cartridge. It was created as a replacement for the DP machine gun chambered for the 7.62×54mmR round. It is a precursor of most squad automatic weapons.[10] It was succeeded in Soviet service by the RPK. Work on the weapon commenced in 1943. Three prominent Soviet engineers were asked to submit their own designs: Vasily Degtyaryov, Sergei Simonov and Alexei Sudayev. Among the completed prototypes prepared for evaluation, the Degtyaryov design proved superior and was accepted into service with the Soviet armed forces as the 7.62 mm Ручной Пулемёт Дегтярёва, PПД (RPD, Ruchnoy Pulemyot Degtyaryova or "Degtyaryov light machine gun") model 1944
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7.62×40mm Wilson Tactical
The 7.62×40mm Wilson Tactical (7.62×40mm WT) is a centerfire rifle cartridge introduced in 2011 by Wilson Combat. The goal was to produce an accurate, low-recoil .30-caliber hunting cartridge that could be used in an AR-15-type rifle using as many standard components as possible. The 7.62×40mm WT (Wilson Tactical)[2] is based on the 7.62×40mm wildcat cartridge, the shoulder of the WT was moved .003" forward and the throat was made .001" larger to accommodate mass-production tolerances while staying within the tolerance of the original reloading die tooling of the 7.62×40mm.[1] The parent case (5.56×45mm NATO) was trimmed down to 1.560" and re-sized with a 7.62×40mm WT sizing die.[3] The overall case length after the shortening and re-sizing is 1.565"
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7.62×45mm
The 7.62×45mm (designated as the 7,62 × 45 by the C.I.P.)[2] is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate rifle cartridge developed in Czechoslovakia. It is fired by the Czech Vz. 52 rifle, Vz. 52 light machine gun, and ZB-53 machine gun. The round was later dropped from use when the Czech converted to the standard Warsaw Pact round, the 7.62×39mm (fired by vz. 52/57 rifle and vz. 52/57 light machine gun)
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Vz. 52 Rifle
The vz. 52 is a shoulder-fired semi-automatic rifle with a tilting-bolt locking mechanism powered by an annular short-stroke gas piston system. The bolt is locked by two lugs that recess into slots machined into the receiver. However, unlike most vertically-locking breech mechanism, the rifle's bolt has the unusual feature of tipping the bolt frontally to lock the mechanism, whereas other tipping bolt designs tip the bolt to the rear.[8] The piston is actuated by residual gases from the bore, vented into a sleeve surrounding the barrel to overcome the inertia of the bolt carrier, bolt and the resistance of the return spring in order to unlock the chamber, eject the empty cartridge casing and then introduce a new round into the chamber upon return to battery. The barrel is press-fit and pinned into the receiver. The manual safety switch is placed inside of the trigger guard and is manipulated by the shooter's index finger
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7.62×51mm NATO
The 7.62×51mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 7.62 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard for small arms among NATO countries. It is sometimes confused with the similarly named Russian 7.62×54mmR cartridge, a slightly longer, rimmed cartridge. It was introduced in U.S. service in the M14 rifle and M60 machine gun in the late 1950s. The M14 was superseded in U.S. service as the infantry adopted the 5.56×45mm NATO M16 rifle. However, the M14 and many other firearms that use the 7.62×51mm NATO round remain in service, especially in the case of various marksman/sniper rifles, medium machine guns/general-purpose machine guns such as the M240, and various rifles in use by special operations forces
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7.62×54mmR
The 7.62×54mmR is a rimmed rifle cartridge developed by the Russian Empire and introduced as a service cartridge in 1891. Originally designed for the bolt-action Mosin–Nagant rifle, it was used during the late tsarist era and throughout the Soviet period to the present day. The cartridge remains one of the few standard-issue rimmed cartridges still in military use, and has one of the longest service lives of any military-issued cartridge.[4] The American Winchester Model 1895 was also chambered for this cartridge per a contract with the Russian government. The 7.62×54mmR is still in use by the Russian military in the Dragunov, SV-98 and other sniper rifles, as well as some modern general-purpose machine guns like the PKM and Pecheneg machine gun. Originally, the round was designated "Трехлинейный патрон образца 1891 года" – (three-line cartridge model of 1891)
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.30 Short Combloc
The 7.62×39mm (aka 7.62 Soviet or formerly .30 Russian Short)[5] round is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge of Soviet origin that was designed during World War II. Due to the worldwide proliferation of the Soviet SKS and AK-47 pattern rifles, as well as RPD and RPK light machine guns, the cartridge is used by both militaries and civilians alike. Shortly after World War II, the AK-47 was designed, later becoming the world's most widespread military-pattern rifle. The cartridge remained the Soviet standard until the 1970s. It was largely replaced in Soviet service by the 5.45×39mm cartridge, which was introduced with the new AK-74 rifle, and continues in service with the modernized current-issue Russian Armed Forces AK-74M service rifle, as well as the AK-12 rifle
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PK Machine Gun
The PK (Russian: Пулемёт Калашникова, transliterated as Pulemyot Kalashnikova, or "Kalashnikov's machine gun"),[15] is a 7.62×54mmR general-purpose machine gun designed in the Soviet Union and currently in production in Russia.[16] The original PK machine gun was introduced in 1961 and then the improved PKM in 1969 to replace the SGM and RP-46 machine guns in Soviet service. It remains in use as a front-line infantry and vehicle-mounted weapon with Russia's armed forces. The PK has been exported extensively and produced in several other countries under license. The Main Artillery Directorate of the Soviet Union adopted specification requirements for a 7.62 mm general-purpose company- and battalion-level machine gun, chambered for a rifle cartridge in 1955. In 1958 a machine gun prototype, developed by G.I. Nikitin and Yuri M. Sokolov, successfully passed field tests
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