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Ȇ
Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle (  ̑  ), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘). It looks similar to the circumflex (ˆ), but the circumflex has a sharp tip; the inverted breve is rounded: compare  â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û (circumflex) versus Ȃ ȃ Ȇ ȇ Ȋ ȋ Ȏ ȏ Ȗ ȗ (inverted breve). Inverted breve can occur above or below the letter
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Diacritic
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, or diacritical sign – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
διακριτικός (diakritikós, "distinguishing"), from διακρίνω (diakrī́nō, "to distinguish"). Diacritic
Diacritic
is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters. The main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script
Latin script
is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added
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Brahmic Scripts
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Acute Accent
The acute accent ( ´ ) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.Contents1 Uses1.1 History 1.2 Pitch1.2.1 Greek1.3 Stress 1.4 Height 1.5 Length1.5.1 Long vowels 1.5.2 Short vowels1.6 Palatalization 1.7 Tone 1.8 Disambiguation 1.9 Emphasis 1.10 Letter extension 1.11 Other uses 1.12 English2 Technical notes2.1 Microsoft Windows2.1.1 Microsoft Office2.2 Macintosh OS X 2.3 Keyboards 2.4 Internet 2.5 Limitations3 Notes 4 See also 5 External linksUses[edit] History[edit] An early precursor of the acute accent was the apex, used in Latin inscriptions to mark long vowels. Pitch[edit] Greek[edit] See also: Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
accent The acute accent was first used in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, where it indicated a syllable with a high pitch
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Hyphen
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation.[1] The hyphen should not be confused with dashes (‒, –, —, ―), which are longer and have different uses, or with the minus sign (−), which is also longer in some contexts. As an orthographic concept, the hyphen is a single entity
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Prime (symbol)
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThis article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.The prime symbol ( ′ ), double prime symbol ( ″ ), triple prime symbol ( ‴ ), quadruple prime symbol ( ⁗ ) etc., are used to designate units and for other purposes in mathematics, the sciences, linguistics and music
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Tilde
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe tilde (/ˈtɪldə/;[1] ˜ or ~)[2] is a grapheme with several uses
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Arabic Diacritics
The Arabic script
Arabic script
has numerous diacritics, including i'jam ⟨إِعْجَام⟩ - i‘jām, consonant pointing and tashkil ⟨تَشْكِيل⟩ - tashkīl, supplementary diacritics. The latter include the ḥarakāt ⟨حَرَكَات⟩ vowel marks - singular: ḥarakah ⟨حَرَكَة⟩. The Arabic script
Arabic script
is an impure abjad, where short consonants and long vowels are represented by letters but short vowels and consonant length are not generally indicated in writing. Tashkīl is optional to represent missing vowels and consonant length
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Pokrytie
Pokrytie (  ҇  ) is one of the historic signs of Cyrillic that was used in Old Church Slavonic. See also[edit]Old Church Slavonic Cyrillic characters in UnicodeThis article related to the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
is a stub
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Titlo
Titlo
Titlo
is an extended diacritic symbol initially used in early Cyrillic manuscripts, e.g., in Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
and Old East Slavic languages. The word is a borrowing from the Greek "τίτλος", "title" (compare dated English tittle, see tilde). The titlo still appears in inscriptions on modern icons and in service books printed in Church Slavonic. The titlo is drawn as a zigzag line over a text. The usual form is short stroke up, falling slanted line, short stroke up; an alternative is like a sideways square bracket: short stroke up, horizontal line, short stroke down. The titlo has several meanings depending on the context: One meaning is in its use to mark letters when they are used as numerals.[1] This is a quasi-decimal system analogous to Greek numerals. A titlo is also used as a scribal abbreviation mark for frequently written long words and also for nouns describing sacred persons
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Hebrew Diacritics
Hebrew orthography includes three types of diacritics: Niqqud
Niqqud
in Hebrew is the way to indicate vowels, which are omitted in modern orthography, using a set of ancillary glyphs. Since the vowels can be understood from surrounding context can help readers read the correct pronunciations of several letters of the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
(the rafe sign and other rare glyphs are also listed as part of the niqqud system but are not in common use)[*]; geresh and gershayim, two diacritics that are not considered a part of niqqud, each of which has several functions (e.g
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Anusvara
Anusvara (Sanskrit: अनुस्वारः anusvāra) is the diacritic used to mark a type of nasal sound used in a number of Indic scripts. Depending on the location of the anusvara in the word and the language in which it is used, its exact pronunciation can vary greatly. In the context of Sanskrit, anusvara may also refer also to the nasal sound itself.Contents1 Sanskrit 2 Devanagari
Devanagari
script2.1 Marathi 2.2 Hindi 2.3 Nepali3 Other Indic script languages3.1 Bengali 3.2 Burmese 3.3 Sinhala 3.4 Telugu 3.5 Thai4 Anunasika 5 Unicode 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 BibliographySanskrit[edit] In Vedic Sanskrit, the anusvāra (lit
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Bar (diacritic)
A bar or stroke is a modification consisting of a line drawn through a grapheme. It may be used as a diacritic to derive new letters from old ones, or simply as an addition to make a grapheme more distinct from others
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Chandrabindu
Chandrabindu
Chandrabindu
(meaning "moon-dot" in Sanskrit, alternatively spelled candrabindu, chandravindu, candravindu, or chôndrobindu) is a diacritic sign with the form of a dot inside the lower half of a circle. It is used in the Devanagari
Devanagari
(ँ), Bengali (ঁ), Gujarati (ઁ), Oriya (ଁ), Telugu (ఁ), Javanese (ꦀ) and other scripts. It usually means that the previous vowel is nasalized. In Hindi, it is replaced in writing by anusvara when it is written above a consonant that carries a vowel symbol that extends above the top line. In Classical Sanskrit, it seems to occur only over a lla conjunct consonant, to show that it is pronounced as a nasalized double l, which occurs if -nl- have become assimilated in sandhi. In Vedic Sanskrit, it is used instead of anusvara to represent the sound anunaasika when the next word starts with a vowel
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Nukta
Nuqtā ( Hindi-Urdu
Hindi-Urdu
नुक़्ता, نقطہ, from Arabic
Arabic
nuqta نقطة "dot," or "period."), also spelled Nuktā, is a term for a diacritic mark that was introduced in Devanāgari (and some other Indian scripts) used to represent sounds from other languages that do not have a native character in these scripts. It takes the form of a dot placed below a character. Also, in the Urdu
Urdu
script, there "are some letters in Urdu
Urdu
that share the same basic shape but differ in the placement of dots(s) or nuqta(s)": the letter ع ain, with the addition of a nuqta, becomes the letter غ g͟hain.[1] Examples from Devanāgari, the script used to write Hindi, are: क़ qa, ख़ ḵẖa, ग़ ġa, ज़ za, ड़ ṛa, ढ़ ṛha, फ़ fa, झ़ zha, modifying क ka, ख kha, ग ga, ज ja, ड ḍa, ढ ḍha, फ pha, झ jha, respectively
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Virama
Virama (Sanskrit: विराम, virāma ? ्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, including Devanagari
Devanagari
and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter. The name is Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "cessation, termination, end"
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