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Çatal Höyük
Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
(Turkish pronunciation: [tʃaˈtaɫhøjyk]; also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.[1] In July 2012, it was inscribed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[2] Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
is located overlooking the Konya
Konya
Plain, southeast of the present-day city of Konya
Konya
(ancient Iconium) in Turkey, approximately 140 km (87 mi) from the twin-coned volcano of Mount Hasan. The eastern settlement forms a mound which would have risen about 20 m (66 ft) above the plain at the time of the latest Neolithic
Neolithic
occupation
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Çatalhüyük, Ceyhan
Çatalhüyük is a village in the District of Ceyhan, Adana Province, Turkey.[1] References[edit]^ "Population of city, towns and villages - 2011". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 22 July 2012. Coordinates: 37°11′50″N 35°49′01″E / 37.1972°N 35.8169°E / 37.1972; 35.8169This geographical article about a location in Adana Province, Turkey is a stub
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Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ Chalcolithic Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
B (PPNB) is a Neolithic
Neolithic
culture centered in upper Mesopotamia. It was typed by Kathleen Kenyon
Kathleen Kenyon
during her archaeological excavations at Jericho
Jericho
in the West Bank. Overview[edit] Cultural tendencies of this period differ from that of the earlier Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
A (PPNA) period in that people living during this period began to depend more heavily upon domesticated animals to supplement their earlier mixed agrarian and hunter-gatherer diet. In addition the flint tool kit of the period is new and quite disparate from that of the earlier period. One of its major elements is the naviform core
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Post-processual Archaeology
Post-processual archaeology, which is sometimes alternately referred to as the interpretative archaeologies by its adherents,[1][2] is a movement in archaeological theory that emphasizes the subjectivity of archaeological interpretations. Despite having a vague series of similarities, post-processualism consists of "very diverse strands of thought coalesced into a loose cluster of traditions".[3] Within the post-processualist movement, a wide variety of theoretical viewpoints have been embraced, including structuralism and Neo-Marxism, as have a variety of different archaeological techniques, such as phenomenology. The post-processual movement originated in the United Kingdom during the late 1970s and early 1980s, pioneered by archaeologists such as Ian Hodder, Daniel Miller, Christopher Tilley and Peter Ucko, who were influenced by French Marxist anthropology, postmodernism and similar trends in sociocultural anthropology
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Murals
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture. Some wall paintings are painted on large canvases, which are then attached to the wall (e.g., with marouflage)
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Mudbrick
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw. In warm regions with very little timber available to fuel a kiln, bricks were generally sun dried. In some cases brickmakers extended the life of mud bricks by putting fired bricks on top or covering them with stucco.Contents1 Ancient world 2 Adobe 3 Banco 4 Mudbrick
Mudbrick
architecture worldwide 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksAncient world[edit]Mud-brick stamped with seal impression of raised relief of the Treasury of the Vizier. From Lahun, Fayum, Egypt. 12th Dynasty
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Mesolithic
In Old World archaeology, the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
(Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Neolithic, the three periods together forming the Stone Age. The term "Epipaleolithic" is often used for areas outside northern Europe, but was also the preferred synonym used by French archaeologists until the 1960s. The type of culture associated with the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
varies between areas, but it is associated with a decline in the group hunting of large animals in favour of a broader hunter-gatherer way of life, and the development of more sophisticated and typically smaller lithic tools and weapons than the heavy chipped equivalents typical of the Paleolithic
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Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent
Crescent
(also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer
Sumer
and
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Heavy Neolithic
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic
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Shepherd Neolithic
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic
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Trihedral Neolithic
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic
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Pre-Pottery Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic
Neolithic
(PPN, around 8500-5500 BCE)[2] represents the early Neolithic
Neolithic
in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. It succeeds the Natufian culture
Natufian culture
of the Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
(Mesolithic), as the domestication of plants and animals was in its formative stages, having possibly been induced by the Younger Dryas
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Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ Chalcolithic Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic<

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Qaraoun Culture
The Qaraoun
Qaraoun
culture is a culture of the Lebanese Stone Age
Stone Age
around Qaraoun
Qaraoun
in the Beqaa Valley.[1] The Gigantolithic
Gigantolithic
or Heavy Neolithic flint tool industry of this culture was recognized as a particular Neolithic
Neolithic
variant of the Lebanese highlands by Henri Fleisch, who collected over one hundred flint tools within two hours on 2 September 1954 from the site. Fleisch discussed the discoveries with Alfred Rust and Dorothy Garrod, who confirmed the culture to have Neolithic elements. Garrod said that the Qaraoun
Qaraoun
culture "in the absence of all stratigraphical evidence may be regarded as mesolithic or proto-neolithic".[2] References[edit]^ Lorraine Copeland; P. Wescombe (1965). Inventory of Stone-Age sites in Lebanon, p. 43. Imprimerie Catholique
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Symbol
A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion
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Tahunian Culture
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dogEpipaleolithic MesolithicMicroliths, Bow, CanoeNatufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicNeolithic Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Domestication Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicPottery↓ Chalcolithicv t eThe Tahunian is variously referred to as an archaeological culture, flint industry and period of the Palestinian Stone Age
Stone Age
around Wadi Tahuna near Bethlehem
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