Women's rights are the and s claimed for and s worldwide. They formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and the s during the 20th and 21st centuries. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others, they are ignored and suppressed. They differ from broader notions of through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys.Hosken, Fran P., 'Towards a Definition of Women's Rights' in ''Human Rights Quarterly'', Vol. 3, No. 2. (May 1981), pp. 1–10. Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include the right to bodily integrity and , to be free from , to , to hold public office, to enter into legal contracts, to have equal rights in , , to fair wages or , to have , to , and .Lockwood, Bert B. (ed.), ''Women's Rights: A "Human Rights Quarterly" Reader'' (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006), .


Ancient history


Women in ancient could buy, own, sell, and inherit property. They could engage in commerce and testify in court as witnesses. Nonetheless, their husbands could them for mild infractions, and a divorced husband could easily remarry another woman, provided that his first wife had borne him no offspring. Female deities, such as , were widely worshipped. The poetess , the priestess of Inanna and daughter of , is the earliest known poet whose name has been recorded. law codes permitted a husband to divorce his wife under any circumstances, but doing so required him to return all of her property and sometimes pay her a fine. Most law codes forbade a woman to request her husband for a divorce and enforced the same penalties on a woman asking for divorce as on a woman caught in the act of . Some Babylonian and n laws, however, afforded women the same right to divorce as men, requiring them to pay exactly the same fine. The majority of deities were male.


In ancient Egypt, women enjoyed the same rights under the law as a man, however rightful entitlements depended upon . Landed property descended in the female line from mother to daughter, and women were entitled to administer their own property. Women in ancient Egypt could buy, sell, be a partner in s, be executor in wills and witness to legal documents, bring court action, and adopt children.


Women during the early enjoyed with men in all aspects of life.
/ref> Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as and suggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period. Rigvedic verses suggest that women married at a mature age and were probably free to select their own husbands in a practice called or live-in relationship called .


Although most women lacked political and equal rights in the of ancient Greece, they enjoyed a certain freedom of movement until the . Records also exist of women in ancient , , , , and owning land, the most prestigious form of at the time. However, after the Archaic age, legislators began to enact laws enforcing gender segregation, resulting in decreased rights for women. had no legal personhood and were assumed to be part of the ' headed by the male '. Until marriage, women were under the guardianship of their father or other male relative. Once married, the husband became a woman's ''kyrios''. As women were barred from conducting legal proceedings, the ''kyrios'' would do so on their behalf. Athenian women could only acquire rights over through gifts, dowry, and inheritance, though her ''kyrios'' had the right to dispose of a woman's property. Athenian women could only enter into a contract worth less than the value of a "''s'' of barley" (a measure of grain), allowing women to engage in petty trading. Women were excluded from ancient , both in principle and in practice. Slaves could become Athenian citizens after being freed, but no woman ever acquired citizenship in ancient Athens. In women were also barred from becoming poets, scholars, politicians, or artists. During the in Athens, the philosopher thought that women would bring disorder and evil, therefore it was best to keep women separate from the rest of the society. This separation would entail living in a room called a ', while looking after the duties in the home and having very little exposure with the male world. This was also to ensure that wives only had legitimate children from their husbands. Athenian women received little education, except home tutorship for basic skills such as spinning, weaving, cooking, and some knowledge of money. Although women were formally excluded from military and political life, they enjoyed considerable status as mothers of Spartan warriors. As men engaged in military activity, women took responsibility for running estates. Following protracted warfare in the 4th century BC, Spartan women owned approximately between 35% and 40% of all Spartan land and property. By the Hellenistic Period, some of the wealthiest Spartans were women. Spartan women controlled their own properties, as well as the properties of male relatives who were away with the army.Pomeroy, Sarah B. ''Goddess, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity''. New York: Schocken Books, 1975. pp. 60–62. Girls, as well as boys, received an education. But despite relatively greater for Spartan women, their role in politics was the same as Athenian women. acknowledged that extending to women would substantively alter the nature of the household and the state. , who had been taught by Plato, denied that women were slaves or subject to property, arguing that "nature has distinguished between the female and the slave", but he considered wives to be "bought". He argued that women's main economic activity is that of safeguarding the household property created by men. According to Aristotle, the labour of women added no value because "the art of household management is not identical with the art of getting wealth, for the one uses the material which the other provides". Contrary to Plato's views, the argued for equality of the sexes, sexual inequality being in their view contrary to the laws of nature. In doing so, they followed the , who argued that men and women should wear the same clothing and receive the same kind of education. They also saw marriage as a moral companionship between equals rather than a biological or social necessity and practiced these views in their lives as well as their teachings. The Stoics adopted the views of the Cynics and added them to their own theories of human nature, thus putting their sexual egalitarianism on a strong philosophical basis.


Roman law, similar to Athenian law, was created by men in favor of men. Women had no public voice and no public role, which only improved after the 1st century to the 6th century BCE., ''Roman Citizenship'' (Oxford University Press, 1979), pp. 211, 268; Bruce W. Frier and Thomas A.J. McGinn, ''A Casebook on Roman Family Law'' (Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 31–32, 457, ''et passim''. Freeborn women of were who enjoyed legal privileges and protections that did not extend to or . , however, was , and women could not vote, hold , or serve in the military. Women of the upper classes exercised political influence through marriage and motherhood. During the , the mothers and were noted as exemplary women who advanced the careers of their sons. During the , women of the emperor's family could acquire considerable political power and were regularly depicted in official art and on coinage. The central core of the Roman society was the ' or the male head of the household who exercised his authority over all his children, servants, and wife. Girls had equal inheritance rights with boys if their father died without leaving a will.David Johnston, ''Roman Law in Context'' (Cambridge University Press, 1999), chapter 3.3; Frier and McGinn, '' A Casebook on Roman Family Law'', Chapter IV; Yan Thomas, "The Division of the Sexes in Roman Law", in ''A History of Women from Ancient Goddesses to Christian Saints'' (Harvard University Press, 1991), p. 134. Similar to Athenian women, Roman women had a guardian or as it was called "tutor" who managed and oversaw all her activity. This tutelage had limited female activity but by the first century to sixth century BCE, tutelage became very relaxed and women were accepted to participate in more public roles such as owning or managing property and or acting as municipal patrons for gladiator games and other entertainment activities Childbearing was encouraged by the state. By 27–14 BCE the ' ("legal right of three children") granted symbolic honors and legal privileges to a woman who had given birth to three children and freed her from any male guardianship. In the earliest period of the Roman Republic, a bride passed from her father's control into the "hand" ''(manus)'' of her husband. She then became subject to her husband's ''potestas'', though to a lesser degree than their children. This archaic form of ''manus'' marriage was largely abandoned by the time of , when a woman remained under her father's authority by law even when she moved into her husband's home. This arrangement was one of the factors in the independence Roman women enjoyed. Although women had to answer to their fathers in legal matters, they were free of his direct scrutiny in their daily lives, and their husbands had no legal power over them. When a woman's father died, she became legally emancipated ''()''. A married woman retained ownership of any she brought into the marriage.Frier and McGinn, ''A Casebook on Roman Family Law'', pp. 19–20. Girls had equal inheritance rights with boys if their father died without leaving a will. Under classical , a husband had no right to abuse his wife physically or compel her to have sex. Wife beating was sufficient grounds for divorce or other legal action against the husband. Because of their legal status as citizens and the degree to which they could become emancipated, women in ancient Rome could own property, enter contracts, and engage in business. Some acquired and disposed of sizable fortunes, and are recorded in inscriptions as benefactors in funding major public works. Roman women could appear in court and argue cases, though it was customary for them to be represented by a man. They were simultaneously disparaged as too ignorant and weak-minded to practice law, and as too active and influential in legal matters—resulting in an edict that limited women to conducting cases on their own behalf instead of others'. But even after this restriction was put in place, there are numerous examples of women taking informed actions in legal matters, including dictating legal strategy to their male advocates. Roman law recognized as a crime in which the victim bore no guilt and a capital crime. The rape of a woman was considered an attack on her family and father's honour, and rape victims were shamed for allowing the bad name in her father's honour. As a matter of law, rape could be committed only against a citizen in good standing. The rape of a slave could be prosecuted only as damage to her owner's property. The first , , framed his ascent to sole power as a return to , and attempted to regulate the conduct of women through . , which had been a private family matter under the Republic, was criminalized, and defined broadly as an illicit sex act ''()'' that occurred between a male citizen and a married woman, or between a married woman and any man other than her husband. Therefore, a married woman could have sex only with her husband, but a married man did not commit adultery when he had sex with a prostitute, , or person of marginalized status ''()''. Most were slaves, though some slaves were protected from forced prostitution by a clause in their sales contract. A free woman who worked as a prostitute or entertainer lost her social standing and became ', "disreputable"; by making her body publicly available, she had in effect surrendered her right to be protected from sexual abuse or physical violence. influenced the development of Roman law. Stoics of the Imperial era such as and developed theories of . While not advocating equality in society or under the law, they held that nature gives men and women equal capacity for virtue and equal obligations to act virtuously, and that therefore men and women had an equal need for philosophical education. These philosophical trends among the ruling elite are thought to have helped improve the status of women under the Empire. Rome had no system of state-supported schooling, and education was available only to those who could pay for it. The daughters of seem to have regularly received a primary education (for ages 7 to 12). Regardless of gender, few people were educated beyond that level. Girls from a modest background might be schooled in order to help with the family business or to acquire literacy skills that enabled them to work as scribes and secretaries. The woman who achieved the greatest prominence in the ancient world for her learning was , who taught advanced courses to young men and advised the Roman on politics. Her influence put her into conflict with the , , who may have been implicated in her violent death in the year 415 at the hands of a Christian mob.

Byzantine Empire

Since Byzantine law was essentially based on Roman law, the legal status of women did not change significantly from the practices of the 6th century. But the traditional restriction of women in the public life as well as the hostility against independent women still continued. Greater influence of Greek culture contributed to strict attitudes about women's roles being domestic instead of being public. There was also a growing trend of women who were not prostitutes, slaves or entertainers to be entirely veiled. Like previous Roman law, women could not be legal witnesses, hold administrations or run banking but they could still inherit properties and own land. As a rule, the influence of the church was exercised in favor of the abolition of the disabilities imposed by the older law upon celibacy and childlessness, of increased facilities for entering a professed religious life, and of due provision for the wife. The church also supported the political power of those who were friendly toward the clergy. The appointment of mothers and grandmothers as tutors was sanctioned by Justinian. The restrictions on the marriage of senators and other men of high rank with women of low rank were extended by , but it was almost entirely removed by . Second marriages were discouraged, especially by making it legal to impose a condition that a widow's right to property should cease on remarriage, and the at the end of the 9th century made third marriages punishable. The same constitutions made the benediction of a priest a necessary part of the ceremony of marriage.


Women throughout historical and ancient China were considered inferior and had subordinate legal status based on . In Imperial China, the "" promoted daughters to obey their fathers, wives to obey their husbands, and widows to obey their sons. Women could not inherit businesses or wealth and men had to adopt a son for such financial purposes. Late imperial law also featured seven different types of divorces. A wife could be ousted if she failed to birth a son, committed adultery, disobeyed her parents-in-law, spoke excessively, stole, was given to bouts of jealousy, or suffered from an incurable or loathsome disease or disorder. But there were also limits for the husband – for example, he could not divorce if she observed her parents in-law's mourning sites, if she had no family to return to, or if the husband's family used to be poor and since then had become richer. The status of women in China was also low, largely due to the custom of . About 45% of Chinese women had bound feet in the 19th century. For the upper classes, it was almost 100%. In 1912, the Chinese government ordered the cessation of foot-binding. Foot-binding involved alteration of the bone structure so that the feet were only about four inches long. The bound feet caused difficulty of movement, thus greatly limiting the activities of women. Due to the social custom that men and women should not be near each other, the women of China were reluctant to be treated by male doctors of Western Medicine. This resulted in a tremendous need for female doctors of Western Medicine in China. Thus, female medical missionary Dr. Mary H. Fulton (1854–1927) was sent by the Foreign Missions Board of the Presbyterian Church (USA) to found the first medical college for women in China. Known as the Hackett Medical College for Women (夏葛女子醫學院), the college was enabled in Guangzhou, China, by a large donation from Edward A.K. Hackett (1851–1916) of Indiana, US. The college was aimed at the spreading of Christianity and modern medicine and the elevation of Chinese women's social status.Rebecca Chan Chung, Deborah Chung and Cecilia Ng Wong, "Piloted to Serve", 2012. During the and earlier Chinese governments, women were legally bought and sold into slavery under the guise of domestic servants. These women were known as . The lives of Mui Tsai were recorded by American feminist in her book ''Portraits of Chinese Women in Revolution''. However, in 1949 the was overthrown by communist guerillas led by , and the was founded in the same year. In May 1950 the People's Republic of China enacted the to tackle the sale of women into slavery. This outlawed marriage by proxy and made marriage legal so long as both partners consent. The New Marriage Law raised the legal age of marriage to 20 for men and 18 for women. This was an essential part of countryside land reform as women could no longer legally be sold to landlords. The official slogan was "Men and women are equal; everyone is worth his (or her) salt".

Post-classical history

Religious scriptures


= Both before and during biblical times, the roles of women in society were severely restricted. Nonetheless, in the Bible, women are depicted as having the right to represent themselves in court, the ability to make contracts, and the rights to purchase, own, sell, and inherit property. The Bible guarantees women the right to sex with their husbands and orders husbands to feed and clothe their wives. Breach of these Old Testament rights by a polygamous man gave the woman grounds for divorce: "If he marries another woman, he must not deprive the first one of her food, clothing and marital rights. If he does not provide her with these three things, she is to go free, without any payment of money" ().


= The , which Muslims believe was to over the course of 23 years, provided guidance to the and . The Qur'an prescribes limited rights for women in , , and . By providing that the wife, not her family, would receive a dowry from the husband, which she could administer as her personal property, the Qur'an made women a legal party to the . While in customary law, inheritance was often limited to male descendants, the Qur'an included rules on inheritance with certain fixed shares being distributed to designated heirs, first to the nearest female relatives and then the nearest male relatives. According to "compared to the pre-Islamic position of women, meant an enormous progress; the woman has the right, at least according to the , to administer the wealth she has brought into the family or has earned by her own work." For , Islam included the prohibition of and recognizing women's full personhood.Esposito (2004), p. 339. Women generally gained greater rights than women in , ''Islam: The Straight Path'' p. 79., ''Marriage in Islamic Law: The Modernist Viewpoints'', American Journal of , Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 213–18. and . Women were not accorded with such legal status in other cultures until centuries later. According to Professor , when seen in such historical context, "can be seen as a figure who testified on behalf of women's rights."

Western Europe

Women's rights were protected already by early Medieval Christian Church: one of the first formal legal provision for the right of wives was promulgated by in 506, which in Canon XVI stipulated that if a young married man wished to be ordained, he required the consent of his wife. The English Church and culture in the Middle Ages regarded women as weak, irrational, vulnerable to temptation, and constantly needing to be kept in check. This was reflected on the Christian culture in England through the story of where Eve fell to Satan's temptations and led Adam to eat the apple. This belief was based on St. Paul, that the pain of childbirth was a punishment for this deed that led mankind to be banished from the Garden of Eden. Women's inferiority also appears in many medieval writing; for example, the 1200 AD theologian (who was rather sympathetic to women over others) emphasized female obedience towards their men and described women as slippery, weak, untrustworthy, devious, deceitful and stubborn. The church also promoted the as a role model for women to emulate by being innocent in her sexuality, being married to a husband and eventually becoming a mother. That was the core purpose set out both culturally and religiously across Medieval Europe. Rape was also seen in medieval England as a crime against the father or husband and violation of their protection and guardianship of the women whom they look after in the household. Women's identities in the Middle Ages were also referred through their relations with men they associated with, such as "his daughter" or "so and so's wife". Despite all this, the Church still emphasized the importance of love and mutual counselling within a marriage and prohibited any form of divorce so the wife would have someone to look after her. In overall Europe during the Middle Ages, women were inferior to men in legal status. Throughout medieval Europe, women were pressured to not attend courts and leave all legal business affairs to their husbands. In the legal system, women were regarded as the properties of men so any threat or injury to them was in the duty of their male guardians. In Irish law, women were forbidden to act as witnesses in courts. In Welsh law, women's testimony could be accepted towards other women but not against men, but Welsh laws, specifically , also reflected accountability for men to pay child maintenance for children born out of wedlock, which empowered women to claim rightful payment. In France, women's testimony had to corroborate with other accounts or it would not be accepted. Although women were expected to not attend courts, this however was not always true. Sometimes, regardless of expectation, women did participate and attend court cases and court meetings. But women could not act as justices in courts, be attorneys or members of a jury, and or accuse another person of a felony unless it was the murder of her husband. For the most part, the best thing a woman could do in medieval courts was observe the legal proceedings taking place. Swedish law protected women from the authority of their husbands by transferring the authority to their male relatives. A wife's property and land also could not be taken by the husband without her family's consent but neither could the wife. This mean a woman could not transfer her property to her husband without her family or kinsman's consent either. In Swedish law, women would also only get half that of her brother in inheritance. Despite these legal issues, Sweden was largely ahead and much superior in their treatment towards women than most European countries. Medieval marriages among the elites were arranged in a way that would meet the interests of the family as a whole. Theoretically a woman needed to consent before a marriage took place and the Church encouraged this consent to be expressed in present tense and not future. Marriage could also take place anywhere and minimum age for girls was 12, while it was 14 for boys.

Northern Europe

The rate of suggested that women in these societies were valued mostly for their breeding purposes. The Wergild of woman was double that of a man with same status in the and n legal codes. The Wergild of a woman meanwhile was triple that of a man with same status in and Repuarian legal codes for women of child-bearing age, which constituted from 12 to 40 years old. One of the most Germanic codes from the tradition legislated that women be under the control of a male ''mundoald'', which constituted her father, husband, older son or eventually the king as a last resort if she had no male relatives. A woman needed her mundold's permission to manage property but still could own her own lands and goods. Certain areas with inheritance laws until the 7th century were favorable to women while all other laws were not. Before the Christianization of Europe, there was little space for women's consent for marriage and marriage through purchase (or ''Kaufehe'') was actually the civil norm, as opposed to the alternative marriage through capture (or ''Raubehe''). However Christianity was slow to reach other Baltic and Scandinavian areas with it only reaching King of Denmark in the year 950 AD. Those living under and ic laws used marriages to forge alliances or create peace, usually without the women's say or consent. However divorce rights were permitted to women who suffered physical abuse but protections from harm were not given to those termed "wretched" women such as beggars, servants and slave women. Having sex with them through force or without consent usually had no legal consequence or punishment. During the , women had a relatively free status in the Nordic countries of Sweden, Denmark and Norway, illustrated in the Icelandic and the Norwegian laws and laws.Borgström Eva : Makalösa kvinnor: könsöverskridare i myt och verklighet (Marvelous women : gender benders in myth and reality) Alfabeta/Anamma, Stockholm 2002. (inb.). Libris 8707902. The paternal aunt, paternal niece and paternal granddaughter, referred to as ''odalkvinna'', all had the right to inherit property from a deceased man. In the absence of male relatives, an unmarried woman with no son could, furthermore, inherit not only property, but also the position as head of the family from a deceased father or brother. A woman with such status was referred to as ', and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan, such as the right to demand and receive fines for the slaughter of a family member, unless she married, by which her rights were transferred to her husband. After the age of 20, an unmarried woman, referred to as ''maer'' and ''mey'', reached legal majority, had the right to decide her place of residence, and was regarded as her own person before the law. An exception to her independence was the right to choose a marriage partner, as marriages were normally arranged by the clan. Widows enjoyed the same independent status as unmarried women. Women had religious authority and were active as priestesses (''gydja'') and oracles (''sejdkvinna'');Ingelman-Sundberg, Catharina, ''Forntida kvinnor: jägare, vikingahustru, prästinna'' ncient women: hunters, viking wife, priestess Prisma, Stockholm, 2004 within art as poets (''skalder'') and s; and as merchants and medicine women. They may also have been active within military office: the stories about s are unconfirmed, but some archaeological finds such as the may indicate that at least some women in military authority existed. A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry.Ohlander, Ann-Sofie & Strömberg, Ulla-Britt, Tusen svenska kvinnoår: svensk kvinnohistoria från vikingatid till nutid, 3. (A Thousand Swedish Women's Years: Swedish Women's History from the Viking Age until now), marb. och utök.uppl., Norstedts akademiska förlag, Stockholm, 2008 It was also socially acceptable for a free woman to cohabit with a man and have children with him without marrying him, even if that man was married; a woman in such a position was called ''frilla''. There was no distinction made between children born inside or outside of marriage: both had the right to inherit property after their parents, and there was no "legitimate" or "illegitimate" children. These liberties gradually disappeared from the changed after the introductions of Christianity, and from the late 13th century, they are no longer mentioned.Borgström Eva : ''Makalösa kvinnor: könsöverskridare i myt och verklighet'' (''Marvelous women : genderbenders in myth and reality'') Alfabeta/Anamma, Stockholm 2002. (inb.). Libris 8707902. During the Christian Middle Ages, the applied different laws depending on the local county law, signifying that the status of women could vary depending on which county she was living in.

Modern history


=16th and 17th century Europe

= The 16th and 17th centuries saw numerous s, which resulted in thousands of people across Europe being executed, of whom 75–95% were women (depending on time and place). The executions mostly took place in German-speaking lands, and during the 15th century the terminology "witchcraft" was definitely viewed as something feminine as opposed to prior years. Famous witchcraft manuals such as the ' and ' depicted witches as diabolical conspirators who worshipped Satan and were primarily women. Culture and art at the time depicted these witches as seductive and evil, further fuelling moral panic in fusion with rhetoric from the Church. The origin of the female "witch" myth traces back to Roman mythical night creatures known as Strix, who were thought to appear and disappear mysteriously in the night. They were also believed by many to be of transformed women by their own supernatural powers. This Roman myth itself is believed to originate from the Jewish Sabbath which described non-supernatural women who would suspiciously leave and return home swiftly during the night. Authors of the ''Malleus Maleficarum'' strongly established the link between witchcraft and women by proclaiming greater likelihood for women to be addicted to "evil". The authors and inquisitors and Jacob Sprengerh justified these beliefs by claiming women had greater credulity, impressionability, feeble minds, feeble bodies, impulsivity and carnal natures which were flaws susceptible to "evil" behavior and witchcraft. These sort of beliefs at the time could send female hermits or beggars to trials just for offering remedies or herbal medicine. These set of developed myths eventually lead to the 16–17th century witch trials which found thousands of women burned at stake. By 1500, Europe was divided into two types of secular law. One was customary law, which was predominant in northern France, England and Scandinavia, and the other was Roman-based written law, which was predominant in southern France, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Customary laws favoured men more than women. For example, inheritance among the elites in Italy, England, Scandinavia and France was passed on to the eldest male heir. In all of the regions, the laws also gave men substantial powers over the lives, property and bodies of their wives. However, there were some improvements for women as opposed to ancient custom; for example, they could inherit in the absence of their brothers, do certain trades without their husbands, and widows could receive dower. In areas governed by Roman-based written laws, women were under male guardianship in matters involving property and law, fathers overseeing daughters, husbands overseeing wives and uncles or male relatives overseeing widows. Throughout Europe, women's legal status centered around her marital status while marriage itself was the biggest factor in restricting women's autonomy. Custom, statute and practice not only reduced women's rights and freedoms but prevented single or widowed women from holding public office on the justification that they might one day marry. According to , which developed from the 12th century onward, all property which a wife held at the time of marriage became a possession of her husband. Eventually English courts forbade a husband's transferring property without the consent of his wife, but he still retained the right to manage it and to receive the money which it produced. French married women suffered from restrictions on their legal capacity which were removed only in 1965. In the 16th century, the in Europe allowed more women to add their voices, including the English writers , , and the prophetess . English and American believed that men and women were equal. Many Quaker women were preachers. Despite relatively greater freedom for , until the mid-19th century, writers largely assumed that a was a natural order that had always existed.Maine, Henry Sumner. Ancient Law 1861. This perception was not seriously challenged until the 18th century when missionaries found in native North American peoples. The philosopher opposed marital inequality and the mistreatment of women during this time. He was well known for advocating for marital equality among the sexes in his work during the 17th century. According to a study published in the ''American Journal of Social Issues & Humanities,'' the condition for women during Locke's time were as quote: * English women had fewer grounds for divorce than men until 1923 * Husbands controlled most of their wives' personal property until the and * Children were the husband's property * Rape was legally impossible within a marriage * Wives lacked crucial features of legal personhood, since the husband was taken as the representative of the family (thereby eliminating the need for women's suffrage). These legal features of marriage suggest that the idea of a marriage between equals appeared unlikely to most Victorians. (Quoted from ''Gender and Good Governance in John Locke, American Journal of Social Issues & Humanities Vol 2'') Other philosophers have also made the statements regarding women's rights during this time. For example, wrote in ''An Occasional Letter on the Female Sex 1775'' where he states (as quote) : "If we take a survey of ages and of countries, we shall find the women, almost without exception... adored and oppressed... they are ... robbed of freedom of will by the laws...Yet such, I am sorry to say, is the lot of women over the whole earth. Man with regard to them, has been either an insensible husband or an oppressor." A paternal society can find prefer to make women's rights a man's duty, for instance under English common law husbands had to maintain their wives. This duty was abolished in 2010.

=18th and 19th century Europe

= Starting in the late 18th century, and throughout the 19th century, rights, as a concept and claim, gained increasing political, social, and philosophical importance in Europe. Movements emerged which demanded , the abolition of , rights for women, rights for those who did not own property, and . In the late 18th century the question of women's rights became central to political debates in both France and Britain. At the time some of the greatest thinkers of the , who defended democratic principles of and challenged notions that a privileged few should rule over the vast majority of the population, believed that these principles should be applied only to their own gender and their own race. The philosopher , for example, thought that it was the order of nature for woman to obey men. He wrote "Women do wrong to complain of the inequality of man-made laws" and claimed that "when she tries to usurp our rights, she is our inferior". In 1754, became the first German woman receiving a ()Offen, K. (2000): ''European Feminisms, 1700-1950: A Political History'' (Stanford University Press), pg. 43 In 1791 the French playwright and political published the ,Macdonald and Scherf, "Introduction", pp. 11–12. modelled on the of 1789. The Declaration is ironic in formulation and exposes the failure of the , which had been devoted to equality. It states that: "This revolution will only take effect when all women become fully aware of their deplorable condition, and of the rights they have lost in society". The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen follows the seventeen articles of the point for point and has been described by Camille Naish as "almost a parody... of the original document". The first article of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen proclaims that "Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on common utility." The first article of Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen replied: "Woman is born free and remains equal to man in rights. Social distinctions may only be based on common utility". De Gouges expands the sixth article of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which declared the rights of citizens to take part in the formation of law, to:
All citizens including women are equally admissible to all public dignities, offices and employments, according to their capacity, and with no other distinction than that of their virtues and talents.
De Gouges also draws attention to the fact that under French law women were fully punishable, yet denied equal rights. She was subsequently sent to the guillotine. , a British writer and philosopher, published ' in 1792, arguing that it was the education and upbringing of women that created limited expectations.Walters, Margaret, ''Feminism: A very short introduction'' (Oxford, 2005), . Wollstonecraft attacked gender oppression, pressing for equal educational opportunities, and demanded "justice!" and "rights to humanity" for all. Wollstonecraft, along with her British contemporaries and started to use the language of rights in relation to women, arguing that women should have greater opportunity because like men, they were moral and rational beings. wrote in a similar vein in "A Letter to the Women of England, on the Injustice of Mental Subordination.", 1799. In his 1869 essay "" the English philosopher and political theorist described the situation for women in Britain as follows:
We are continually told that civilization and Christianity have restored to the woman her just rights. Meanwhile, the wife is the actual bondservant of her husband; no less so, as far as the legal obligation goes, than slaves commonly so called.
Then a member of parliament, Mill argued that women deserve the , though his proposal to replace the term "man" with "person" in the second was greeted with laughter in the and defeated by 76 to 196 votes. His arguments won little support amongst contemporaries but his attempt to amend the reform bill generated greater attention for the issue of women's suffrage in Britain. Initially only one of several women's rights campaigns, suffrage became the primary cause of the British women's movement at the beginning of the 20th century. At the time, the ability to vote was restricted to wealthy within British jurisdictions. This arrangement implicitly excluded women as and gave men ownership rights at marriage or inheritance until the 19th century. Although male suffrage broadened during the century, women were explicitly prohibited from voting nationally and locally in the 1830s by the and the .Phillips, Melanie, ''The Ascent of Woman: A History of the Suffragette Movement'' (Abacus, 2004) and led the public campaign on women's suffrage and in 1918 a bill was passed allowing women over the age of 30 to vote. By the 1860s, the economic sexual politics of middle-class women in Britain and its neighboring Western European countries was guided by factors such as the evolution of 19th century culture, including the emergence of the , and . In ''Come Buy, Come Buy: Shopping and the Culture of Consumption in Victorian Women's Writing'', Krista Lysack's literary analysis of 19th century contemporary literature claims through her resources' reflection of common contemporary norms, "Victorian femininity as characterized by self-renunciation and the regulation of appetite."Lysack, Krista. Come buy, come buy : shopping and the culture of consumption in Victorian women's writing. n.p.: Athens : Ohio University Press, c2008., 2008. While women, particularly those in the middle class, obtained modest control of daily household expenses and had the ability to leave the house, attend social events, and shop for personal and household items in the various department stores developing in late 19th century Europe, Europe's socioeconomic climate pervaded the ideology that women were not in complete control over their urges to spend (assuming) their husband or father's wages. As a result, many advertisements for socially 'feminine' goods revolved around upward social progression, s from the , and added efficiency for household roles women were deemed responsible for, such as cleaning, childcare, and cooking.


= By law and custom, Muscovite Russia was a patriarchal society that subordinated women to men, and the young to their elders. relaxed the second custom, but not the subordination of women. A decree of 1722 explicitly forbade any forced marriages by requiring both bride and groom to consent, while parental permission still remained a requirement. But during Peter's reign, only the man could get rid of his wife by putting her in a nunnery. In terms of laws, there were double standards to women. Adulterous wives were sentenced to forced labor, while men who murdered their wives were merely flogged. After the death Peter the Great, laws and customs pertaining to men's marital authority over their wives increased. In 1782, civil law reinforced women's responsibility to obey her husband. By 1832, the Digest of laws changed this obligation into "unlimited obedience". In the 18th century, Russian orthodox church further got its authority over marriage and banned priests from granting divorce, even for severely abused wives. By 1818, Russian senate had also forbade separation of married couples. During , caring for children was increasingly difficult for women, many of whom could not support themselves, and whose husbands had died or were fighting in the war. Many women had to give up their children to children's homes infamous for abuse and neglect. These children's homes were unofficially dubbed as "angel factories". After the , the Bolsheviks shut down an infamous angel factory known as the 'Nikolaev Institute' situated near the Moika Canal. The Bolsheviks then replaced the Nikolaev Institute with a modern maternity home called the 'Palace for Mothers and Babies'. This maternity home was used by the as a model for future maternity hospitals. The countess who ran the old Institute was moved to a side wing, however she spread rumours that the Bolsheviks had removed sacred pictures, and that the nurses were promiscuous with sailors. The maternity hospital was burnt down hours before it was scheduled to open, and the countess was suspected of being responsible. Russian women had restrictions in owning property until the mid 18th century. Women's rights had improved after the rise of the under the Bolsheviks. Under the Bolsheviks, Russia became the first country in human history to provide free abortions to women in state-run hospitals.

North America


= Women's rights activism in during the 19th and early 20th centuries focused on increasing women's role in public life, with goals including women's suffrage, increased property rights, increased access to education, and recognition of women as "persons" under the law. were five Canadian women – , , , and – who, in 1927, asked the to answer the question, "Does the word 'Persons' in Section 24 of the , include female persons?" in the case ''.'' After Canada's Supreme Court summarized its unanimous decision that women are not such "persons", the judgment was appealed and overturned in 1929 by the British , at that time the for Canada within the British Empire and Commonwealth.

=United States

= The (WCTU) was established in 1873 and championed women's rights, including advocating for prostitutes and for . Under the leadership of , "the WCTU became the largest women's organization of its day and is now the oldest continuing women's organization in the United States."


=East Asia



The extent to which women could participate in has varied over time and social classes. In the 8th century, Japan had women emperors, and in the 12th century () women in Japan occupied a relatively high status, although still subordinated to men. From the late , the status of women declined. In the 17th century, the "", or "Learning for Women", by author , spelled out expectations for Japanese women, lowering significantly their status. During the , industrialization and urbanization reduced the authority of fathers and husbands, but at the same time the Meiji Civil Code of 1898 denied women legal rights and subjugated them to the will of household heads. From the mid 20th century the status of women improved greatly. Although Japan is often considered a very conservative country, it was in fact earlier than many European countries on giving women legal rights in the 20th century, as the 1947 provided a legal framework favorable to the advancement of women's equality in Japan. Japan for instance enacted women's suffrage in 1946, earlier than several European countries such as (1971 at federal level; 1990 on local issues in the canton of ), (1976 on equal terms with men, with restrictions since 1931), in 1959, in 1962, in 1970, and in 1984.

=Central Asia

= n cultures largely remain patriarchal, however, since the fall of the former Soviet Union, the secular societies of the region have become more progressive to women's roles outside the traditional construct of being wholly subservient to men. In Mongolia, more women than men complete school and are higher earners as result. The UN Development Programme notes "significant progress" in gender equality in Kazakhstan but discrimination persists. remains a serious problem in this region; the practice of bride kidnapping is prevalent in , , , and , an autonomous region of .



= The history of women's rights in is a contradictory one: while Australia led the world in women's suffrage rights in the 19th century, it has been very slow in recognizing women's professional rights – it was not until 1966 that its was removed. On the other hand, reforms which allowed women both to vote and stand for office in in the late 19th century were a cornerstone for women's political rights in other parts of the world. In this regard, Australia differs from other cultures, in that women's suffrage in Australia was one of the earliest objectives of the feminist movement there (beginning with South Australia and Western Australia) unlike other cultures, such as Eastern European cultures, where at the turn of the 20th century the feminist movement focused on , access to professions and education, rather than political rights. To this day, Australia has a quite low percentage of women in business executive roles compared to other countries with equivalent corporate structures.

Core concepts

Natural rights

17th century philosophers in Britain and America, such as , and , developed the theory of in reference to ancient philosophers such as and the Christian theologist . Like the ancient philosophers, 17th century natural law philosophers defended and an inferior status of women in law. Relying on ancient Greek philosophers, natural law philosophers argued that natural rights were not derived from god, but were "universal, self-evident, and intuitive", a law that could be found in nature. They believed that natural rights were self-evident to "civilised man" who lives "in the highest form of society". Natural rights derived from , a concept first established by the ancient Greek philosopher in ''Concerning Human Nature''. Zeno argued that each rational and civilized male Greek citizen had a "divine spark" or "soul" within him that existed independent of the body. Zeno founded the and the idea of a human nature was adopted by other Greek philosophers, and later philosophers and western . Aristotle developed the widely adopted idea of , arguing that man was a "rational animal" and as such a natural power of reason. Concepts of human nature in ancient Greece depended on gender, ethnicity, and other qualifications and 17th century natural law philosophers came to regard women along with children, slaves and non-whites, as neither "rational" nor "civilised". Natural law philosophers claimed the inferior status of women was "common sense" and a matter of "nature". They believed that women could not be treated as equal due to their "inner nature". The views of 17th century natural law philosophers were opposed in the 18th and 19th century by philosophers such as and , who argued for the abolition of slavery and advocated for women to have rights equal to that of men. Modern natural law theorists, and advocates of natural rights, claim that all people have a human nature, regardless of gender, ethnicity or other qualifications, therefore all people have natural rights.

Equal employment

for women include non-discriminatory access of women to jobs and . The rights of women and men to have equal pay and equal benefits for equal work were openly denied by the Government up to the early 1970s. Leslie Wah-Leung Chung (鍾華亮, 1917–2009), President of the Hong Kong Chinese Civil Servants' Association 香港政府華員會 (1965–68), contributed to the establishment of equal pay for men and women, including the right for married women to be permanent employees. Before this, the job status of a woman changed from permanent employee to temporary employee once she was married, thus losing the pension benefit. Some of them even lost their jobs. Since nurses were mostly women, this improvement of the rights of married women meant much to the nursing profession. In some European countries, married women could not work without the consent of their husbands until a few decades ago, for example in until 1965 and in until 1975. In addition, s, a practice adopted from the late 19th century to the 1970s across many countries, including Austria, Australia, Ireland, Canada, and Switzerland, restricted married women from employment in many professions. A key issue towards insuring gender equality in the workplace is the respecting of and of women. (and in some countries) and are temporary periods of absence from employment granted immediately before and after childbirth in order to support the mother's full recovery and grant time to care for the baby. Different countries have different rules regarding maternity leave, paternity leave and parental leave. In the (EU) the policies vary significantly by country, but the EU members must abide by the minimum standards of the and .

Right to vote

During the 19th century some women began to ask for, demand, and then agitate and demonstrate for the – the right to participate in their government and its law making.Krolokke, Charlotte and Anne Scott Sorensen, 'From Suffragettes to Grrls' in Gender Communication Theories and Analyses:From Silence to Performance (Sage, 2005). Other women opposed suffrage, like , who argued in the 1897 pamphlet ''Woman and the Republic'' that women could achieve legal and economic equality without having the vote. The ideals of developed alongside that of and today women's suffrage is considered a right (under the ). During the 19th century the right to vote was gradually extended in many countries, and women started to campaign for their right to vote. In 1893 New Zealand became the first country to give women the right to vote on a national level. Australia gave women the right to vote in 1902. A number of gave women the right to vote in the early 20th century – Finland (1906), Norway (1913), Denmark and Iceland (1915). With the end of the First World War many other countries followed – the (1917), , , , , , and (1918), and (1919), (1934), and the (1920). Late adopters in Europe were in 1952, (1971 at federal level; 1959–1991 on local issues at canton level), (1976 on equal terms with men, with restrictions since 1931) as well as the of in 1959, in 1962, in 1970, and in 1984. In Canada, most provinces enacted women's suffrage between 1917 and 1919, late adopters being in 1922, in 1925 and in 1940. In Latin America some countries gave women the right to vote in the first half of the 20th century – (1929), (1932), (1939), (1942), (1956) and (1946). In , under colonial rule, universal suffrage was granted in 1935. Other Asian countries gave women the right to vote in the mid 20th century – (1945), (1947) and (1955). In Africa, women generally got the right to vote along with men through universal suffrage – (1947), (1958) and (1960). In many countries in the Middle East universal suffrage was acquired after World War II, although in others, such as , suffrage is very limited. On 16 May 2005, the Parliament of Kuwait extended suffrage to women by a 35–23 vote.

Property rights

During the 19th century some women, such as , , , , in the United States and Britain began to challenge laws that denied them the once they married. Under the common law doctrine of ' husbands gained control of their wives' real estate and wages. Beginning in the 1840s, state legislatures in the United States and the British Parliament began passing statutes that protected women's property from their husbands and their husbands' creditors. These laws were known as the . Courts in the 19th-century United States also continued to require privy examinations of married women who sold their property. A was a practice in which a married woman who wished to sell her property had to be separately examined by a judge or justice of the peace outside of the presence of her husband and asked if her husband was pressuring her into signing the document. Property rights for women continued to be restricted in many European countries until legal reforms of the 1960-70s. For example, in , the law pertaining to rural farm succession favored male heirs until 1963. In the US, laws, which gave sole control of marital property to the husband, were common until a few decades ago. The Supreme Court, in ' (1981), declared such laws unconstitutional.

Freedom of movement

is an essential right, recognized by international instruments, including Article 15 (4) of . Nevertheless, in many regions of the world, women have this right severely restricted, in law or in practice. For instance, in some countries women may not leave the home without a male guardian, or without the consent of the husband – for example the personal law of states that a wife must obey her husband and must not get out of the home without his consent. Even in countries which do not have legal restrictions, women's movement may be prevented in practice by social and religious norms such as . Laws restricting women from travelling existed until relatively recently in some Western countries: until 1983, in the passport application of a married woman had to be authorized by her husband. Several Middle Eastern countries also follow the in the modern era, where women are required to seek permission from the male family member for several things, including traveling to other nations. In August 2019, ended its male guardianship laws, allowing women to travel by themselves. Various practices have been used historically to restrict women's freedom of movement, such as , the custom of applying painfully tight binding to the feet of young Chinese girls, which was common between the 10th and 20th century. Women's freedom of movement may be restricted by laws, but it may also be restricted by attitudes towards women in public spaces. In areas where it is not socially accepted for women to leave the home, women who are outside may face abuse such as insults, sexual harassment and violence. Many of the restrictions on women's freedom of movement are framed as measures to "protect" women.

Informing women about their legal rights

The lack of legal knowledge among many women, especially in developing countries, is a major obstacle in the improvement of women's situation. International bodies, such as the United Nations, have stated that the obligation of states does not only consist in passing relevant laws, but also in informing women about the existence of such laws, in order to enable them to seek justice and realize in practice their rights. Therefore, states must popularize the laws, and explain them clearly to the public, in order to prevent ignorance, or misconceptions originating in s, about the laws. The United Nations Development Programme states that, in order to advance gender justice, "Women must know their rights and be able to access legal systems", and the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states at Art. 4 (d) .."States should also inform women of their rights in seeking redress through such mechanisms".


Women's rights movements focus on ending of women. In this regard, the definition of discrimination itself is important. According to the jurisprudence of the , the right to freedom from discrimination includes not only the obligation of states to treat in the same way persons who are in analogous situations, but also the obligation to treat in a different way persons who are in different situations. In this regard equity, not just "equality" is important. Therefore, states must sometimes differentiate between women and men – through for example offering or other legal protections surrounding pregnancy and childbirth (to take into account the biological realities of ), or through acknowledging a specific historical context. For example, acts of violence committed by men against women do not happen in a vacuum, but are part of a social context: in ''Opuz v Turkey'', the ECHR defined as a form of discrimination against women; this is also the position of the Istanbul Convention which at Article 3 states that "violence against women" is understood as a violation of human rights and ''a form of discrimination against women'' ... There are different views on where it is appropriate to differentiate between women and men, and one view is that the act of is an act where this difference must be acknowledged, both due to the increased physical risks for the woman, and due to the historical context of women being systematically subjected to forced sexual intercourse while in a socially subordinated position (particularly and ). States must also differentiate with regard to healthcare by ensuring that – particularly with regard to such as and – is not neglected. According to the World Health Organization "Discrimination in health care settings takes many forms and is often manifested when an individual or group is denied access to health care services that are otherwise available to others. It can also occur through denial of services that are only needed by certain groups, such as women." The refusal of states to acknowledge the specific needs of women, such as the necessity of specific policies like the strong investment of states in reducing can be a form of discrimination. In this regard treating women and men similarly does not work because certain biological aspects such as menstruation, pregnancy, labor, childbirth, breastfeeding, as well as certain medical conditions, only affect women. The stipulates in its ''General recommendation No. 35 on gender based violence against women, updating general recommendation No. 19'' that states should "Examine gender neutral laws and policies to ensure that they do not create or perpetuate existing inequalities and repeal or modify them if they do so". (paragraph 32). Another example of gender neutral policy which harms women is that where medication tested in s only on men is also used on women assuming that there are no biological differences.

Right to health

is defined by the World Health Organization as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". refers to the health of women, which differs from that of men in many unique ways. Women's health is severely impaired in some parts of the world, due to factors such as inequality, confinement of women to the home, indifference of medical workers, lack of autonomy of women, lack of financial resources of women. Discrimination against women occurs also through denial of medical services that are only needed by women. Violations of women's right to health may result in , accounting for more than 300,000 deaths per year, most of them in developing countries. Certain traditional practices, such as , also affect women's health. Worldwide, young women and adolescent girls are the population most affected by .

Right to education

The right to is a universal entitlement to education. The prohibits discrimination in education, with discrimination being defined as "any distinction, exclusion, limitation or preference which, being based on race, colour, ''sex'', language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, economic condition or birth, has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing equality of treatment in education". The states at Article 3 that "The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights set forth in the present Covenant", with Article 13 recognizing "the right of everyone to education". Access to education for women remains limited in some parts of the world. Almost two-thirds of the world's illiterate adults are women. While women's right to access to academic education is recognized as very important, it is increasingly recognized that academic education must be supplemented with education on , , and , in order for social advancement to be possible. This was pointed out by , the current , who stressed the importance of human rights education for all children: "What good was it to humanity that had advanced degrees in medicine and anthropology, given that he was capable of committing the most inhuman crimes? Eight of the 15 people who planned the at Wannsee in 1942 held PhDs. They shone academically, and yet they were profoundly toxic to the world. was a trained psychiatrist. studied radio electronics in Paris. Does this matter, when neither of them showed the smallest shred of ethics and understanding?" There has been increased attention given in recent decades to the raising of student awareness to the importance of gender equality.

Reproductive rights

Legal rights

Reproductive rights are s and freedoms relating to and . Reproductive rights were endorsed by the twenty-year Cairo Programme of Action which was adopted in 1994 at the (ICPD) in , and by the and in 1995. In the 1870s feminists advanced the concept of ''voluntary motherhood'' as a political critique of ''involuntary motherhood'' and expressing a desire for women's emancipation. Advocates for voluntary motherhood disapproved of , arguing that women should only engage in sex for the purpose of and advocated for periodic or permanent . Reproductive rights represents a broad concept, that may include some or all of the following rights: the right to legal or safe abortion, the right to control one's reproductive functions, the right to access quality reproductive healthcare, and the right to in order to make reproductive choices free from , discrimination, and violence. Reproductive rights may also be understood to include about contraception and . Reproductive rights are often defined to include freedom from (FGM), and and . The Istanbul Convention recognizes these two rights at Article 38 – Female genital mutilation and Article 39 – Forced abortion and forced sterilisation. Reproductive rights are understood as rights of both men and women, but are most frequently advanced as women's rights. In the 1960s, reproductive rights activists promoted women's right to bodily autonomy, with these social movements leading to the gain of legal access to contraception and abortion during the next decades in many countries.

Birth control

In the early 20th century ' was advanced as alternative to the then fashionable terms ''family limitation'' and ''voluntary motherhood''. The phrase "birth control" entered the English language in 1914 and was popularised by , who was mainly active in the US but had gained an international reputation by the 1930s. The British birth control campaigner made acceptable in Britain during the 1920s by framing it in scientific terms. Stopes assisted emerging birth control movements in a number of . The birth control movement advocated for contraception so as to permit sexual intercourse as desired without the risk of pregnancy. By emphasizing ''control'', the birth control movement argued that women should have control over their reproduction, an idea that aligned closely to the theme of the feminist movement. Slogans such as "control over our own bodies" criticised male domination and demanded women's liberation, a connotation that is absent from the , and movements. In the 1960s and 1970s the birth control movement advocated for the legalisation of abortion and large-scale education campaigns about contraception by governments. In the 1980s birth control and population control organisations co-operated in demanding rights to contraception and abortion, with an increasing emphasis on "choice". Birth control has become a major theme in United States politics. Reproductive issues are cited as examples of women's powerlessness to exercise their rights. The societal acceptance of birth control required the separation of sex from procreation, making birth control a highly controversial subject in the 20th century. has become an arena for conflict between liberal and conservative values, raising questions about family, personal freedom, state intervention, religion in politics, sexual morality and social welfare. ', that is, rights relating to and , were first discussed as a subset of human rights at the United Nation's 1968 International Conference on Human Rights.


Women's reproductive rights may be understood as including the right to easy access to a safe and legal abortion. s vary from a full prohibition (the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Malta, Nicaragua, the Vatican) to countries , where there are no legal restrictions. In many countries where abortion is permitted by law, women may only have limited access to safe abortion services. In some countries abortion is permitted only to save the pregnant woman's life, or if the pregnancy resulted from rape or . There are also countries where the law is liberal, but in practice it is very difficult to have an abortion, due to most doctors being . The fact that in some countries where abortion is legal it is ' very difficult to have access to one is controversial; the UN in its 2017 resolution on ''Intensification of efforts to prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls: domestic violence'' urged states to guarantee access to "safe abortion where such services are permitted by national law". The considers the criminalization of abortion a "violations of women’s " and a form of "gender based violence"; paragraph 18 of its ''General recommendation No. 35 on gender based violence against women, updating general recommendation No. 19'' states that: "Violations of women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights, such as forced sterilizations, forced abortion, forced pregnancy, criminalisation of abortion, denial or delay of safe abortion and post abortion care, forced continuation of pregnancy, abuse and mistreatment of women and girls seeking sexual and reproductive health information, goods and services, are forms of that, depending on the circumstances, may amount to torture or cruel, ." The same ''General Recommendation'' also urges countries at paragraph 31 to ..In particular, repeal: a) Provisions that allow, tolerate or condone forms of gender based violence against women, including ..legislation that criminalises abortion". According to , "Abortion is a highly emotional subject and one that excites deeply held opinions. However, equitable access to safe abortion services is first and foremost a human right. Where abortion is safe and legal, no one is forced to have one. Where abortion is illegal and unsafe, women are forced to carry unwanted pregnancies to term or suffer serious health consequences and even death. Approximately 13% of maternal deaths worldwide are attributable to unsafe abortion—between 68,000 and 78,000 deaths annually." According to Human Rights Watch, "the denial of a pregnant woman's right to make an independent decision regarding abortion violates or poses a threat to a wide range of human rights." African American women are five times more likely to have an abortion than a white woman. The and many other , particularly those considered the , and most regard abortion not as a right, but as a and a . Russia was the first country to legalise abortions and offer free medical care in state hospitals to do so. After the , the Women's wing of the Party (the Zhenotdel) persuaded the Bolsheviks to legalise abortion (as a 'temporary measure'). The Bolsheviks legalised abortion in November 1920. This was the first time in world history that women had won the right to free abortions in state hospitals.

Abuse during childbirth

is a recently identified global problem and a basic violation of a woman's rights. Abuse during childbirth is the , and lack of respect during . This treatment is regarded as a violation of the woman's rights. It also has the effect of preventing women from seeking and using other health care services.

Child marriage

Child marriage is a practice which is widespread across the world, and is often connected to poverty and gender inequality. Child marriage endangers the of young girls, leading to an increased risk of complications in pregnancy or childbirth. Such complications are a leading cause of death among girls in developing countries.

Forced pregnancy

Forced pregnancy is the practice of forcing a woman or girl to become , often as part of a , including by means of , through rape (including , and ) or as part of a program of breeding s (see ). It is a form of , was common historically, and still occurs in parts of the world. In the 20th century, state mandated forced marriage with the aim of increasing the population was practiced by some authoritarian governments, notably during the regime in , which systematically forced people into marriages ordering them to have children, in order to increase the population and continue the revolution. Forced pregnancy is strongly connected to the custom of .

Freedom from violence

is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. The UN states, "violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women" and "violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men." The , also known as the Istanbul Convention, provides the following definition of violence against women: "violence against women" is understood as a violation of human rights and a form of discrimination against women and shall mean all acts of gender-based violence that result in, or are likely to result in, physical, sexual, psychological or economic harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life". Violence against women may be perpetrated by individuals, by groups, or by the State. It may occur in private or in public. Violence against women may be sexual violence, physical violence, psychological violence, socioeconomic violence. Some forms of violence against women have long cultural traditions: s, , . Violence against women is considered by the World Health Organization "a major public health problem and a violation of women's human rights."

Family law

Under male dominated , women had few, if any, rights, being under the control of the husband or male relatives. Legal concepts that existed throughout the centuries, such as , , s, kept women under the strict control of their husbands. Restrictions from marriage laws also extended to public life, such as s. Practices such as , or were, and still are to this day in some parts of the world, very common. Some countries continue to require to this day a for women, without whom women cannot exercise civil rights. Other harmful practices include marriage of young girls, often to much older men.

Modern movements

In the subsequent decades women's rights again became an important issue in the English speaking world. By the 1960s the movement was called "feminism" or "women's liberation." Reformers wanted the same pay as men, equal rights in law, and the freedom to plan their families or not have children at all. Their efforts were met with mixed results. The (ICW) was the first women's organization to work across national boundaries for the common cause of advocating human rights for women. In March and April 1888, women leaders came together in Washington, D.C., with 80 speakers and 49 delegates representing 53 women's organizations from 9 countries: Canada, the United States, Ireland, India, England, Finland, Denmark, France and Norway. Women from professional organizations, trade unions, arts groups and benevolent societies participate. National Councils are affiliated to the ICW and thus make themselves heard at international level. In 1904, the ICW met in , . The ICW worked with the during the 1920s and the post-World War II. Today the ICW holds Consultative Status with the , the highest accreditation an NGO can achieve at the United Nations. Currently, it is composed of 70 countries and has a headquarters in Lasaunne, Switzerland. International meetings are held every three years. In the UK, a public groundswell of opinion in favour of legal equality had gained pace, partly through the extensive employment of women in what were traditional male roles during both world wars. By the 1960s the legislative process was being readied, tracing through MP 's report, his equal pay for equal work bill, the creation of a Sex Discrimination Board, 's draft sex anti-discrimination bill, a government of 1973, until 1975 when the first British Sex Discrimination Act, an Equal Pay Act, and an came into force. With encouragement from the UK government, the other countries of the soon followed suit with an agreement to ensure that discrimination laws would be phased out across the European Community. In the US, the (NOW) was created in 1966 with the purpose of bringing about equality for all women. NOW was one important group that fought for the (ERA). This amendment stated that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of ." But there was disagreement on how the proposed amendment would be understood. Supporters believed it would guarantee women equal treatment. But critics feared it might deny women the right be financially supported by their husbands. The amendment died in 1982 because not enough states had ratified it. ERAs have been included in subsequent Congresses, but have still failed to be ratified. (WfWI) is a nonprofit humanitarian organization that provides practical and moral support to women survivors of war. WfWI helps such women rebuild their lives after war's devastation through a year-long tiered program that begins with direct financial aid and emotional counseling and includes life skills (e.g., literacy, numeracy) training if necessary, rights awareness education, health education, job skills training and small business development. The organization was co-founded in 1993 by , an who is herself a survivor of the and Salbi's then-husband . Since June 2012, WfWI has been led by Afshan Khan, a long-time former executive with UNICEF who became WfWI's first new CEO since founder Zainab Salbi stepped down to devote more time to her writing and lecturing. The (Conseil national des femmes du Canada), is a advocacy organization based in aimed at improving conditions for women, families, and communities. A federation of nationally organized societies of men and women and local and provincial councils of women, it is the Canadian member of the (ICW). The council has concerned itself in areas including , immigration, , , mass media, , and many others. Formed on 27 October 1857 in , , it is one of the oldest advocacy organizations in the country. The is a founded to provide activism for . It was founded by and Fawzia Al-Uyyouni, and grew out of a 2007 movement to gain women the right to drive. The association is not officially licensed by the government of Saudi Arabia, and has been warned not to mount demonstrations. In a 2007 interview, al-Huwaider described the goals: "The association will consist of a number of leagues, with each league pursuing a different issue or right... representation for women in shari'a courts; setting a inimumage for girls' marriages; allowing women to take care of their own affairs in government agencies and allowing them to enter government buildings; protecting women from domestic violence, such as physical or verbal violence, or keeping her from studies, work, or marriage, or forcing her to divorce..." In , was founded in 2008. The organisation is internationally known for its topless protests against sex tourists, international marriage agencies, sexism and other social, national and international social illnesses. FEMEN has sympathisers groups in many European countries through social media.

United Nations and World Conferences

In 1946 the United Nations established a . Originally as the Section on the Status of Women, Human Rights Division, Department of Social Affairs, and now part of the (ECOSOC). Since 1975 the UN has held a series of world conferences on women's issues, starting with the World Conference of the International Women's Year in Mexico City. These conferences created an international forum for women's rights, but also illustrated divisions between women of different cultures and the difficulties of attempting to apply principles universally.Catagay, N., Grown, C. and Santiago, A. 1986. "The Nairobi Women's Conference: Toward a Global Feminism?" Feminist Studies, 12, 2:401–12. Four World Conferences have been held, the first in (, 1975), the second in (1980) and the third in (1985). At the in Beijing (1995), ' was signed. This included a commitment to achieve " and the empowerment of women". The same commitment was reaffirmed by all U.N. member nations at the in 2000 and was reflected in the to be achieved by 2015. In 2010, was founded by merging of , , and by Resolution 63/311.

International Women's Right

Compared to the Western women's right's movements, international women's rights are plagued with different issues. While it is called international women's rights, it is also can be known as third world feminism. The international women's rights deal with issues such as marriage, sexual slavery, forced child marriage, and female genital mutilation. According to the organization, EQUAL MEANS EQUAL, "the United Nations come horrifying statistics: Victims of female genital mutilation – a ritual to remove a young girl’s clitoris to ensure her fidelity – number 130 million. Some 60 million girls become 'child brides,' forced to marry, sometimes after being kidnapped and raped". Something, that has been created to combat such things is the . It was set in place to help against discrimination in education, marriage, sexual violence, and politics. While this does not only pertain to non-western countries, 193 states have ratified it. Some of the countries that have opposed it including Iran, Palau, Somalia, North and South Sudan, Tonga, and the United States.

World Bank

A 2019 report from the found that women have full legal rights to men in only six countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, Latvia, Luxembourg and Sweden.

Field organisations

Regions where women's rights are less developed have produced interesting local organisations, such as: * , a , created by women in order to work for and women's rights defence in , a country deprived of state structures and security since 1991, * the , a organisation founded in 1949, which develops a range of programmes in the field of health, nutrition, education, and legal aid.

Human rights

United Nations convention

The , adopted in 1948, enshrines "the equal rights of men and women", and addressed both the equality and equity issues. In 1979, the adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) for legal implementation of the . Described as an international for , it came into force on 3 September 1981. The UN member states that have not ratified the convention are Iran, Palau, Somalia, Sudan, Tonga, and the United States. and the Vatican City, which are non-member states, have also not ratified it. The latest state to become a party to the convention is South Sudan, on 30 April 2015. The Convention defines discrimination against women in the following terms:
Any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.
It also establishes an agenda of action for putting an end to sex-based discrimination for which states ratifying the convention are required to enshrine into their domestic legislation, repeal all discriminatory provisions in their laws, and enact new provisions to guard against discrimination against women. They must also establish tribunals and public institutions to guarantee women effective protection against discrimination, and take steps to eliminate all forms of discrimination practiced against women by individuals, organizations, and enterprises.

Marriage, divorce, and family law

Article 16 of the enshrines the right of consenting men and women to marry and found a family.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
Article 16 of CEDAW stipulates that, "1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations ... Among the rights included are a woman's right to freely and consensually choose her spouse; to have parental rights to her children irrespective of her marital status; the right of a married woman to choose a profession or an occupation, and to have property rights within marriage. In addition to these, "The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect". is a controversial practice, prevalent in some parts of the world. The general recommendations made by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, state in ''General Recommendation No. 21, Equality in marriage and family relations'': "14. ..Polygamous marriage contravenes a woman's right to equality with men, and can have such serious emotional and financial consequences for her and her dependents that such marriages ought to be discouraged and prohibited." of unmarried couples as well as s are common in some parts the world. The has stated:
27. In giving effect to recognition of the family in the context of article 23, it is important to accept the concept of the various forms of family, including unmarried couples and their children and single parents and their children and to ensure the equal treatment of women in these contexts (General Comment 19 paragraph 2 last sentence). Single parent families frequently consist of a single woman caring for one or more children, and States parties should describe what measures of support are in place to enable her to discharge her parental functions on the basis of equality with a man in a similar position.

Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action

The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (VDPA) is a human rights declaration adopted by consensus at the on 25 June 1993 in , . This declaration recognizes women's rights as being protected human rights. Paragraph 18 reads:
The human rights of women and of the girl-child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights. The full and equal participation of women in political, civil, economic, social and cultural life, at the national, regional and international levels, and the eradication of all forms of discrimination on grounds of sex are priority objectives of the international community.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325

On 31 October 2000, the unanimously adopted , the first formal and legal document from the United Nations Security Council that requires all states to respect fully and applicable to the rights and protection of women and girls during and after the .

Regional conventions

The Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence against Women, better known as the , was adopted by the on 9 June 1994. As of March 2020, 32 of the 34 or 35 have either signed and ratified or acceded to the Belém do Pará Convention; only , and the have not. The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, better known as the , was adopted by the on 11 July 2003 at its second summit in , Mozambique. On 25 November 2005, having been ratified by the required 15 member nations of the African Union, the protocol entered into force. The protocol guarantees comprehensive rights to women including the right to take part in the political process, to social and political with men, and to control of their , and an end to . The , better known as the Istanbul Convention, was adopted by the on 11 May 2011. As of June 2020, the treaty has been signed by 45/47 Council of Europe member states and the ; 34 of the signatories have also ratified the convention.

Violence against women

United Nations Declaration

The was adopted by the United Nations in 1993. It defines as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life." This resolution established that women have a right to be free from violence. As a consequence of the resolution, in 1999, the General Assembly declared the day of 25 November to be the . Article 2 of The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women outlines several forms of violence against women:
Article Two: Violence against women shall be understood to encompass, but not be limited to, the following: :(a) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including , sexual abuse of female children in the household, -related violence, , and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to ; :(b) Physical, sexual and occurring within the general community, including , , and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, in women and ; :(c) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs.

Istanbul Convention

The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, also known as the , is the first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of domestic violence and violence against women, and came into force in 2014. Countries which ratify it must ensure that the forms of violence defined in its text are outlawed. In its Preamble, the Convention states that "the realisation of ''de jure'' and ''de facto'' equality between women and men is a key element in the prevention of violence against women". The convention also provides a definition of as "all acts of physical, sexual, psychological or economic violence that occur within the family or domestic unit or between former or current spouses or partners, whether or not the perpetrator shares or has shared the same residence with the victim". Although it is a Convention of the , it is open to accession by any country.

Rape and sexual violence

Rape, sometimes called , is an assault by a person involving with or of another person without that person's . Rape is generally considered a serious as well as a civil assault. When part of a widespread and systematic practice, rape and are now recognised as a as well as a . Rape is also now recognised as a form of when committed with the , in whole or in part, a targeted group.

As genocide

In 1998, the established by the United Nations made landmark decisions that rape is a crime of under . The trial of , the mayor of Taba Commune in Rwanda, established precedents that rape is an element of the crime of genocide. The Akayesu judgement includes the first interpretation and application by an international court of the 1948 . The Trial Chamber held that rape, which it defined as "a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive", and sexual assault constitute acts of genocide insofar as they were committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group. It found that sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide. Judge said in a statement after the verdict: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as one of the . Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war." is quoted by Professor Paul Walters in his presentation of her honorary , , April 2005 An estimated 500,000 women were raped during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

As a crime against humanity

The Explanatory Memorandum, which defines the jurisdiction of the , recognises rape, , , , , "or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity" as a if the action is part of a widespread or systematic practice.As quoted by Guy Horton in
Dying Alive – A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma
' April 2005, co-Funded by The Netherlands Ministry for Development Co-Operation. See section "12.52 Crimes against humanity", p. 201. He references RSICC/C, Vol. 1 p. 360.
The also condemn systematic rape as well as murder, sexual slavery, and forced pregnancy, as the "violations of the fundamental principles of international human rights and humanitarian law." and require a particularly effective response. Rape was first recognised as a when the issued arrest warrants based on the and Violations of the Laws or Customs of War. Specifically, it was recognised that Muslim women in (southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina) were subjected to systematic and widespread , torture, and by soldiers, policemen, and members of paramilitary groups after the takeover of the city in April 1992. The indictment was of major legal significance and was the first time that sexual assaults were investigated for the purpose of prosecution under the rubric of and as a crime against humanity. The indictment was confirmed by a 2001 verdict by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia that rape and sexual enslavement are crimes against humanity. This ruling challenged the widespread acceptance of rape and sexual enslavement of women as intrinsic part of war.Bosnia and Herzegovina : Foca verdict – rape and sexual enslavement are crimes against humanity
. 22 February 2001. .
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia found three Bosnian Serb men guilty of rape of (Bosnian Muslim) women and girls (some as young as 12 and 15 years of age), in , eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Furthermore, two of the men were found guilty of the crime against humanity of sexual enslavement for holding women and girls captive in a number of de facto detention centres. Many of the women subsequently disappeared. According to a report by the , published on 28 July 2020, the women who traveled abroad were forcibly returned to and were subjected to abuse, torture, sexual violence and other violations. North Korea bans citizens from traveling abroad. Those women who were detained for doing so were regularly beaten, tortured, and subjected to forced nudity and invasive body searches. Women have also reported that in case of pregnancy, the prison officials aborted many children by either beating the women or making them do hard labor.

Forced marriage and slavery

The 1956 defines "institutions and practices similar to slavery" to include: c) Any institution or practice whereby: * (i) A woman, without the right to refuse, is promised or given in marriage on payment of a consideration in money or in kind to her parents, guardian, family or any other person or group; or * (ii) The husband of a woman, his family, or his clan, has the right to transfer her to another person for value received or otherwise; or * (iii) A woman on the death of her husband is liable to be inherited by another person; The Istanbul Convention requires countries which ratify it to prohibit forced marriage (Article 37) and to ensure that forced marriages can be easily voided without further victimization (Article 32).

Trafficking Protocol

The (also referred to as the ''Trafficking Protocol'' or ''UN TIP Protocol'') is a to the . It is one of the three . Its purpose is defined at ''Article 2. Statement of purpose'' as: "(a) To prevent and combat trafficking in persons, paying particular attention to women and children; (b) To protect and assist the victims of such trafficking, with full respect for their human rights; and (c) To promote cooperation among States Parties in order to meet those objectives."

See also

* * ', an early essay * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *




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External links

UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

Human Rights Watch: Women's Rights

World Organization Against Torture: No Violence Against Women
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News, views and resources on Women's Rights
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