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A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in
winemaking Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and ca ...
. They are generally employed by
wineries A winery is a building or property that produces wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substanc ...

wineries
or wine companies, where their work includes: *Cooperating with
viticulturist Viticulture (from the Latin word for ''vine'') or winegrowing (wine growing) is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, ran ...

viticulturist
s *Monitoring the maturity of grapes to ensure their quality and to determine the correct time for harvest *Crushing and pressing grapes *Monitoring the settling of
juice Juice is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow i ...

juice
and the fermentation of grape material *
Filtering Filter, filtering or filters may refer to: Science and technology Device * Filter (chemistry) Filtration is a physical separation process A separation process is a method that converts a mixture or solution of chemical substances into two o ...
the wine to remove remaining solids *Testing the quality of wine by
tasting
tasting
*Placing filtered wine in
casks A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical A cylinder (from ) has traditionally been a Solid geometry, three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes. Geometrically, it can be considered as a Prism (geometry), ...
or tanks for storage and maturation *Preparing plans for bottling wine once it has matured *Making sure that quality is maintained when the wine is bottled Today, these duties require an increasing amount of scientific knowledge, since laboratory tests are gradually supplementing or replacing traditional methods. Winemakers can also be referred to as oenologists as they study
oenology Oenology (also enology; ) is the science and study of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethano ...
– the science of wine.


Vintner

A vintner is a
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...

wine
merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distributi ...

merchant
. In some modern use, particularly in
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
, the term is also used as a synonym for "winemaker". The term started in
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured sys ...
, superseding the earlier term ''vinter''. Due to the close political and commercial ties between
Bordeaux Bordeaux ( , ; Gascon language, Gascon oc, Bordèu ) is a port city on the river Garonne in the Gironde Departments of France, department in Southwestern France. The municipality (Communes of France, commune) of Bordeaux proper has a popula ...
and England during the 14th and early 15th centuries, vintners were among the more important people in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
with winemakers being four times mayor of the city under the reign of
Edward II Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. A ...

Edward II
. The
Worshipful Company of Vintners The Worshipful Company of Vintners is one of the most ancient Livery Company, Livery Companies of the City of London, England, thought to date back to the 12th century. It is one of the "Great Twelve" livery companies of London, and its motto i ...
is one of the oldest livery companies in London.


Vigneron

A vigneron is someone who cultivates a
vineyard A vineyard ( ; also ) is a plantation A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, su ...

vineyard
for winemaking. The word connotes or emphasizes the critical role that vineyard placement and maintenance has in the production of high-quality wine. The term, French for someone who grows grapes or makes wine, is often used in Australia to describe a winemaker who is also involved as an owner or manager as opposed to a person who is employed only to make wine, who is generally referred to as a winemaker. It is also used when referring to a winemaker from France.
Vincent of Saragossa Saint Vincent of Saragossa (also known as Vincent Martyr, Vincent of Huesca or Vincent the Deacon), the Protomartyr of Spain, was a deacon of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zaragoza, Church of Saragossa. He is the patron saint of Lisbon and V ...

Vincent of Saragossa
is the
patron saint A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Catholic Church, Catholicism, Anglicanism, or Eastern Orthodoxy is regarded as the heavenly advocacy, advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, c ...
of vignerons.


Négociant

''Négociant'' is the
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
term for a
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...

wine
merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells the result under its own name. Négociants buy everything from
grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grape
s to grape must to wines in various states of completion. In the case of grapes or must, the ''négociant'' performs virtually all the wine-making, winemaking. If he buys already fermented wine in barrels or ''en-vrac''—basically in bulk containers, he may age the wine further, blend in other wines or simply bottle and sell it as is. The result is sold under the name of the ''négociant'', not the name of the original grape or wine producer. Some ''négociants'' have a recognizable house style. ''Négociants'', who are also called wine merchants/traders, were the dominant force in the wine trade until the last 25 years for various reasons: * Historically the owners of vineyards and producers of wine had no direct access to buyers. * It was too expensive for growers to purchase the Fruit press, wine presses and bottling lines necessary to produce a finished wine. * Owning only a small portion of a particular high-quality single vineyard (''lieu-dit'') meant that a grower often had insufficient wine from a parcel to vinify on its own. Under French inheritance laws, vineyard holdings were often split until offspring owned no more than a single row of grapes, not enough to fill a barrel. Since prices for a ''premier cru'' are typically higher than for wines from a larger area like a village or region, the grower could make more money selling off the production as the ''premier cru'' rather than blending it into a less specific appellation. Many ''négociants'' are also vineyard owners in their own right. In Burgundy wine, Burgundy for instance, ''négociants'' as Bouchard Père et Fils and Faiveley (winery), Faiveley are among the largest owners of vineyards. Well-known ''négociants'' in Burgundy are Maison Louis Jadot, Joseph Drouhin, and Vincent Girardin; in Beaujolais, Georges Duboeuf; in Province, Mirabeau;mirabeauwine.com
/ref> and in the Rhône (wine region), Rhône region, Guigal, Jaboulet, Jean-Luc Colombo, Chapoutier, and Famille Perrin''.


See also

* Oenology * ''Vignerons indépendants de France'' * Viticulture * Wine fraud * Winemaking cooperative


References


External links

*
The new vignerons: a new generation of Spanish viticulteurs
Luis Gutiérrez, ''Wine Advocate''. {{portal bar, Drink Winemakers, Wine terminology Viticulture