TheInfoList

In
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
, a well-order (or well-ordering or well-order relation) on a set ''S'' is a
total order In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
on ''S'' with the property that every
non-empty #REDIRECT Empty set #REDIRECT Empty set #REDIRECT Empty set#REDIRECT Empty set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algeb ...
subset In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities a ... of ''S'' has a
least element In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
in this ordering. The set ''S'' together with the well-order relation is then called a well-ordered set. In some academic articles and textbooks these terms are instead written as wellorder, wellordered, and wellordering or well order, well ordered, and well ordering. Every non-empty well-ordered set has a least element. Every element ''s'' of a well-ordered set, except a possible
greatest element In mathematics, especially in order theory, the greatest element of a subset S of a partially ordered set (poset) is an element of S that is greater than every other element of S. The term least element is defined duality (order theory), dually, t ...
, has a unique successor (next element), namely the least element of the subset of all elements greater than ''s''. There may be elements besides the least element which have no predecessor (see below for an example). A well-ordered set ''S'' contains for every subset ''T'' with an upper bound a
least upper bound In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
, namely the least element of the subset of all upper bounds of ''T'' in ''S''. If ≤ is a non-strict well ordering, then < is a strict well ordering. A relation is a strict well ordering if and only if it is a
well-founded In mathematics, a binary relation ''R'' is called well-founded (or wellfounded) on a Class (set theory), class ''X'' if every non-empty subset ''S'' ⊆ ''X'' has a minimal element with respect to ''R'', that is, an Element (mathematics), element ...
strict total order In mathematical writing, the term strict refers to the property of excluding equality and equivalence and often occurs in the context of inequality and monotonic functions. It is often attached to a technical term to indicate that the exclusive ...
. The distinction between strict and non-strict well orders is often ignored since they are easily interconvertible. Every well-ordered set is uniquely
order isomorphicIn the mathematical field of order theory Order theory is a branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (g ...
to a unique
ordinal number In set theory Set theory is the branch of that studies , which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of , is mostly concerned with those that ...
, called the
order type In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
of the well-ordered set. The
well-ordering theorem In mathematics, the well-ordering theorem, also known as Zermelo's theorem, states that every Set (mathematics), set can be well-ordered. A set ''X'' is ''well-ordered'' by a strict total order if every non-empty subset of ''X'' has a least eleme ...
, which is equivalent to the
axiom of choice In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that ''a Cartesian product#Infinite Cartesian products, Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty''. Informally put, the a ... , states that every set can be well ordered. If a set is well ordered (or even if it merely admits a
well-founded relation In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
), the proof technique of
transfinite induction Transfinite induction is an extension of mathematical induction Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique. It is essentially used to prove that a statement ''P''(''n'') holds for every natural number ''n'' = 0,  ...
can be used to prove that a given statement is true for all elements of the set. The observation that the
natural numbers In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). In common mathematical terminology, w ... are well ordered by the usual less-than relation is commonly called the
well-ordering principle In mathematics, the well-ordering principle states that every non-empty set of positive integers contains a least element. In other words, the set of positive integers is well-ordered by its "natural" or "magnitude" order in which x precedes y if ...
(for natural numbers).

# Ordinal numbers

Every well-ordered set is uniquely
order isomorphicIn the mathematical field of order theory Order theory is a branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (g ...
to a unique
ordinal number In set theory Set theory is the branch of that studies , which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of , is mostly concerned with those that ...
, called the
order type In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
of the well-ordered set. The position of each element within the ordered set is also given by an ordinal number. In the case of a finite set, the basic operation of
counting Counting is the process of determining the number of Element (mathematics), elements of a finite set of objects, i.e., determining the size (mathematics), size of a set. The traditional way of counting consists of continually increasing a (mental ...
, to find the ordinal number of a particular object, or to find the object with a particular ordinal number, corresponds to assigning ordinal numbers one by one to the objects. The size (number of elements,
cardinal number In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
) of a finite set is equal to the order type. Counting in the everyday sense typically starts from one, so it assigns to each object the size of the initial segment with that object as last element. Note that these numbers are one more than the formal ordinal numbers according to the isomorphic order, because these are equal to the number of earlier objects (which corresponds to counting from zero). Thus for finite ''n'', the expression "''n''-th element" of a well-ordered set requires context to know whether this counts from zero or one. In a notation "β-th element" where β can also be an infinite ordinal, it will typically count from zero. For an infinite set the order type determines the
cardinality In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
, but not conversely: well-ordered sets of a particular cardinality can have many different order types, see Section '' #Natural numbers'' for a simple example. For a
countably infinite In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
set, the set of possible order types is even uncountable.

# Examples and counterexamples

## Natural numbers

The standard ordering ≤ of the
natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). In common mathematical terminology, w ...
s is a well ordering and has the additional property that every non-zero natural number has a unique predecessor. Another well ordering of the natural numbers is given by defining that all even numbers are less than all odd numbers, and the usual ordering applies within the evens and the odds: :0 2 4 6 8 ... 1 3 5 7 9 ... This is a well-ordered set of order type ω + ω. Every element has a successor (there is no largest element). Two elements lack a predecessor: 0 and 1.

## Integers

Unlike the standard ordering ≤ of the
natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). In common mathematical terminology, w ...
s, the standard ordering ≤ of the
integer An integer (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to ...
s is not a well ordering, since, for example, the set of negative integers does not contain a least element. The following relation ''R'' is an example of well ordering of the integers: '' x R y''
if and only if In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents st ...
one of the following conditions holds: # ''x'' = 0 # ''x'' is positive, and ''y'' is negative # ''x'' and ''y'' are both positive, and ''x'' ≤ ''y'' # ''x'' and ''y'' are both negative, and , ''x'', ≤ , ''y'', This relation ''R'' can be visualized as follows: :0 1 2 3 4 ... −1 −2 −3 ... ''R'' is isomorphic to the
ordinal number In set theory Set theory is the branch of that studies , which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of , is mostly concerned with those that ...
ω + ω. Another relation for well ordering the integers is the following definition: ''x'' ≤z ''y''
if and only if In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents st ...
(, ''x'',  < , ''y'', or (, ''x'',  = , ''y'', and ''x'' ≤ ''y'')). This well order can be visualized as follows: : 0 −1 1 −2 2 −3 3 −4 4 ... This has the
order type In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
ω.

## Reals

The standard ordering ≤ of any real interval is not a well ordering, since, for example, the
open interval In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ge ...
(0, 1) ⊆ ,1does not contain a least element. From the
ZFC axioms of set theory (including the
axiom of choice In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that ''a Cartesian product#Infinite Cartesian products, Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty''. Informally put, the a ... ) one can show that there is a well order of the reals. Also
Wacław Sierpiński Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński (; 14 March 1882 – 21 October 1969) was a Polish people, Polish mathematician. He was known for contributions to set theory (research on the axiom of choice and the continuum hypothesis), number theory, theory of fu ... proved that ZF + GCH (the
generalized continuum hypothesis In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
) imply the axiom of choice and hence a well order of the reals. Nonetheless, it is possible to show that the ZFC+GCH axioms alone are not sufficient to prove the existence of a definable (by a formula) well order of the reals. However it is consistent with ZFC that a definable well ordering of the reals exists—for example, it is consistent with ZFC that V=L, and it follows from ZFC+V=L that a particular formula well orders the reals, or indeed any set. An uncountable subset of the real numbers with the standard ordering ≤ cannot be a well order: Suppose ''X'' is a subset of R well ordered by ≤. For each ''x'' in ''X'', let ''s''(''x'') be the successor of ''x'' in ≤ ordering on ''X'' (unless ''x'' is the last element of ''X''). Let ''A'' = whose elements are nonempty and disjoint intervals. Each such interval contains at least one rational number, so there is an
injective function In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ... from ''A'' to Q. There is an injection from ''X'' to ''A'' (except possibly for a last element of ''X'' which could be mapped to zero later). And it is well known that there is an injection from ''Q'' to the natural numbers (which could be chosen to avoid hitting zero). Thus there is an injection from ''X'' to the natural numbers which means that ''X'' is countable. On the other hand, a countably infinite subset of the reals may or may not be a well order with the standard "≤". For example, * The natural numbers are a well order under the standard ordering ≤. * The set has no least element and is therefore not a well order under standard ordering ≤. Examples of well orders: *The set of numbers has order type ω. *The set of numbers has order type ω2. The previous set is the set of
limit point In mathematics, a limit point (or cluster point or accumulation point) of a set S in a topological space In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a Geometry, geometrical space in which Closeness (mathematics), ''closeness'' is def ...
s within the set. Within the set of real numbers, either with the ordinary topology or the order topology, 0 is also a limit point of the set. It is also a limit point of the set of limit points. *The set of numbers ∪ has order type ω + 1. With the
order topology In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
of this set, 1 is a limit point of the set. With the ordinary topology (or equivalently, the order topology) of the real numbers it is not.

# Equivalent formulations

If a set is
totally ordered In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
, then the following are equivalent to each other: # The set is well ordered. That is, every nonempty subset has a least element. #
Transfinite induction Transfinite induction is an extension of mathematical induction Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique. It is essentially used to prove that a statement ''P''(''n'') holds for every natural number ''n'' = 0,  ...
works for the entire ordered set. # Every strictly decreasing sequence of elements of the set must terminate after only finitely many steps (assuming the
axiom of dependent choiceIn mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ha ...
). # Every subordering is isomorphic to an initial segment.

# Order topology

Every well-ordered set can be made into a
topological space In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gener ...
by endowing it with the
order topology In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
. With respect to this topology there can be two kinds of elements: *
isolated point ] In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
s — these are the minimum and the elements with a predecessor. *
limit point In mathematics, a limit point (or cluster point or accumulation point) of a set S in a topological space In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a Geometry, geometrical space in which Closeness (mathematics), ''closeness'' is def ...
s — this type does not occur in finite sets, and may or may not occur in an infinite set; the infinite sets without limit point are the sets of order type ω, for example N. For subsets we can distinguish: *Subsets with a maximum (that is, subsets which are Bounded set#Boundedness in order theory, bounded by themselves); this can be an isolated point or a limit point of the whole set; in the latter case it may or may not be also a limit point of the subset. *Subsets which are unbounded by themselves but bounded in the whole set; they have no maximum, but a supremum outside the subset; if the subset is non-empty this supremum is a limit point of the subset and hence also of the whole set; if the subset is empty this supremum is the minimum of the whole set. *Subsets which are unbounded in the whole set. A subset is cofinal in the whole set if and only if it is unbounded in the whole set or it has a maximum which is also maximum of the whole set. A well-ordered set as topological space is a
first-countable space In topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric objec ...
if and only if it has order type less than or equal to ω1 ( omega-one), that is, if and only if the set is
countable In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
or has the smallest
uncountable In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ... order type.

*
Tree (set theory) In set theory, a tree is a partially ordered set (''T'', <) such that for each ''t'' ∈ ''T'', the set is well-ordered by the relation <. Frequently trees are assumed to have only one root (i.e. minimal element), as the typical questions in ...
, generalization *
Ordinal number In set theory Set theory is the branch of that studies , which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of , is mostly concerned with those that ...
*
Well-founded set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
* Well partial order *
Prewellordering In set theory, a prewellordering is a binary relation \le that is Transitive relation, transitive, Connected relation, strongly connected, and Well-founded relation, wellfounded (more precisely, the relation x\le y\land y\nleq x is wellfounded). In ...
*
Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and th ...

# References

* {{refend Binary relations Order theory Wellfoundedness Ordinal numbers