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Viticulture (from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
word for ''
vine A vine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repub ...

vine
'') or winegrowing (wine growing) is the cultivation and harvesting of
grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...

grape
s. It is a branch of the science of
horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as ornamental trees and lawns. ...
. While the native territory of ''
Vitis vinifera ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, is a species of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Fa ...

Vitis vinifera
'', the common grape vine, ranges from
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
to the
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...

Persian
shores of the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...
, the vine has demonstrated high levels of
adaptabilityAdaptability ( la, adaptō "fit to, adjust") is a feature of a system or of a process. This word has been put to use as a specialised term in different disciplines and in business operations. Word definitions of adaptability as a specialised term dif ...
to new environments, hence viticulture can be found on every continent except
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oce ...

Antarctica
. Duties of the viticulturist include monitoring and controlling
pests Pest or The Pest may refer to: Science and medicine * Pest (organism), an animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns ** Weed, a plant considered undesirable * Infectious disease, an illness resulting from an infection ** Plague (diseas ...
and
diseases A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Diseases are often known to be medical conditions that ar ...
,
fertilizing Fertilisation or fertilization (see American and British English spelling differences#-ise.2C -ize .28-isation.2C -ization.29, spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes ...

fertilizing
,
irrigation Irrigation is the artificial process of applying controlled amounts of water to land to assist in production of crops. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during p ...
,
canopy Canopy may refer to: Plants * Canopy (biology), aboveground portion of plant community or crop (including forests) * Canopy (grape), aboveground portion of grapevine Religion and ceremonies * Baldachin or canopy of state, typically placed over an ...
management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit, non-profit organization, or a government body. It is the art and science of managing resources. Management includes the activities o ...
, monitoring
fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in particular, have propa ...

fruit
development and
characteristics Characteristic (from the Greek word for a property, attribute or wikt:trait, trait of an wikt:entity, entity) may refer to: In physics and engineering, any characteristic curve that shows the relationship between certain input and output parameters ...
, deciding when to
harvest Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of an ...
, and vine
pruning Pruning is a Horticulture, horticultural, Arboriculture, arboricultural and silviculture, silvicultural practice involving the selective removal of certain parts of a plant, such as branches, buds, or roots. The practice entails the ''targete ...

pruning
during the winter months. Viticulturists are often intimately involved with winemakers, because vineyard management and the resulting grape characteristics provide the basis from which
winemaking Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its Ethanol fermentation, fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid. The history of wine-making stretches over millennia. The s ...
can begin. A great number of varieties are now approved in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...

European Union
as true grapes for winegrowing and viticulture.


History

The earliest evidence of grape vine cultivation and winemaking dates back 8,000 years. The history of viticulture is closely related to the
history of wine Wine has been produced for thousands of years, with evidence of ancient wine production in Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at ...
, with evidence that humans cultivated wild grapes to make wine as far back as the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...
period. Evidence suggests that some of the earliest
domestication Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that seco ...
of ''Vitis vinifera'' occurred in the area of the modern countries
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
and
Armenia Armenia,, officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.The UN]classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA The World ...
. The oldest-known
winery A winery is a building or property that produces wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The ...

winery
was discovered in the "Areni-1" cave in
Vayots Dzor Vayots Dzor ( hy, Վայոց Ձոր, ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative ...

Vayots Dzor
,
Armenia Armenia,, officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.The UN]classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA The World ...
. Dated to BC, the site contained a wine press, fermentation vats, jars, and cups. Archaeologists also found ''V. vinifera'' seeds and vines. Commenting on the importance of the find, McGovern said, "The fact that winemaking was already so well developed in 4000 BC suggests that the technology probably goes back much earlier." There is also evidence of grape domestication in the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental r ...
in the early
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age syst ...
, around 3200 BC. Evidence of ancient viticulture is provided by
cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the Common Era. It is name ...
sources (ancient writing on clay tablets), plant remains, historical geography, and archaeological excavations. The remnants of ancient wine jars have been used to determine the culture of wine consumption and cultivated grape species. In addition to winemaking, grapes have been grown for the production of
raisins A raisin is a dried grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disse ...

raisins
. The earliest act of cultivation appears to have been the favoring of
hermaphroditic In reproductive biology, a hermaphrodite () is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life ...
members of the ''Vitis vinifera'' species over the barren male vines and the female vines, which were dependent on a nearby male for
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther (male part) of a plant to the stigma (female part) of a plant, later enabling fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by Anemophily, wind. Pollinating agents are a ...

pollination
. With the ability to pollinate itself, over time the hermaphroditic vines were able to sire
offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspring may be known as a brood or progeny in a more general way. Thi ...

offspring
that were consistently hermaphroditic. At the end of the 5th century BC, the
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...

Greek
historian
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appr ...
wrote: Thucydides was most likely referencing the time between 3000 BC and 2000 BC, when viticulture emerged in force in
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while be ...
,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A contin ...
, and the of the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In t ...
. During this period, grape cultivation developed from an aspect of to an important component of international
economies An economy (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ...
and
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...

trade
.


Roman

From 1200 BC to 900 BC, the
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc, Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon Lebanon (), officially known ...
ns developed viticulture practices that were later used in
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient Ancient Carthage, Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now Tunisia. Carthage was one of the most important trading hubs of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of ...

Carthage
. Around 500 BC, the Carthaginian writer
MagoMago may refer to: Places *Mago Island, an island in Fiji *Mago, Minorca, a Carthaginian and later Roman town in Menorca *Mago, Russia, a rural locality (a settlement) in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia *Mago National Park, in Ethiopia **Mount Mago a mount ...
recorded such practices in a two-volume work that was one of the few artifacts to survive the
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
destruction of Carthage during the
Third Punic War The Third Punic War (149–146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient Ancient Carthage, Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what i ...
. The Roman statesman
Cato the Elder Marcus Porcius Cato (; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Censor ( la, Censorius), the Elder and the Wise, was a Roman soldier, senator and historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ear ...
was influenced by these texts, and around 160 BC he wrote '' De Agricultura'', which expounded on Roman viticulture and agriculture. Around 65 AD, the Roman writer
Columella Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (; Arabic: Yunius, 4 – c. 70 AD) was a prominent writer on agriculture in the Roman empire. His ''De re rustica'' in twelve volumes has been completely preserved and forms an important source on Roman agri ...

Columella
produced the most detailed work on Roman viticulture in his twelve-volume text ''De Re Rustica''. Columella's work is one of the earliest to detail trellis systems for raising vines off the ground. Columella advocated the use of stakes versus the previously accepted practice of
training vines Image:Christer Fuglesang underwater EVA simulation for STS-116.jpg, An astronaut in training for an extravehicular activity mission using an underwater simulation environment on Earth. Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any ...
to grow up along
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
trunks. The benefits of using stakes over trees was largely to minimize the dangers associated with climbing trees, which was necessary to prune the dense
foliage A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light en ...

foliage
in order to give the vines sunlight, and later to harvest them.
Roman expansion From its origin as a city-state on the peninsula of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a I ...
across Western Europe brought Roman viticulture to the areas that would become some of the world's best-known winegrowing regions: the Spanish Rioja, the German Mosel, and the French
Bordeaux Bordeaux ( , ; Gascon oc, Bordèu ) is a port city on the river Garonne The Garonne (, also , ; Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance l ...
,
Burgundy Burgundy (; french: link=no, Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and a former regions of France, administrative region of east-central France. It is named for the Burgundians, an East Germanic tribes, East Germanic people who moved westwards b ...
and
Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, Ròse ) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in t ...
. Roman viticulturists were among the first to identify steep hillsides as one of the better locations to plant vines, because cool air runs downhill and gathers at the bottom of valleys. While some cool air is beneficial, too much can rob the vine of the heat it needs for
photosynthesis File:Photosynthesis equation.svg, upright=1.8, Overall equation for the type of photosynthesis that occurs in plants Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energ ...

photosynthesis
, and in winter it increases the risk of
frost Frost is a thin layer of ice on a solid surface, which forms from water vapor (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 J/( kg·K) , - , Heat of vaporization , 2.27 MJ/kg , - , Heat capacity ...

frost
.


Medieval

Catholic
monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

monk
s (particularly the
Cistercians , one of the most influential early Cistercians, seen here depicted in a historiated initial. Cistercian monks standing in a cloister and wearing their religious habit , wearing the habit of a Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Coptic monk. ...
) were the most prominent viticulturists of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roma ...
. Around this time, an early system of '' Metayage'' emerged in France with laborers (''
PrendeurA prendeur, a French term, is a labourer working as part of an early Middle Age sharecropping system known as ''complant'', a precursor to the métayage system. Under this system, the ''prendeur'' would cultivate land owned by a bailleur. In exchange ...
'') working the vineyards under contractual agreements with the landowners (''
BailleurA bailleur, a French term, is a land owner who outsourced uncultivated parcels of land as part of an early Middle Age sharecropping system known as ''complant'' — a precursor to the métayage system. Under this system, a laborer known as a pren ...
''). In most cases, the ''prendeurs'' were given flexibility in selecting their crop and developing their own vineyard practice. In northern Europe, the weather and
climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months to millions of years. Some of the meteorologi ...
posed difficulties for grape cultivation, so certain species were selected that better suited the environment. Most vineyards grew white varieties of grape, which are more resistant to the damp and cold climates. A few species of red grape, such as the Pinot Noir, were also introduced. Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry dates back to 1416 and depicts horticulture and viticulture in France. The images illustrate peasants bending down to prune grapes from vines behind castle walls. Additional illustrations depict grape vines being harvested, with each vine being cut to three spurs around knee height. Many of the viticultural practices developed in this time period would become staples of European viticulture until the 18th century.
Varietal A varietal wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hun ...
s were studied more intently to see which vines were the most suitable for a particular area. Around this time, an early concept of ''
terroir , and influence of the nearby Mosel river distinguish the terroir of this German wine region. (, ; from ''terre'', "land") is a French term used to describe the environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype, including unique environment ...

terroir
'' emerged as wines from particular places began to develop a reputation for uniqueness. The concept of pruning for quality over quantity emerged, mainly through Cistercian labors, though it would create conflict between the rich landowners who wanted higher quality wines and the
peasant A peasant is a pre-industrial farmhand, agricultural laborer or a farmer with limited land-ownership, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and tenant farmer, paying rent, tax, fees, or services to a landlord. In Europe, thre ...
laborers whose livelihood depended on the quantity of wine they could sell. The
Riesling Riesling (; ) is a white grape variety which originated in the Rhine region. Riesling is an aromatic (wine), aromatic grape variety displaying flowery, almost perfumed, aromas as well as high acidity. It is used to make dry, semi-sweet, sweet, a ...

Riesling
is the famous example for higher quality of wine. In 1435 Count John IV. of Katzenelnbogen started this successful tradition. In
Burgundy Burgundy (; french: link=no, Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and a former regions of France, administrative region of east-central France. It is named for the Burgundians, an East Germanic tribes, East Germanic people who moved westwards b ...
, the
Cistercian , one of the most influential early Cistercians, seen here depicted in a historiated initial. Cistercian monks standing in a cloister and wearing their religious habits The Cistercians, () officially the Order of Cistercians ( la, (Sacer) Ordo C ...
monks developed the concept of '' cru'' vineyards as
homogeneous Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the Science, sciences and statistics relating to the Uniformity (chemistry), uniformity of a Chemical substance, substance or organism. A material or image that is homogeneous is uniform in ...
pieces of land that consistently produce wines each
vintage File:The Vintagers after a Miniature of the Dialogues de Saint Gregoire Thirteenth Century Manuscript of the Royal Library of Brussels.png, ''The Vintagers'', after a miniature of the "Dialogues de Saint Gregoire" (thirteenth century)—manuscript ...

vintage
that are similar. In areas like the
Côte-d'Or Côte-d'Or (; literally, "Golden Slope" or "Golden Coast") is a Departments of France, department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Regions of France, region of Northeastern France. In 2016, it had a population of 533,213. Its Prefectures in France ...
, the monks divided the land into separate vineyards, many of which still exist today, like Montrachet and
La Romanée La Romanée is an ''Appellation d'origine contrôlée'' (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy wine, Burgundy, with Pinot noir as the main grape variety.K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 191-195 Workman ...
.


In mythology

In
Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of the world, the lives ...
, the demigod
Dionysus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking, fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festivity and theatre in Religion in ancient Greece, ancient Greek reli ...
(
Bacchus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking and wine, of fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festivity and theatre Theatre or theater is a coll ...
in
Roman mythology Roman mythology is the body of myths of ancient Rome as represented in the Latin literature, literature and Roman art, visual arts of the Romans. One of a wide variety of genres of Roman folklore, ''Roman mythology'' may also refer to the modern ...
), son of
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' compos ...

Zeus
, invented the grapevine and the winepress. When his closest
satyr In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature ...

satyr
friend died trying to bring him a vine Dionysus deemed important, Dionysus forced the vine to bear fruit. His fame spread, and he finally became a god. The
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...
makes numerous references to wine, and grapevine, both symbolically and literally.
grapes A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry (botany), berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus ''Vitis''. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, jam, grape juice, Jelly (fruit preserv ...

grapes
are first mentioned when Noah grows them on his farm (Genesis 9:20–21). References to wine are made in the book of Proverbs (20:1) and the book of Isaiah (5:1–25). Deuteronomy (18:3–5, 14:22–27, 16:13–15) reports the use of wine during Jewish festivals. In
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
wine is the symbol of the , represents the
blood of Christ Blood of Christ in Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christianity and other tra ...
. It is mentioned several times in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
. We have the parable of the kingdom of heaven likened to the father starting to engage laborers for his vineyard. The vine is used as symbol of Jesus Christ based on his own statement, “I am the true vine (John 15:1).” In that sense, a vine is placed as sole symbol on the tomb of Constantia the Great.


The grape vine

The vast majority of the world's wine-producing regions are found between the
temperate In geography, the temperate climates of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one ...
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the w ...

latitude
s of 30° and 50° in each
hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ** Northern Hemisphere ** Southern Hemisphere ** Eastern Hemisphere ** Western Hemisphere ** Land and water hemispheres * A half of the ...
. Within these bands, the annual
mean There are several kinds of mean in mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mat ...
temperatures are between . The presence of large
bodies of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk. ...
and
mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usu ...

mountain range
s can have positive effects on the climate and vines. Nearby
lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a Depression (geology), basin, surrounded by land, and set apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the World Ocean, oc ...

lake
s and
river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water ...

river
s can serve as protection for drastic temperature drops at night by releasing the heat that the water has stored during the day to warm the vines.


The grape

The
grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...

grape
is classified as a
berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms dissem ...
. On the vine, grapes are organized through systems known as clusters. Grape clusters can vary in compactness which can result in long clusters (resulting in the grapes spreading out) or short clusters (resulting in grapes packed together). In some grape species, clusters ripen collectively, which allows them to be harvested together. For others, grapes may ripen individually within a cluster. Each grape berry contains a
pedicel Pedicle or pedicel may refer to: Human anatomy *Pedicle of vertebral arch, the segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body, and is often used as a radiographic marker and entry point in vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty procedures * ...
which attaches to the
rachis feather In biology, a rachis (from the grc, ῥάχις (), "backbone, spine") is a main axis or "shaft" . In zoology and microbiology In vertebrates, ''rachis'' can refer to the series of articulated vertebrae, which encase the spinal cord. I ...

rachis
. The main function of the rachis is to allow the grapes to receive their water and nutrients. The pollination and fertilization of grapes results in one to four seeds within each berry. When fertilization does not occur, seedless grapes are formed, which are sought after for the production of
raisins A raisin is a dried grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disse ...

raisins
. Regardless of pollination and fertilization, most plants will produce around 100 to 200 grapes. The skin of the grape accounts for 5 to 20% of the total weight of a grape depending on the variety. When grape skin ripens, it contains the majority of the aromatic substances and
tannin Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent 200px, A crystal of the astringent alum An astringent (sometimes called adstringent) is a chemical that shrinks or constricts body tissue In biology Biology is the natural scien ...
. These factors become important in winemaking for methods including color extraction or aroma dissolution. Although the skin contains the majority of the tannin, small percentages can be found throughout the grape and during all of its developmental stages. However, the tannin's most important role is during the grape's ripening stage as its function is to formulate color and body shape.


Growing vines

Although many factors can affect the overall quality of a grape vine, the three most important are climate,
slope In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Lines'' (film), a 2016 Greek film * ''The Line'' (2017 film) * ''The Line'' (2009 film) * ''The Line'', a ...

slope
, and
soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body of soil, called the pedosphere ...

soil
, often collectively referred to as the ''terroir''.


Climate

Climate is the most significant external factor in determining a grape's inherent qualities. Each grape variety has a uniquely preferred environment for ideal growing. Because climates vary from region to region, selecting the best strain is an important decision in grape cultivation. Additionally, because climatic factors such as temperature and rain can be unpredictable and uncontrollable, each year will produce unique qualities and yields of grapes. Wine grapes are also especially susceptible to climate change and temperature variation. Grape vines need approximately 1300–1500 hours of sunshine during the
growing season A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and the amount of daylight. The growing season is that portion of the year in which local conditions (i.e. rainfall, temperature, daylight) permit normal plant morphology#Grow ...
and around of
rain Rain is liquid water in the form of drop (liquid), droplets that have condensation, condensed from atmosphere, atmospheric water vapor and then precipitation (meteorology), become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component ...

rain
fall throughout the year in order to produce grapes suitable for winemaking. In ideal circumstances, the vine will receive most of the rainfall during the winter and spring months: rain at
harvest Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of an ...

harvest
time can create many hazards, such as
fungal A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number. The plural of a noun typically denotes a quantity great ...

fungal
diseases and berry splitting. The optimum
weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloud cover, cloudy. On Earth, most weather phenomena occur in the lowest layer of the planet's atmosp ...

weather
during the growing season is a long, warm summer that allows the grapes the opportunity to ripen fully and to develop a balance between the levels of
acid An acid is a molecule or ion An ion () is a particle In the Outline of physical science, physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small wikt:local, localized physical body, object to which can be ascribed se ...
s and
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage. A carbohydrate () ...

sugar
s in the grape. Hot and sunny climates have a frost-free growing season of 200 days or more. These climates allow grapes to ripen faster with higher sugar levels and lower acidity. Cooler climates have a frost-free growing season of around 150–160 days. Cooler seasons force the grapes to ripen earlier, which produces a fresher and more acidic harvest. In general, the average yearly temperature for most crops should average around in order to achieve the highest quality in each grape. Summer: Ideal temperatures in summer average around . Ideal summer temperatures enable fruits to ripen. Temperature and sunshine are the most important factors in ripening. Winter: Ideal temperatures in winter average around . Ideal winter temperatures are necessary to allow grape vines to enter their resting phase. If temperatures fall too low, the crops can be injured. Spring and Fall: Spring and fall are critical seasons for grape development, because the plants are susceptible to frost damage, which can injure the fruiting buds. Wet weather in spring can increase the odds of mildew formation. To prevent mildew, some farms introduce devices such as heaters or large fans in vineyards. However, such solutions can be costly.


Slope

Hillsides and
slopes In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a Line (mathematics), line is a number that describes both the ''direction'' and the ''steepness'' of the line. Slope is often denoted by the letter ''m''; there is no clear answer to the question why the l ...

slopes
are preferred over flatter terrain: vines growing on a slope can receive a greater intensity of the sun's rays, with sunshine falling on an angle
perpendicular In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two Line (geometry), lines which meet at a right angle (90 Degree (angle), degrees). The property extends to other related Mathematical ob ...

perpendicular
to the hillside. In flatter terrain, the intensity of the sunlight is diluted as it spreads out across a wider surface area. Small slopes that are elevated above surrounding ground are the best and safest places for crops, because these small elevations are less prone to frost. Additionally, a slope affords better drainage, obviating the possibility that the vine might sit in overly moist soil. In cooler regions of the northern hemisphere, south-facing slopes receive more hours of sunlight and are preferred; in warmer
climes frame, Diagram showing climatic zone corresponding with those suggested by Aristotle. The climes (singular ''clime''; also ''clima'', plural ''climata'', from Greek κλίμα ''klima'', plural κλίματα ''klimata'', meaning "inclination" ...

climes
, north-facing slopes are preferred. In the southern hemisphere, these orientations are reversed.


Soil

Quality soil is important to allow plants to have better root systems. The growth and health of a vine can be affected if the soil quality is poor. Different grape species prefer various soil conditions, although there are general quality factors. Favorable soil conditions include:
aeration Aeration (also called aerification or aeriation) is the Systems engineering process, process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or solvation, dissolved in a liquid. Aeration of liquids Methods Aeration of liquids (usually water) is ach ...
, loose texture, good drainage and moderate fertility. Drainage factors are cited as the most important soil characteristic to affect grape vine growth. When root growth is restricted due to bad soil, vine growth and fruit yields lessen and plant survival rates can dip to only a few years.


Hazards

A viticulturist faces many hazards that can have an adverse effect on the wine produced from the grape or kill the vine itself. *When the vine is
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to facilitate reproduct ...

flower
ing, it is very susceptible to strong
wind Wind is the natural movement of air or other gases relative to a planet's surface. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, ...

wind
s and
hail Hail is a form of solid precipitation. It is distinct from ice pellets (American English "sleet"), though the two are often confused. It consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice, each of which is called a hailstone. Ice pellets fall general ...

hail
. Cold temperatures during this period can lead to the onset of ''
millerandage Millerandage (or shot berries, hens and chicks and pumpkins and peas) is a potential viticultural hazard problem in which grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angio ...
'', which produces clusters with no
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positiv ...

seed
s and varying sizes. Hot conditions can produce ''
coulure Coulure (pronounced coo-LYUR) is a viticultural hazard that is the result of metabolic reactions to weather conditions that causes a failure of grapes to develop after flowering (vine), flowering. In English the word ''shatter'' is sometimes used. ...
'' that causes grape clusters to either drop to the ground or not fully develop. * Oidium is a
powdery mildew Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants. Powdery mildew diseases are caused by many different species of fungi in the order Erysiphales, with '' Podosphaera xanthii'' (a.k.a. ''Sphaerotheca fuliginea'') being the m ...

powdery mildew
that can attack all green parts of the vine. If left untreated, oidium can be terminal for the plant. It thrives in cooler temperatures and in the shade. Some North American vine species have evolved to show resistance to the mildew (3:37). *
Downy mildew Downy mildew refers to any of several types of oomycete microbes that are obligate parasites of plants. Downy mildews exclusively belong to Peronosporaceae. In commercial agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultiv ...
(''
Peronospora ''Peronospora'' is a genus of oomycetes that are obligate plant pathogens of many eudicots. Most species in this group produce a downy mildew disease, which can cause severe damage to many different cultivated crops, as well as wild and ornamental ...

Peronospora
'') thrives in high temperatures and humidity and produces stains on leaves. It can be treated by spraying plants with
copper sulphateCopper sulfate may refer to: * Copper(II) sulfate Copper(II) sulfate, also known as copper sulphate, are the inorganic compounds with the chemical formula Copper, CuSulfate, SO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5. The pentahydrate (x = 5) is the ...
. Most American vines are resistant, excluding ''Vitis vinifera''. * Fanleaf virus is spread by
nematode The nematodes ( or grc-gre, Νηματώδη; la, Nematoda) or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes), with plant-parasitic nematodes being known as eelworms. They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a br ...

nematode
s that breed in the vine stem. It can lead to deformity, yellowing of leaves, and smaller crop yields. There is no cure for the plant; the best course of action is to remove infected plants and leave the remaining roots to rot. *
Frost Frost is a thin layer of ice on a solid surface, which forms from water vapor (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 J/( kg·K) , - , Heat of vaporization , 2.27 MJ/kg , - , Heat capacity ...

Frost
*
Phylloxera Grape phylloxera is an insect pest of commercial grapevine ''Vitis'' (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The genus is made up of species predominantly from the Northern hemi ...

Phylloxera
*
Plant virus Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to Self-replication, replicate without a host (biology), host. Plant viruses can be ...

Plant virus
*
Pests Pest or The Pest may refer to: Science and medicine * Pest (organism), an animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns ** Weed, a plant considered undesirable * Infectious disease, an illness resulting from an infection ** Plague (diseas ...


Green harvest

A green harvest is the removal of immature grape bunches, typically for the purpose of decreasing yield. The removal of the bunches while they are still green induces the vine to put all its energy into developing the remaining grapes. In theory this results in better ripening and the development of more numerous and mature flavour compounds. In the absence of a green harvest, a healthy, vigorous vine can produce dilute, unripe grapes. In Europe, many
appellation An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication used to identify where the grapes for a wine were grown; other types of food often have appellations as well. Restrictions other than geographical boundaries, such as what ...
s restrict the yield permitted from a given area, so there is even more incentive to perform green harvesting when presented with excess crop. Often, the excess must be sold for a pittance and used for industrial alcohol production rather than wine. While the concept of thinning or sacrificing part of the grape crop, i.e. green harvesting, with the aim of improving the quality of the remaining grapes, predates modern critics, the practice has increased in recent times in vineyards found in California and areas where the grapes grow easily. (McCoy)


Field blend

A field blend is a wine that is produced from two or more different grape varieties interplanted in the same vineyard. In the days before precise
varietal A varietal wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hun ...
identification, let alone rigorous
clonal selection Image:Clonal selection.svg, 200px, Clonal selection theory of lymphocytes: 1) A hematopoietic stem cell undergoes differentiation and genetic rearrangement to produce 2) immature lymphocytes with many different antigen receptors. Those that bind to ...

clonal selection
, a vineyard might be planted by taking cuttings from another vineyard and therefore approximately copying its genetic makeup. This meant that one vine could be
Zinfandel Zinfandel (also known as Primitivo) is a variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic struc ...
and the next
Carignan Carignan (also known as Mazuelo, Bovale Grande, Cariñena, Carinyena, Samsó, Carignane, and Carignano) is a red grape variety of Spanish origin that is more commonly found in French wine but is widely planted throughout the western Mediter ...

Carignan
. When making wine with little equipment to spare for separate vinification of different varieties, field blends allowed effortless, though inflexible, blending. Fermentation tanks are now cheap enough that the field blend is an anachronism, and almost all wines are assembled by blending from smaller, individual lots. However, in California some of the oldest (and lowest-yielding) Zinfandel comes from vineyards that are field-blended.
Ridge Vineyards Ridge Vineyards is a California winery specializing in Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel, and Chardonnay wines. Ridge produces wine at two winery locations in northern California. The original winery facilities are located at an elevation of on Mont ...

Ridge Vineyards
owns the Lytton Springs vineyards in Sonoma County, which were planted from 1900 to 1905 in what Ridge calls "a traditional field blend of about seventy percent Zinfandel, twenty percent
Petite Sirah Durif is a list of grape varieties, variety of red wine grape primarily grown in Australia, California, France, and Israel. Since the end of the 20th century, wineries located in Washington (state), Washington's Yakima River Valley, Maryland, Ar ...
, and ten percent
Grenache Grenache () or Garnacha () is one of the most widely planted red wine grape varieties in the world. Niels Lillelund: ''Rhône-Vinene'' JP Bøger – JP/Politikens Forlagshus A/S, 2004. , p. 25 It ripens (wine), ripens late, so it needs hot, ...

Grenache
and Carignan."
Gemischter Satz Viticulture (from the Latin word for ''vine'') or winegrowing (wine growing) is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, ranges ...
(''Mixed set'') is a wine term in
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
equivalent to a field blend, which means that grapes of different varieties are planted, harvested and vinified together. In older times, this was common, but the practice has almost stopped. It is, however, a specialty of
Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate = Vehicle registration plates of Austria, W , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = , timezone ...

Vienna
.


See also

*
Ampelography Image:Vitis labrusca BB-1913.png, ''Vitis labrusca'' Ampelography (Ampelos, ἄμπελος, "vine" + γράφος, "writing") is the field of botany concerned with the identification and classification of grapevines, Vitis, ''Vitis'' spp. Traditi ...
*
Annual growth cycle of grapevines The annual growth cycle of grapevines is the process that takes place in the vineyard each year, beginning with bud break in the spring and culminating in leaf fall in autumn followed by winter dormancy. From a winemaking perspective, each step i ...
*
Diurnal temperature variation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progr ...
* Global warming and wine *
List of vineyard soil types The soil composition of vineyards is one of the most important viticulture, viticultural considerations when planting grape vines. The soil supports the root structure of the vine and influences the drainage levels and amount of minerals and nutrien ...
*
Oenology Oenology (enology; ) is the science and study of wine and winemaking. It is distinct from viticulture, which is concerned with the cultivation and harvest of grapes A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry (botany), berry, of the deciduous w ...
* Precision viticulture


References

39. Goldammer, T. (2015). ''Grape Growers Handbook: A Guide To Viticulture for Wine Production''.


Further reading

* *Echikson, Tom. ''Noble Rot''. NY: Norton, 2004. *McCoy, Elin. ''The Emperor of Wine''. NY: HarperCollins, 2005. *Abu-Hamdeh, N.H. 2003. Compaction and
subsoiling A subsoiler or flat lifter is a tractor-mounted list of agricultural machinery, farm implement used for deep tillage, loosening and breaking up soil at depths below the levels worked by moldboard ploughs, disc harrows, or rototillers. Most such too ...
effects on corn growth and soil bulk density. Soil Society of America Journal. 67:1213–1219. *Conradie, W.J., J.L. Van Zyl, P.A. Myburgh. 1996. Effect of soil preparation depth on nutrient leaching and nutrient uptake by young Vitis vinifera L.cv Pinot noir. South African Journal of Enol. Vitic. 17:43–52. *Dami, I.E., B. Bordelon, D.C. Ferree, M. Brown, M.A. Ellis, R.N. William, and D. Doohan. 2005. Midwest Grape Production Guide. The Ohio State Univ. Coop. Extension. Service. Bulletin. 919–5. *Gil, Emilio; Arnó, Jaume; Llorens, Jordi; Sanz, Ricardo; Llop, Jordi; Rosell-Polo, Joan; Gallart, Montserrat; Escolà, Alexandre (2014).
Advanced Technologies for the Improvement of Spray Application Techniques in Spanish Viticulture: An Overview
. Sensors, 14 (1): 691–708. ISSN 1424-8220. PMC PMC3926582 *Kurtural, S.K. 2007. Desired Soil Properties for Vineyard Site Selection. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. HortFact – 31 – 01. *Kurtural, S.K. 2007. Vineyard Design. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. HortFact – 3103. *Kurtural, S.K. 2007. Vineyard Site Selection. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. HortFact – 31–02. * Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre 2011
Ultrasonic and LIDAR Sensors for Electronic Canopy Characterization in Vineyards: Advances to Improve Pesticide Application Methods
Sensors. 11 (2), pp. 2177–2194. doi:10.3390/s110202177. ISSN 1424-8220. * Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell (2011-06-09).
Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation
. Sensors 11 (6): 6237–6256. ISSN 1424–8220. *. 1862 (still in print). Open Air Grape Culture : A Practical Treatise On the Garden and Vineyard Culture of the Vine, and the Manufacture of Domestic Wine Designed For the Use of Amateurs and Others. *Schonbeck, M.W. 1998. Cover Cropping and Green Manuring on Small Farms in New England and New York. Research Report #10, New Alchemy Institute, 237 Hatchville Rd. Falmouth, MA 02536. *Tesic, Dejan, M. Keller, R.J. Hutton. 2007. Influence of Vineyard Floor Management Practices on Grapevine Vegetative Growth, Yield, and Fruit Composition. American Journal of Enol. Vitic. 58:1:1–11. *Zabadal, J.T. Anderson, J.A. Vineyard Establishment I – Preplant Decisions. MSU Extension Fruit Bulletins – 26449701. 1999. *Tesic, Dejan, M. Keller, R.J. Hutton. Influence of Vineyard Floor Management Practices on Grapevine Vegetative Growth, Yield, and Fruit Composition. American Journal of Enol. Vitic. 58:1:1–11. 2007.


External links


AJEV
– American Journal of Enology and Viticulture

UC IPM Online Pest

* ttps://web.archive.org/web/20110810123821/http://www.grovesnurseries.co.uk/Uploads/Downloads/23/DownloadFile_FILE/Groves_Guide_to_Grape_Vines_Dormant.pdf Guide to Grape Vinesbr>Viticulture on www.extension.org
{{Authority control Wine terminology