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A vine ( ''vīnea'' "grapevine", "vineyard", from ''vīnum'' "wine") is any with a growth of trailing or (that is, climbing) stems, s or runners. The word ''vine'' can also refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used in work.Jackson; Benjamin; Daydon (1928). ''A Glossary of Botanic Terms with their Derivation and Accent'', 4th ed. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. In parts of the world, including the , the term "vine" usually applies exclusively to grapevines ('), while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants.


Growth forms

Certain plants always grow as vines, while a few grow as vines only part of the time. For instance, and can grow as low when support is not available, but will become vines when support is available. A vine displays a growth form based on very long . This has two purposes. A vine may use rock exposures, other plants, or other supports for growth rather than investing energy in a lot of supportive tissue, enabling the plant to reach sunlight with a minimum investment of energy. This has been a highly successful growth form for plants such as and , both of which are s in parts of . There are some tropical vines that develop skototropism, and grow away from the light, a type of negative . Growth away from light allows the vine to reach a tree trunk, which it can then climb to brighter regions. The vine growth form may also enable plants to colonize large areas quickly, even without climbing high. This is the case with and . It is also an adaptation to life in areas where small patches of fertile soil are adjacent to exposed areas with more sunlight but little or no soil. A vine can root in the soil but have most of its leaves in the brighter, exposed area, getting the best of both environments. The evolution of a climbing habit has been implicated as a key innovation associated with the evolutionary success and diversification of a number of taxonomic groups of plants. It has evolved independently in several plant families, using many different climbing methods, such as: * twining the stem around a support (e.g., morning glories, ' species) * by way of adventitious, clinging roots (e.g., ivy, ' species) * with twining petioles (e.g., ' species) * using s, which can be specialized shoots (), leaves (), or even inflorescences (') * using tendrils which also produce adhesive pads at the end that attach themselves quite strongly to the support (') * using thorns (e.g. climbing ) or other hooked structures, such as hooked branches (e.g. ') The (') is a woody shrub-vine which climbs without clinging roots, tendrils, or thorns. It directs its stem into a crevice in the bark of fibrous barked trees (such as ) where the stem adopts a flattened profile and grows up the tree underneath the host tree's outer bark. The fetterbush then sends out branches that emerge near the top of the tree. Most vines are flowering plants. These may be divided into woody vines or s, such as , , and , and herbaceous (nonwoody) vines, such as . One odd group of vining plants is the fern genus ''Lygodium'', called s. The stem does not climb, but rather the fronds (leaves) do. The fronds unroll from the tip, and theoretically never stop growing; they can form thickets as they unroll over other plants, rockfaces, and fences.


Twining vines

A twining vine, also known as a bine, is one that climbs by its shoots growing in a , in contrast to vines that climb using s or suckers. Many bines have rough stems or downward-pointing bristles to aid their grip. (used in flavoring beer) are a commercially important example of a bine. The direction of rotation of the shoot tip during climbing is autonomous and does not (as sometimes imagined) derive from the shoot's following the sun around the sky – the direction of twist does not therefore depend upon which side of the the plant is growing on. This is shown by the fact that some bines always twine , including runner bean (') and bindweed (' species), while others twine anticlockwise, including French bean (') and climbing honeysuckles (' species). The contrasting rotations of bindweed and honeysuckle was the theme of the satirical song "Misalliance", written and sung by .


Horticultural climbing plants

The term "vine" also applies to like s where botanists refer to creeping vines; in commercial the natural tendency of coiling s to attach themselves to pre-existing structures or s is optimized by the installation of . s can use the tendency of climbing plants to grow quickly. If a plant display is wanted quickly, a climber can achieve this. Climbers can be trained over s, s, s, etc. Climbers can be grown over other plants to provide additional attraction. Artificial support can also be provided. Some climbers climb by themselves; others need work, such as tying them in and training them.


Scientific description

Vines widely differ in size, form and evolutionary origin. Darwin classified climbing groups based on their climbing method. He classified five classes of vines – twining plants, leaf climbers, tendril bearers, root climbers and hook climbers. Vines are unique in that they have multiple evolutionary origins. They usually reside in tropical locations and have the unique ability to climb. Vines are able to grow in both deep shade and full sun due to their uniquely wide range of . This climbing action prevents shading by neighbors and allows the vine to grow out of reach of s. The environment where a vine can grow successfully is determined by the climbing mechanism of a vine and how far it can spread across supports. There are many theories supporting the idea that photosynthetic responses are closely related to climbing mechanisms. Temperate twining vines, which twist tightly around supports, are typically poorly adapted for climbing beneath closed canopies due to their smaller support diameter and shade intolerance. In contrast, tendril vines usually grow on the forest floor and onto trees until they reach the surface of the canopy, suggesting that they have greater plasticity. It has also been suggested that twining vines' revolving growth is mediated by changes in mediated by volume changes in the of the bending zone. Climbing vines can take on many unique characteristics in response to changes in their environments. Climbing vines can induce chemical defenses and modify their biomass allocation in response to herbivores. In particular, the twisting vine ' increases its twining in response to herbivore-associated leaf damage, which may lead to reduced future herbivory. Additionally, the tendrils of vine ''Cayratia japonica'' are more likely to coil around nearby plants of another species than nearby plants of the same species in natural and experimental settings. This ability, which has only been previously documented in roots, demonstrates the vine's ability to distinguish whether another plant is of the same species as itself or a different one. In tendrilled vines, the tendrils are highly sensitive to touch and the coiling action is mediated by the hormones octadecanoids, s and . The touch stimulus and hormones may interact via volatile compounds or internal oscillation patterns. Research has found the presence of ion translocating s in the ''Bryonia dioica'' species of plants, which has implications for a possible ion mediation tendril curling mechanism. In response to a touch stimulus, sensitive K+, Mg2+ ATPase and a Ca2+ translocating ATPase rapidly increase their activity. This increases transmembrane ion fluxes that appear to be involved in the early stages of tendril coiling.


Example vine taxa

* ', the tara vine * ', the silver vine * ', the Allegheny vine * ', the lipstick vine * ', the chocolate vine * ', common trumpetvine * ', known as wild grape or djabaru * , known as wild grape or porcelain berry * ', Madeira-vine * ', the coral vine * ', the confederate vine * ', the heart-leaved aptenia * ', moth vine * ', bridal creeper, bridal-veil creeper * ', the rattan vine * ', the cross vine * ', a genus of thorny ornamental vines, bushes, and trees * ', native wisteria * ', the trumpet vine ** ', the Chinese trumpet vine * ', the balloon vine * ', the staff vine * ', string of hearts * ', traveller's joy * ', bleeding-heart vine * ', butterfly pea * ', the rosary vine or sweetheart vine * ', the kangaroo vine * ', the water vine * '','' the watermelon * ', cup-and-saucer vine, cathedral bells, Mexican ivy * , known as corkscrew vine, snail vine, snail creeper * ', the cucumber * ', known as wild grape * ', German ivy * ', cats claw creeper, funnel creeper, or cat's claw trumpet * ', known as golden pothos and devil's ivy * ', the Russian vine * ', known as the climbing fig * ', lilac vine * ', known as common ivy, English ivy, European ivy, or ivy * ', climbing guinea flower, golden guinea vine, gold guinea plant * ', a genus of about 300 species of climbing or creeping plants * ', common hop * ', climbing hydrangea * ', known as Cairo morning glory, coast morning glory and railroad creeper * ', known as ocean blue morning glory * ', pink jasmine * ', kadsura vine * ', the common coral vine * '', black coral pea * ', known as the bottle gourd, calabash, opo squash, or long melon * ', the sweet pea * ', known as Suikazura or Japanese honeysuckle * ', a genus of tropical and subtropical vines classified in the cucumber family, Cucurbitaceae * ', a genus of about 40 species of ferns, known as climbing ferns * ', rocktrumpet, Brazilian jasmine * ', the bitter gourd * ', the hemp vine * ', the macquarie vine * ', a genus of carnivorous plants known as tropical pitcher plants or monkey cups * ', bower vine * ', the wonga wonga vine * ', Chinese Virginia-creeper, silver vein creeper * ', known as the Virginia creeper, Victoria creeper, five-leaved ivy, or five-finger * ', Boston ivy, Japanese ivy * ', the passion fruit * ', the silk vine * ', heartleaf philodendron * ', the pink trumpet vine * ', the kudzu vine * ', flamevine or orange trumpet vine * ', Mexican flamevine * ', Lady Banks' rose * ', climbing rose * , hydrangea vine * ', the silver vine * ', known as chayote, christophene, or several other names * ', known as Cape ivy * ', a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family * ', the potato vine * ', snake vine * ', known as Madagascar jasmine * ', the jade vine * ', the goosefoot vine ** ', the arrowhead vine * ', black-eyed Susan * ', known as the Bengal clock vine or blue trumpet vine * ', the bush clock vine * ', known as poison ivy * ', Asiatic jasmine * ', confederate jasmine, star jasmine * ', any of about sixty species of grape * ', a genus of flowering plants in the pea family * ', silver dollar vine


See also

* *, any of various long-stemmed, woody vines *, bending and growth patterns of plants, which dictate the growth of vines. *, by * * ** **


References


External links

* * * {{Authority control Plant life-forms