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An urban area, or built-up area, is a
human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities wit ...
with a high
population density Population density (in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise tr ...

population density
and
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy An eco ...

infrastructure
of
built environment In urban planning, architecture and civil engineering, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human impact on the environment, human-made environment that provides the setting for human behavior, human activity, including Home, ...
. Urban areas are created through
urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural File:Rural landscape in Finland.jpg, A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographi ...
and are categorized by
urban morphologyUrban morphology is the study of the formation of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation. The study seeks to understand the spatial structure and character of a metropolitan area, city A city is a large human sett ...
as
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...

cities
,
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares a ...

town
s,
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for r ...
s or
suburbs A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...

suburbs
. In
urbanism Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment. It is a direct component of disciplines such as urban planning, which is the profession focusing on the physical design and man ...
, the term contrasts to
rural area A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.">South_Karelia.html" ;"title="Lappeenranta, South Karelia">Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic ...

rural area
s such as
village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena ...

village
s and
hamlets 300px, The hamlet at Oberwil, 3 km from Waldkirch, near St. Gallen (Switzerland) A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, a hamlet may be the size of a town, village or parish A parish is a territorial ...
; in
urban sociology Urban sociology is the sociological Sociology is the study of society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or soci ...
or
urban anthropology Urban anthropology is a subset of anthropology concerned with issues of urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.">Sout ...
it contrasts with
natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all life, living and non-living things occurring nature, naturally, meaning in this case not Artificiality, artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth. Th ...

natural environment
. The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the
urban revolution In anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and society, societies, in both the present and past, including Homo, past human species. Social anthropology stu ...
led to the creation of human
civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a complex society A complex society is a concept that is shared by a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, history and sociology to describe a stage of social formation. The concep ...

civilization
with modern
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
, which along with other human activities such as
exploitation of natural resources The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resource , Malaysia is an example of undisturbed natural resource. Waterfalls provide spring water for humans, animals and plants for survival and also habitat for marine organisms. The ...
led to a
human impact on the environment Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism In biology, an organism (from An ...
. "Agglomeration effects" are in the list of the main consequences of increased rates of firm creation since. This is due to conditions created by a greater level of industrial activity in a given region. However, a favorable environment for human capital development would also be generated simultaneously. The world's urban population in 1950 of just 746 million has increased to 3.9 billion in the decades since. In 2009, the number of people living in urban areas (3.42 billion) surpassed the number living in rural areas (3.41 billion), and since then the world has become more urban than rural. This was the first time that the majority of the world's population lived in a city. In 2014 there were 7.3 billion people living on the planet, of which the global urban population comprised 3.9 billion. The Population Division of the
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat The United Nations Secretariat (french: link=no, Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United N ...
at that time predicted the urban population would grow to 6.4 billion by 2050, with 37% of that growth to come from three countries:
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
and
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization. Urban areas are measured for various purposes, including analyzing
population density Population density (in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise tr ...

population density
and
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
. Unlike an urban area, a
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
includes not only the urban area, but also
satellite In the context of spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spaceflight, with or uncrewed spaceflight, without humans on board. Most spaceflight ...

satellite
cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the
urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
city, typically by
employment Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' ...

employment
ties through
commuting Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work or study, where the traveler leaves the boundary of their home community. By extension, it can sometimes be any regular or often repeated travel ...

commuting
, with the urban core city being the primary labor market. The concept of an "urban area" as used in economic statistics should not be confused with the concept of the "urban area" used in road safety statistics. The last concept is also known as " built-up area in road safety". According to the definition by the
Office for National Statistics The Office for National Statistics (ONS; cy, Swyddfa Ystadegau Gwladol) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority cy, Y Bwrdd Ystadegau , seal = , logo = UK Statistics Authority logo.svg , formed = , jurisdiction = United Ki ...
, "Built-up areas are defined as land which is 'irreversibly urban in character', meaning that they are characteristic of a town or city. They include areas of built-up land with a minimum of . Any areas eparated byless than 200 metres
f non-urban space F, or f, is the sixth Letter (alphabet), letter in the English alphabet, modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is English alphabet#Letter names, ''ef'' (pronounced ), plural ''efs''. History The origin ...
are linked to become a single built-up area.


Definitions

Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
an countries define urbanized areas on the basis of urban-type
land use Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness Wilderness or wildlands (usually in the plural), are natural environments on Earth that have not been significantly modified by human activity or any nonur ...
, not allowing any gaps of typically more than , and use
satellite imagery Satellite images (also Earth observation imagery, spaceborne photography, or simply satellite photo) are images of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's su ...
instead of census blocks to determine the boundaries of the urban area. In less-developed countries, in addition to land use and density requirements, a requirement that a large majority of the population, typically 75%, is not engaged in agriculture and/or fishing is sometimes used.


East Asia


China

Since 2000,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
's cities have expanded at an average rate of 10% annually. It is estimated that China's urban population will increase by 292 million people by 2050, when its cities will house a combined population of over one billion. The country's urbanization rate increased from 17.4% to 46.6% between 1978 and 2009. Between 150 and 200 million
migrant worker A migrant worker is a person who migrates within a home country or outside it to pursue work. Migrant workers usually do not have the intention to stay permanently in the country or region in which they work. Migrant workers who work outside ...

migrant worker
s work part-time in the major cities, returning home to the countryside periodically with their earnings. Today, China has more cities with one million or more long-term residents than any other country, including the three
global cities A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ...
of
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, Hong Kong, and
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
; by 2025, the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants. The figures in the table below are from the 2008 census, and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). The large "
floating populationFloating population is a terminology used to describe a group of people who reside in a given population for a certain amount of time and for various reasons, but are not generally considered part of the official census count. A population is usuall ...
s" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult;Francesco Sisci. "China's floating population a headache for census". ''The Straits Times''. 22 September 2000. the figures below include only long-term residents.


Japan

In
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
urbanized areas are defined as
contiguous Contiguity or contiguous may refer to: *Contiguous data storage, in computer science *Contiguity (probability theory) *Contiguity (psychology) *Contiguous distribution of species, in biogeography *Geographic contiguity of territorial land *Contiguo ...
areas of densely inhabited districts (DIDs) using
census A census is the procedure of systematically calculating, acquiring and recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In ...

census
enumeration districts as units with a density requirement of .


South Asia


India

For the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area is a place having a minimum population of 5,000 of density or higher, and 75% plus of the male working population employed in non-agricultural activities. Places administered by a municipal corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee are automatically considered urban areas. The Census of India 2011 also defined the term "urban agglomeration" as an integrated urban area consisting of a core town together with its "outgrowths" (contiguous suburbs).


Pakistan

In
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
, an area is a major
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
and
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
if it has more than 100,000 inhabitants according to census results. Cities include adjacent
cantonments A cantonment (, , or ) is a military or police quarters. The word ''cantonment'', derived from the French word '' canton'', meaning ''corner'' or ''district'', refers to a temporary military or winter encampment. For example, at the start of the ...
. Urbanisation in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
has increased since the time of independence and has several different causes. The majority of southern Pakistan's population lives along the Indus River. Karachi is its most populous city. In the northern half of the country, most of the population lives in an arc formed by the cities of
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab and is the country's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 2nd largest city after Karachi, as well as the List of cities proper by populat ...

Lahore
,
Faisalabad Faisalabad (Punjabi language, Punjabi and ur, , ; ), formerly known as Lyallpur James Broadwood Lyall, named after the founder of the city is the third-List of most populated metropolitan areas in Pakistan, most-populous city in Pakistan aft ...

Faisalabad
,
Rawalpindi Rawalpindi ( or ; Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as ...

Rawalpindi
,
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or othe ...

Islamabad
,
Gujranwala Gujranwala (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Pan ...
,
Sialkot Sialkot (Urdu and pnb, ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the capital city of Sialkot District. It is Pakistan's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 13th largest city by population and is located in north-east Punja ...

Sialkot
, Gujrat,
Jhelum Jhelum ( ur, , ) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River , name_other = Hydaspes, Bidaspes, Vitastā, Bihat, Wihat, Bihatab, Biyatta, Jailam , image = Jhelum River-Pakistan.jpg , image_size = , im ...

Jhelum
,
Sargodha Sargodha (Punjabi language, Punjabi and ur, ) is a city and capital of Sargodha Division, located in Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab province, Pakistan. It is Pakistan's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 12th largest city by population and ...

Sargodha
,
Sheikhupura Shekhupura, also known as Qila Sheikhupura ( ur, , pa, ), is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab. Founded by the Mughal Empire, Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Jehangir in 1607, Sheikhupura is the List of most populous cities ...
, Nowshera,
Mardan Mardān (Pashto and ; Urdu ; Pashto: ) is a city in the Mardan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Located in the Valley of Peshawar, Mardan is the List of cities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by population, second-largest city of Khyber ...
and
Peshawar Peshawar (; ps, پېښور ; hnd, ; ; ur, ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its List of cities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by population, largest city. It is the List of most populous cities in Pakistan, six ...

Peshawar
. During 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia. Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people or more. Karachi is the most populated city in Pakistan closely followed by Lahore according to the 2017 Census.


Bangladesh

In
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, there are total 532 urban areas, which are divided into three categories. Those are
City Corporation Barisal City Corporation is a self-governed municipal administration in Bangladesh Bangladesh (; bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and d ...
,
Municipal Corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body An Academy school in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west a ...
(Pourasova) and Upazila town. Among those urban areas,
Dhaka Dhaka ( or ; bn, ঢাকা, Ḍhākā, ), List of renamed places in Bangladesh, formerly known as Dacca, is the Capital city, capital and the largest city of Bangladesh, as well as the largest city in the Bengal region. It is the eight ...

Dhaka
is the largest city by population and area, with a population of 19.10 million. In
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, there are total 11 City Corporations and 329 Municipal Corporations and 203
Small town A town is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grou ...

Small town
s, which serves as the center for
Upazila Upazila ( bn, উপজেলা, upôzela, lit=sub-district pronounced: ), formerly called Thana Thana means "police station" in South Asian countries, and can also mean the district controlled by a police station. * Thanas of Bangladesh, fo ...
s. According to 2011 population census,
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
has an urban population of 28%, with a growth rate of 2.8%. At this growth rate, it is estimated that the urban population of Bangladesh will reach 79 million or 42% of total population by 2035.


Southeast Asia


Philippines

With an estimated population of 16.3 million,
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Po ...

Metro Manila
is the most populous metropolitan area in the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
and the . However, the greater urban area is the 5th largest in the world with a population of 20,654,307 people (2010 estimate).


Singapore

As an island
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance la ...
, about 5.6 million people live and work within . With 64 islands and islets,
Singapore Island Singapore Island or Mainland Singapore, historically known as Pulau Ujong ( eng, Island at the end), is the mainland, main constituent island of the sovereign island city-state of Singapore. It is part of the Malay Archipelago and is located at t ...
makes up the largest urban area in the country. According to the
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is one of the five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council. It was established in order to increase economic a ...
, the country has the highest urbanised population in Southeast Asia, with 100 percent of its population living in an urban area. The
Urban Redevelopment Authority Image:URA Centre, Jan 06.JPG, The URA Centre at Maxwell Road. The Urban Redevelopment Authority (Abbreviation: URA; Simplified Chinese, Chinese: 市区重建局; Bahasa Melayu, Malay: ''Penguasa Pembangunan Semula Bandar'') is the national urb ...
(URA) is responsible for the urban land-use planning, which designates land use and
urban density Urban density is a term used in urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is ...
of the country. The country is divided into 5
regions In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wor ...
for planning purposes by the URA, even though as a city state Singapore is defined as a single continuous urban area. It is further subdivided into 55 urban planning areas, which acts as the boundaries of planned towns within the country.


Vietnam

In Vietnam, there are 6 types of urban areas: * Special urban area (2 municipalities):
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
and
Ho Chi Minh City , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = List of ethnic groups in Vietnam, Ethnic groups , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title ...

Ho Chi Minh City
. * Type I urban area (18 provincial cities and 3 municipalities): Long Xuyên,
Pleiku Pleiku is a city in central Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = ...

Pleiku
,
Mỹ Tho Mỹ Tho () is a city in the Tiền Giang Province in the Mekong Delta region of South Vietnam. It has a population of approximately 169,000 in 2006 and 220,000 in 2012. It is the regional center of economics, education and technology. The majority ...

Mỹ Tho
,
Thủ Dầu Một Thủ Dầu Một () is the capital city of Bình Dương Province, Vietnam, located at around . The city has an area of 118.66 km², with a population of 417,000 (as of 2018), and is located 20 km north of downtown Hồ Chí Minh City, ...
,
Bắc Ninh Bắc Ninh () is a city in the northern part of Vietnam and is the capital of Bắc Ninh Province. The city is the cultural, administrative and commercial center of the province. The city area is 82.60 square km, with a population of 501,199 in Nov ...
, Biên Hòa, ,
Thanh Hóa Thanh Hóa () is the capital of Thanh Hóa Province. The city is situated in the east of the province on the Ma River (Sông Mã), about 150 kilometers (93 miles) south of Hanoi and 1560 kilometers (969 miles) north of Ho Chi Minh City. Thanh ...
,
Hạ Long Hạ Long () is the capital city and 1st-class provincial city of Quảng Ninh Province, Vietnam. The name Hạ Long means "descending dragon". The city was created in 1993, when the old capital, Hòn Gai, was merged with Bãi Cháy – the main ...
, Việt Trì, Thái Nguyên,
Nam Định Nam Định () is a city in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh C ...
,
Vũng Tàu Vũng Tàu (''Hanoi accent:'' , ''Saigon accent:'' ) is the largest city of Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu province in southern Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates ...

Vũng Tàu
, Buôn Ma Thuột, Đà Lạt, Quy Nhơn,
Nha Trang Nha Trang ( or ; ) is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is bounded on the north by Ninh Hoà district, on the south by Cam Ranh town and on the west by Diên Khánh District. The cit ...

Nha Trang
,
Huế Huế () is the capital of Thừa Thiên Huế Province in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyen Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. The city served as the administrative capital for the Nguyen dynasty, ...
,
Vinh Vinh () is the biggest city and economic and cultural center of north-central Vietnam. Vinh is the capital of Nghệ An Province Nghệ An () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. ...
, Cần Thơ,
Đà Nẵng Da Nang (also written as Đà Nẵng, Danang,See also Danang Dragons ; vi, Đà Nẵng, ) is a municipalities of Vietnam, class-1 municipality and the list of cities in Vietnam, fifth-largest city in Vietnam by municipal population. It lies on ...

Đà Nẵng
and Hải Phòng. * Type II urban area (21 provincial cities and 1 district): Châu Đốc, , Uông Bí,
Bắc Giang Bắc Giang () is a city in Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = ...
, , Bạc Liêu,
Bà Rịa Bà Rịa () is a city in Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province in the Southeast (Vietnam), Southeast region of Vietnam. Bà Rịa is split from Vũng Tàu by a river crossed by Cỏ May Bridge. This is the ''de jure'' seat of the province since most ...
, Thái Bình, Rạch Giá, Cà Mau, Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm, Tuy Hòa, Phan Thiết, Vĩnh Yên, Lào Cai and Phú Quốc. * Type III urban area (31 provincial cities and 12 towns). * Type IV urban area (35 towns and 35 townships). * Type V urban area (586 townships and 54 communes).


Europe


Finland

Urban areas in the Nordic countries, As in other Nordic countries, an urban area (''taajama'' in Finnish language, Finnish) in Finland must have a building at least every and at least 200 people. To be considered a
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares a ...

town
or a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
(''kaupunki'') for statistical purposes, an urban area must have at least 15,000 people. This is not to be confused with the city / town designation used by Municipalities of Finland, municipalities.


France

In France, an urban area (''Fr: aire urbaine'') is a zone encompassing an area of built-up growth (called an "urban unit" (''unité urbaine'') – close in definition to the North American urban area) and its commuter belt (''couronne périurbaine, couronne''). Americans would find the INSEE definition of the urban area to be similar to their
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
, and the INSEE sometimes uses the term ''aire métropolitaine'' to refer to the country's largest ''aires urbaines''. The List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, largest cities in France, in terms of urban area population (2017), are Paris (12,628,266), Lyon (2,323,221), Marseille (1,760,653), Toulouse (1,360,829), Bordeaux (1,247,977), Lille (1,191,117), Nice (1,006,201), Nantes (972,828), Strasbourg (790,087) and Rennes (733,320).


Germany

Germany has a number of large List of cities in Germany, cities. The largest
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for r ...
is the Rhine-Ruhr region (11 million ), including Düsseldorf (the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia), Cologne, Bonn, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, and Bochum.


Netherlands

The Netherlands is the 30th List of countries by population density, most densely populated country in the world, with —or if only the land area is counted. The Randstad is the country's largest
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for r ...
located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and Utrecht (city), Utrecht. The Randstad has a population of 7 million inhabitants and is the List of metropolitan areas in Europe by population, 6th largest
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
in Europe.


Sweden

Urban areas in Sweden (''tätorter'') are statistically defined localities, totally independent of the administrative subdivision of the country. There are 1,956 such localities in Sweden, with a population ranging from 200 to 1,372,000 inhabitants.


United Kingdom

In 2013 the United Kingdom's
Office for National Statistics The Office for National Statistics (ONS; cy, Swyddfa Ystadegau Gwladol) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority cy, Y Bwrdd Ystadegau , seal = , logo = UK Statistics Authority logo.svg , formed = , jurisdiction = United Ki ...
(ONS) published ''2011 Built-up Areas - Methodology and Guidance'' which sets out its definition of a built-up area as an area of built-up land of at least , separated from other settlements by at least . For 2011 census data there are 5,493 built-up areas, of which 501 are divided into sub-divisions for which data is also available. Each built-up area is named algorithmically, using Ordnance Survey place-name data. The ONS has produced census results from urban areas since 1951, since 1981 based upon the extent of irreversible urban development indicated on Ordnance Survey maps. The definition is an extent of at least 20 ha and at least 1,500 census residents. Separate areas are linked if less than 200 m (220 yd) apart. Included are transportation features. The UK has five Urban Areas with a population over a million and a further sixty nine with a List of urban areas in the United Kingdom#List of urban areas in the UK with a population over 100,000, population over one hundred thousand.


Norway

Statistics Norway defines urban areas ("tettsteder") Urban areas in the Nordic countries, similarly to the other Nordic countries. Unlike in Denmark and Sweden, the distance between each building has to be of less than 50 m, although exceptions are made due to parks, industrial areas, rivers, and similar. Groups of houses less than 400 m from the main body of an urban area are included in the urban area.


Poland

In Poland, official "urban" population figures simply refer to those localities which have the status of towns (''miasta''). The "rural" population is that of all areas outside the boundaries of these towns. This distinction may give a misleading impression in some cases, since some localities with only village status may have acquired larger and denser populations than many many smaller towns with most excessive example of Poznań, most spread urban area of the country with population of the city app. 534 thousand and urban area above 1,100 thousand inhabitants. On the other hand, the Upper Silesian Industrial Region conurbation with numerous large and medium cities covers 3,200 km and has approximately 3 million people.


Russia

Moscow, the capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia, has a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits, while over 17 million residents in the urban area, and over 20 million residents in the Moscow metropolitan area, Moscow Metropolitan Area. It is among the List of largest cities, world's largest cities, being the List of European cities by population within city limits, most populous city entirely within
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
, the List of urban areas in Europe, most populous urban area in Europe, the List of metropolitan areas in Europe, most populous metropolitan area in Europe, and also the largest city by land area on the European continent. Saint Petersburg, the cultural capital, is the second-largest city, with a population of roughly 5.4 million inhabitants. Other major urban areas are Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and Chelyabinsk. File:Business Centre of Moscow 2.jpg, Moscow, the capital and largest city of Russia File:Spb 06-2017 img01 Spit of Vasilievsky Island.jpg, Saint Petersburg, the cultural capital and the second-largest city File:E-burg asv2019-05 img46 view from VysotSky.jpg, Yekaterinburg, the fourth-largest city in the country.


Oceania


Australia

The Australian Bureau of Statistics refers to urban areas as Urban Centres, which it generally defines as population clusters of 1,000 or more people. Australia is one of the most urbanised countries in the world, with more than 50% of the population residing in Australia's three biggest urban centres.


New Zealand

Statistics New Zealand defines urban areas in New Zealand, which are independent of any administrative subdivisions and have no legal basis. There are three classes of urban area: main urban areas are the 17 urban areas which have a population of 30,000 or more; secondary urban areas are the 14 urban areas which have a population of 10,000 or more but less than 30,000, and minor urban areas are the 103 urban areas which have a population of 1,000 or more but less than 10,000. Urban areas are reclassified after each New Zealand census, so population changes between censuses does not change an urban area's classification.


North America


Canada

According to Statistics Canada, an urban area in Canada is an area with a population of at least 1,000 people where the density is no fewer than . If two or more urban areas are within of each other by road, they are merged into a single urban area, provided they do not cross census metropolitan area or census agglomeration boundaries. In the Canada 2011 Census, Statistics Canada redesignated urban areas with the new term "Population centre (Canada), population centre";"From urban areas to population centres"
. Statistics Canada, May 5, 2011.
the new term was chosen in order to better reflect the fact that urban vs. rural is not a strict division, but rather a continuum within which several distinct settlement patterns may exist. For example, a community may fit a strictly statistical definition of an urban area, but may not be commonly thought of as "urban" because it has a smaller population, or functions socially and economically as a suburb of another urban area rather than as a self-contained urban entity, or is geographically remote from other urban communities. Accordingly, the new definition set out three distinct types of population centres: small (population 1,000 to 29,999), medium (population 30,000 to 99,999) and large (population 100,000 or greater). Despite the change in terminology, however, the demographic definition of a population centre remains unchanged from that of an urban area: a population of at least 1,000 people where the density is no fewer than 400 persons per km2.


United States

In the United States, there are two categories of urban area. The term ''urbanized area'' denotes an urban area of 50,000 or more people. Urban areas under 50,000 people are called ''urban clusters''. Urbanized areas were first delineated in the United States in the 1950 census, while urban clusters were added in the 2000 census. There are 1,371 List of United States urban areas, urban areas and urban clusters with more than 10,000 people. The United States Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau defines an urban area as "core census block groups or census block, blocks that have a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile (386 per square kilometer) and surrounding census blocks that have an overall density of at least 500 people per square mile (193 per square kilometer)". The largest urban area in the United States is the New York metropolitan area. The population of New York City, the core of the metropolitan area, exceeds 8.5 million people, its List of metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan statistical area has a population that is over 20 million, and its List of Combined Statistical Areas, combined statistical area population is over 23 million. The next seven largest urban areas in the U.S. are Los Angeles, Chicago, Miami, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Houston, and Atlanta. About 82 percent of the population of the United States lives within the boundaries of an urbanized area as of December, 2010. Combined, these areas occupy about 2 percent of the land area of the United States. Many Americans live in agglomerations of cities,
suburbs A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...

suburbs
, and
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares a ...

town
s that are adjacent to a metropolitan area's largest city. The concept of Urbanized Areas as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau is often used as a more accurate gauge of the size of a city, since in different cities and states the lines between city borders and the urbanized area of that city are often not the same. For example, the city of Greenville, South Carolina has a city population just over 68,000 and an urbanized area population of around 400,000, while Greensboro, North Carolina has a city population just over 285,000 and an urbanized area population of around 300,000 — meaning that Greenville is actually "larger" for some intents and purposes, but not for others, such as taxation, local elections, etc. In the U.S. Department of Agriculture's natural resources inventory, urban areas are officially known as developed areas or urban and built-up areas. Such areas include cities, ethnic villages, other built-up areas of more than 10 ac (4 ha), industrial sites, railroad yards, cemeteries, airports, golf courses, shooting ranges, institutional and public administration sites, and similar areas. The 1997 national resources inventory placed over 98,000,000 ac (40,000,000 ha) in this category, an increase of 25,000,000 ac (10,000,000 ha) since 1982.


South America


Argentina

Argentina is highly urbanized. The ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population, and fewer than one in ten live in rural areas. About 3 million people live in Buenos Aires City and the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area totals around 15 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world, with a population of 18 million all up. Córdoba, Argentina, Córdoba has around 1.5 million people living in the urban area, while Rosario, Santa Fe, Rosario, Mendoza, Argentina, Mendoza and San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán have around 1.2 million inhabitants each and La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe, Argentina, Santa Fe have at least 500,000 people each.


Brazil

According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) urban areas already concentrate 84.35% of the population, while the Southeast region remains the most populated one, with over 80 million inhabitants. The largest metropolitan areas in Brazil are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte — all in the Southeastern Region — with 21, 12, and 5 million inhabitants respectively. In general, state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vitória, Brazil, Vitória, the capital of Espírito Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina. There are also non-capital metropolitan areas in the states of São Paulo (Campinas, Santos, São Paulo, Santos and the Paraíba Valley), Minas Gerais (Vale do Aço metropolitan area, Steel Valley), Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre, Sinos Valley) and Santa Catarina (Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí Valley).


See also

* Developed environments * Urban climatology * Urban culture * Urban decay * Urban exploration * Urban planning * Urban renewal * Urbanization


References


External links


United Nations Statistics Division (UNSTAT): Definition of "urban"

World Urban Areas
All identified world urbanized areas 500,000+ and others: Population & Density.
Geopolis
research group, University of Paris-Diderot, France for world urban areas
Gridded Population of the World
– contains links to urban area definitions and maps for over 230 countries/territories



* [http://www.populationdata.net/index2.php?option=palmares&rid=4&nom=grandes-villes PopulationData – World's largest urban areas 1,000,000+ population] {{Authority control Urban areas, Urban design Urban planning