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Tropical climate is one of the five major climate groups in the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
. Tropical climates are characterized by monthly average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher year-round and feature hot temperatures. Annual precipitation is often abundant in tropical climates, and shows a seasonal rhythm to varying degrees. There are normally only two seasons in tropical climates, a wet (rainy) season and a dry season. The annual temperature range in tropical climates is normally very small. Sunlight is intense. There are three basic types of tropical climates within the tropical climate group: tropical rainforest climate (Af), tropical monsoon climate (Am) and tropical wet and dry or savanna climate (Aw or As), which are classified and distinguished by the annual precipitation and the precipitation level of the driest month in those regions.

# Köppen climate classification

Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It defines a tropical climate as a region where the mean temperature of the coldest month is greater than or equal to 18 °C (64.4 °F) and classifies them as an A-group (tropical climate group). A-group regions are usually found below 25 latitude in both the southern and northern hemisphere; they include areas around the Equator, Central America, North-central portions of South America, central Africa, southern portions of Asia and parts of North Australia and the Pacific Ocean islands. In Group A, there are three types of climate: tropical rainforest climate (Af), tropical monsoon climate (Am) and tropical wet and dry or savanna climate (Aw or As). All of the three climates are classified by their Pdry (short for precipitation of the driest month). Tropical rainforest climate's Pdry should be greater or equal than 60 mm (2.4 inches). Tropical monsoon climate's Pdry should be in the range from $100 - \tfrac$to 60 mm. Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate's Pdry should be less than $100 - \tfrac$.

# Tropical climate biome

Tropical climates normally have only two seasons, a wet season and a dry season. Depending on the location of the region, the wet and dry seasons are a varying duration. Annual temperature changes in the tropics are small. Due to the high temperature and abundant rainfall, much of the plant life grows throughout the year. High temperature and humidity is the most suitable environment for
epiphyte 200px, '' Tillandsia bourgaei'' growing on an oak tree in Mexico An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating a ...

s to grow. In many tropical climates, vegetation grow in layers:
shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the p ...

s under tall trees, and bushes under shrubs. Tropical plants are rich in resources, including coffee, cocoa and oil palm. Listed below are types of vegetation unique to each of the three climates that make up the tropical climate biome.

## Natural vegetation

Tropical rainforest vegetation including: Bengal bamboo,
bougainvillea ''Bougainvillea'' ( , ) is a genus of thorny ornamental vines, bushes, and trees belonging to the four o' clock family, Nyctaginaceae. It is native to eastern South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hem ...

,
curare Curare ( /kʊˈrɑːri/ or /kjʊˈrɑːri/; ''koo-rah-ree'' or ''kyoo-rah-ree'') is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid Alkaloids are a class of base (chemistry), basic, natural product, naturally occurring organic compoun ...

,
coconut tree The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree The Arecaceae is a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by ...

,
durian The durian () is the edible fruit of several tree species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biolog ...

and
banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms dissemin ...

. Tropical monsoon vegetation including:
teak Teak (''Tectona grandis'') is a tropical hardwood is a popular hardwood Hardwood is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic mat ...

, deodar,
rosewood Rosewood refers to any of a number of richly hued timber Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is ...
,
sandalwood Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus ''Santalum''. The woods are heavy, yellow, and fine-grained, and, unlike many other aromatic woods, they retain their fragrance for decades. Sandalwood oil is extracted from the woods for us ...

and
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in th ...

. Tropical wet and dry or savanna vegetation including:
acacia senegal ''Senegalia senegal'' (also known as ''Acacia senegal'') is a small thorny deciduous tree from the genus '' Senegalia'', which is known by several common names, including gum acacia, gum arabic tree, Sudan gum and Sudan gum arabic. In parts of In ...
,
elephant grassThe term Elephant grass may refer to the following grass species: * The Asian '' Miscanthus giganteus'', also known as giant miscanthus, commonly used as a biomass crop * The African ''Pennisetum purpureum'', also known as napier grass, Uganda grass ...
, jarrah tree, and
whistling thorn ''Vachellia drepanolobium'' (syn. ''Acacia drepanolobium''), commonly known as whistling thorn (family (biology), family Fabaceae), is a swollen-thorn Acacia sensu lato, acacia native to East Africa. The whistling thorn grows up to 6 meters tall. ...
.

# Tropical rainforest climate

The Köppen classification identifies
tropical rainforest climate A tropical rainforest climate or equatorial climate is a tropical climate Tropical climate is one of the five major climate groups in the Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate ...
(Zone Af: f = feucht, German for moist) as having north and south latitudinal ranges of 5-10 degrees from the equator. Tropical rainforest climates have high temperatures: the yearly average temperature is between 21 °C to 30 °C ( 70 °F to 85 °F ). The precipitation can reach over 100 inches a year. The seasons are evenly distributed throughout the year, and there is almost no drought period. Regions affected by tropical rainforest climate mainly include the upper Amazon basin of South America, the Northern Zaire (Congo) basin of Africa, and the islands of the East Indies. The tropical rainforest climate differs from other subtypes of tropical climates as it has more kinds of trees. The large number of trees contribute to the humidity of the climate because of the transpiration, which is the process of water lost from the surface of living plants to the atmosphere. The warmth and abundant precipitation contributes to the diversity and characteristics of vegetations under the tropical rainforest climate. The vegetations develop a vertical stratification and various growth forms to receive enough sunlight, which is unusual under other types of climate.

# Tropical monsoon climate

The Köppen classification tool identifies tropical monsoon climate as having small annual temperature ranges, high temperatures, and plentiful precipitation. This climate also has a short dry season which occurs in the winter. The tropical monsoon climate is found within countries in the south and southeast Asia region between the latitude of 10 degrees north and the Tropic of Cancer. It can also be found in West Africa and South America. The annual temperature of regions under tropical monsoon climate is stable. The
tropical monsoon climate An area of tropical monsoon climate (occasionally known as a tropical wet climate or a tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate) is a type of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmos ...
has the following main characteristic. The average annual temperature is and has an annual temperature range of 3.6 °C (2 °F). Distinction between wet and drought seasons, the tropical monsoon climate is different from other tropical climates because of its uneven precipitation throughout the year. The precipitation is heavy in the summer, and a short-drought season occurs in the winter. This climate has an annual total precipitation of 3409.2mm, and a 3115.9mm summer precipitation and 293.3mm winter precipitation. There are three main seasons of tropical monsoon climate: the cool dry season is from October to February, the hot dry season is from March to mid-June and the rainy season is from mid-June to September. The tropical monsoon forest mainly consists of three layered structures. The first layer is the ground layer which is a very dense layer of shrubs. The second layer is the understory layer with trees about 15 meters tall. The top layer is called the canopy tree which has trees from 25 to 30 meters tall and those trees grow closely.

# Tropical wet and dry or forest climate

Tropical savanna climate Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meanin ...
s are mainly located between 10° and 20° north-south latitude, and often occur at the outer margins of the tropics. Typical regions include central Africa, parts of South America, as well as northern and eastern Australia. The temperature range of savanna climate is between 20 °C to 30 °C (68 °F - 86 °F). In summer, the temperature is between 25 °C - 30 °C, while in winter the temperature is between 20 °C - 30 °C. The annual precipitation is between 700 to 1000 mm. The driest months are from November to March and they have less than 60 mm of rainfall. Regions under the savanna climate usually have lands covered with flat grassland vegetation. Those grassland biomes cover almost 20% of the Earth's surface. The grassland vegetation types include Rhodes grass, red oats grass, star grass and lemongrass.

# References

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