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The genre of travel literature encompasses
outdoor literature Outdoor literature is a literature genre about or involving the outdoors. Outdoor literature encompasses several different literature, subgenres including exploration literature, adventure literature, mountain literature and nature writing. Anothe ...
,
guide book A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place designed for the use of visitors or tourists". It will usually include information about sights, accommodation, restaurants, transportation, and activities. Maps of varying det ...
s,
nature writing Nature writing is nonfiction or fiction prose or poetry about the natural environment. Nature writing encompasses a wide variety of works, ranging from those that place primary emphasis on natural history facts (such as field guides) to those in wh ...
, and travel
memoir A memoir (; , ) is any nonfiction Nonfiction (also spelled non-fiction) is any document A document is a written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act o ...
s. One early travel memoirist in
Western literature Western literature, also known as European literature, is the literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially pro ...
was
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
, a Greek geographer of the 2nd century AD. In the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
,
James Boswell James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (; 29 October 1740 ( N.S.) – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-Eur ...

James Boswell
's ''Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides'' (1786) helped shape travel memoir as a genre.


History

Early examples of travel literature include
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
' ''Description of Greece'' in the 2nd century CE,
Safarnama ''Safarnāma'' () is a book of travel literature The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs. One early travel memoirist in Western literature was Pausanias (geographer), Paus ...

Safarnama
(book of Travels) of
Nasir Khusraw Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nāsir Khusraw Qubādiyānī Balkhi also spelled as ''Nasir Khusrow'' and ''Naser Khosrow'' (d. after 1070) ( fa, ناصر خسرو قبادیانی) was a Persians, Persian poet, philos ...
(1003-1077) the '' Journey Through Wales'' (1191) and ''
Description of Wales
Description of Wales
'' (1194) by
Gerald of Wales Gerald of Wales ( la, Giraldus Cambrensis; cy, Gerallt Gymro; french: Gerald de Barri; ) was a Cambro-Norman Cambro-Normans ( la, Cambria Cambria is a name for Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country that is Countries of the United Kin ...
, and the travel journals of
Ibn Jubayr Ibn Jubayr (1 September 1145 – 29 November 1217; ar, ابن جبير), also written Ibn Jubair, Ibn Jobair, and Ibn Djubayr, was an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, ع ...
(1145–1214) and
Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta (; 24 February 13041368/1369); fully: ; Arabic: was a Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an e ...
(1304–1377), both of whom recorded their travels across the known world in detail. The travel genre was a fairly common genre in medieval
Arabic literature Arabic literature ( ar, الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: ''al-Adab al-‘Arabī'') is the writing, both as prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language. The Arabic word used for literature is ''"Adab (Islam), Adab"'', which is ...
. ''Il Milione'', ''
The Travels of Marco Polo ''Book of the Marvels of the World'' (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance langu ...
'', describing
Marco Polo Marco Polo (, , ; September 15, 1254January 8, 1324) was a merchant, explorer, and writer who travelled through Asia along the between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in ' (also known as ''Book of the Marvels of the World '' and '' ...

Marco Polo
's travels through
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
between 1271 and 1295 is a
classic A classic is an outstanding example of a particular style; something of lasting worth or with a timeless quality; of the first or highest quality, class, or rank – something that exemplifies its class Class or The Class may refer to: ...
of travel literature. Travel literature became popular during the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
(960–1279) of medieval China.Hargett 1985, p. 67. The genre was called 'travel record literature' (遊記文學 yóujì wénxué), and was often written in
narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also spelled non-fiction) is any document A document is a written Writing is a medium of human communication Comm ...

narrative
,
prose Prose is a form of written or spoken language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions ...

prose
,
essay An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying l ...

essay
and
diary A diary is a record (originally in handwritten format) with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a person's experiences, thoughts, and/or feelin ...

diary
style.Hargett 1985, pp. 67–93. Travel literature authors such as
Fan Chengda Fan Chengda (, 1126–1193), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China ...
(1126–1193) and
Xu Xiake Xu Xiake (, January 5, 1587 – March 8, 1641), born Xu Hongzu (), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the E ...

Xu Xiake
(1587–1641) incorporated a wealth of
geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...
and
topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surface Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrain or relief (also topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an ...

topographical
information into their writing, while the 'daytrip essay' '' Record of Stone Bell Mountain'' by the noted poet and statesman
Su Shi Su Shi (; 8 January 1037 – 24 August 1101), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural ...

Su Shi
(1037–1101) presented a philosophical and moral argument as its central purpose.Hargett 1985, pp. 74–76. One of the earliest known records of taking pleasure in travel, of travelling for the sake of travel and writing about it, is
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases ...
's (1304–1374) ascent of
Mount Ventoux Mont Ventoux (; oc, Ventor, label= Provençal ) is a mountain in the Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left ...
in 1336. He states that he went to the mountaintop for the pleasure of seeing the top of the famous height. His companions who stayed at the bottom he called ''frigida incuriositas'' ("a cold lack of curiosity"). He then wrote about his climb, making
allegorical As a literary device A narrative technique (known for literary fiction Literary fiction is a term used in the book-trade to distinguish novels that are regarded as having literary merit, from most commercial or "genre" fiction. However, the b ...
comparisons between climbing the mountain and his own moral progress in life. Michault Taillevent, a poet for the
Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the an ...
, travelled through the
Jura Mountains The Jura Mountains ( , , , ; french: Massif du Jura; german: Juragebirge; it, Massiccio del Giura, rm, Montagnas da Jura) are a sub-alpine mountain range a short distance north of the Western Alps and mainly demarcate a long part of the ...

Jura Mountains
in 1430 and recorded his personal reflections, his horrified reaction to the sheer rock faces, and the terrifying thunderous cascades of mountain streams.
Antoine de la Sale Antoine de la Sale (also ''la Salle'', ''de Lasalle''; 1385/861460/61) was a French courtier, educator and writer. He participated in a number of military campaigns in his youth and he only began writing when he had reached middle age, in the late ...
(c. 1388–c. 1462), author of ''Petit Jehan de Saintre'', climbed to the crater of a volcano in the
Lipari Islands Lipari (; scn, Lìpari; la, Lipara; grc, Μελιγουνίς, Meligounís, or , ''Lipára'') is the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy; it is also the name of the island's main ...
in 1407, leaving us with his impressions. "Councils of mad youth" were his stated reasons for going. In the mid-15th century, Gilles le Bouvier, in his ''Livre de la description des pays'', gave us his reason to travel and write: :Because many people of diverse nations and countries delight and take pleasure, as I have done in times past, in seeing the world and things therein, and also because many wish to know without going there, and others wish to see, go, and travel, I have begun this little book. By the 16th century accounts to travels to India and Persia had become common enough that they had been compiled into collections such as the ("''New World''") by
Simon Grynaeus Simon Grynaeus Simon Grynaeus (born Simon Griner; 1493 – 1 August 1541) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citi ...

Simon Grynaeus
, and collections by
Ramusio The noble Italy, Italian family of Ramusio (also spelled Ramnusio, Rhamnusio, Rannusio) was worth of note for literary and official ability during at least four generations. Its original home was in Rimini, and the municipality of that city has se ...
and
Richard Hakluyt Richard Hakluyt (; 1553 – 23 November 1616) was an English writer. He is known for promoting the English colonisation of North America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Emp ...
. In 1589, Hakluyt (c. 1552–1616) published ''Voyages''. 16th century travelers to Persia included the brothers
Robert Shirley Sir Robert Shirley (or Sherley; c. 1581 – 13 July 1628) was an England, English traveller and adventurer, younger brother of Anthony Shirley, Sir Anthony Shirley and Thomas Shirley, Sir Thomas Shirley. He is notable for his help modernisin ...
and
Anthony Shirley Sir Anthony Shirley (or Sherley) (1565–1635) was an England, English traveller, whose imprisonment in 1603 by James I of England, King James I caused the English House of Commons to assert one of its privileges—freedom of its members from arr ...
, and for India
Duarte Barbosa Duarte Barbosa (c. 1480, Lisbon, Portugal1 May 1521, Philippines) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a R ...

Duarte Barbosa
,
Ralph Fitch Ralph Fitch (1550 – 1611) was a gentleman merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people, especially one who trades with foreign countries. Historically, a merchant is anyone who is involved in busines ...
, Ludovico di Varthema,
Cesare Federici Cesare Federici (c. 1530 – 1600/03) was an Italian merchant and traveler. Federici was born at Erbanno, in what is now the province of Brescia, then under the rule of the Republic of Venice. In 1563, he visited India, and spent eighteen years i ...
, and
Jan Huyghen van Linschoten Jan Huygen van Linschoten (1563 – 8 February 1611) was a Netherlands, Dutch merchant, trader and historian. He travelled extensively along the East Indies regions under Portuguese influence and served as the archbishop's secretary in Goa ...
. In the 18th century, travel literature was commonly known as the book of travels, which mainly consisted of maritime
diaries Diaries may refer to: * the plural of diary *''Diaries: 1971-1976'', a 1981 documentary by Ed Pincus *''Diaries 1969–1979: The Python Years'', a 2006 book by Michael Palin *''OFW Diaries'', a public affairs television show in the Philippines See ...

diaries
.Stolley 1992, p. 26. In 18th-century Britain, almost every famous writer worked in the travel literature form.Fussell 1963, p. 54. Captain
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
's diaries (1784) were the equivalent of today's best-sellers.
Alexander von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * ...

Alexander von Humboldt
's ''Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of America, during the years 1799–1804'', originally published in French, was translated to multiple languages and influenced later naturalists, including
Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin (; ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that fu ...

Charles Darwin
. Other later examples of travel literature include accounts of the
Grand Tour The Grand Tour was the principally 17th- mid-19th-century custom of a traditional trip through Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rath ...

Grand Tour
. Aristocrats, clergy, and others with money and leisure time travelled Europe to learn about the art and architecture of its past. One tourism literature pioneer was
Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis Stevenson (born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson; 13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, essayist, poet and travel writer. He is best known for works such as ''Treasure Island ''Treasure Island'' (origi ...

Robert Louis Stevenson
(1850–1894) with ''
An Inland Voyage ''An Inland Voyage'' (1878) is a travelogue by Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis Stevenson (born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson; 13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, essayist, poet and travel writer. He is b ...
'' (1878), and ''
Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes ''Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes'' (1879) is one of Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis Stevenson (born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson; 13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, essayist, poet and travel writer. ...

Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes
'' (1879), about his travels in the
Cévennes , etymology= , photo=Point Sublime-Gorges du Tarn-Frankreich.jpg , photo_caption=The Gorges du Tarn The Gorges du Tarn ( oc, Gòrjas de Tarn) is a canyon formed by the Tarn (river), Tarn between the Causse Méjean and the Causse de Sauveterre, ...

Cévennes
(France), is among the first popular books to present hiking and camping as recreational activities, and tells of commissioning one of the first
sleeping bag A sleeping bag is an insulated covering for a person, essentially a lightweight quilt that can be closed with a zipper A zipper, zip, fly, or zip fastener, formerly known as a clasp locker, is a commonly used device for binding the edges ...
s. Other notable writers of travel literature in the 19th century include the Russian
Ivan Goncharov Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov (, also ; rus, Ива́н Алекса́ндрович Гончаро́в, r=Iván Aleksándrovich Goncharóv, p=ɪˈvan ɐlʲɪkˈsandrəvʲɪdʑ ɡənʲtɕɪˈrof; – ) was a Russian novelist best known for his ...

Ivan Goncharov
, who wrote about his experience of a tour around the world in ''
Frigate "Pallada" ''Frigate "Pallada"'' (russian: Фрегат "Паллада") is a book by Ivan Goncharov, written in 1854–1856 and based on a diary that he kept as a secretary for Admiral Yevfimy Putyatin during his 1852–1854 around-the world expedition on ...
'' (1858), and
Lafcadio Hearn , born Patrick Lafcadio Hearn (; el, Πατρίκιος Λευκάδιος Χερν), was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic R ...

Lafcadio Hearn
, who interpreted the culture of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
with insight and sensitivity. The 20th century's
interwar period In the history of the 20th century, the Interwar period lasted from 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939 (20 years, 9 months and 21 days), the end of the First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as t ...
has been described as a heyday of travel literature when many established writers such as
Graham Greene Henry Graham Greene (2 October 1904 – 3 April 1991) was an English writer and journalist regarded by many as one of the leading English novelists of the 20th century. Combining literary acclaim with widespread popularity, Greene acquir ...
,
Robert Byron Robert Byron (26 February 1905 – 24 February 1941) was a British travel writing, travel writer, best known for his Travel literature, travelogue ''The Road to Oxiana''. He was also a noted writer, art critic and historian. Biography He was ...
,
Rebecca West Dame Cicily Isabel Fairfield (21 December 1892 – 15 March 1983), known as Rebecca West, or Dame Rebecca West, was a British author, journalist, literary criticism, literary critic, and travel writer. An author who wrote in many genres, ...

Rebecca West
,
Freya Stark Dame Freya Madeline Stark (31 January 18939 May 1993), was an Anglo-Italian explorer and travel writer. She wrote more than two dozen books on her travels in the Middle East and Afghanistan as well as several autobiographical works and essays. ...
, Peter Fleming and
Evelyn Waugh Arthur Evelyn St. John Waugh (; 28 October 1903 – 10 April 1966) was an English writer of novels, biographies, and travel books; he was also a prolific journalist and book reviewer. His most famous works include the early satires ''Declin ...
were traveling and writing notable travel books. In the late 20th century there was a surge in popularity of travel writing, particularly in the English-speaking world with writers such as
Bruce Chatwin Charles Bruce Chatwin (13 May 194018 January 1989) was an English travel writer, novelist and journalist. His first book, ''In Patagonia ''In Patagonia'' is an English travel book by Bruce Chatwin Charles Bruce Chatwin (13 May 194018 Januar ...
,
Paul Theroux Paul Edward Theroux (born April 10, 1941) is an American novelist and travel writer who has written numerous books, including the travelogue, ''The Great Railway Bazaar'' (1975). Some of his works of fiction have been adapted as feature films. He ...
,
Jonathan Raban Jonathan Raban (born 14 June 1942, Hempton, Norfolk, England) is a British travel writer, critic, and novelist. He has received several awards, such as the National Book Critics Circle Award, The Royal Society of Literature's Heinemann Award, t ...
,
Colin Thubron Colin Gerald Dryden Thubron, Royal Asiatic Society, FRAS (born 14 June 1939) is a British travel writer and novelist. In 2008, ''The Times'' ranked him among the 50 greatest postwar British writers. He is a contributor to ''The New York Review ...

Colin Thubron
, and others. While travel writing previously had mainly attracted interest by historians and biographers, critical studies of travel literature now also developed into an academic discipline in its own right.


Travel books

Travel books come in styles ranging from the , to the literary, as well as the journalistic, and from memoir to the humorous to the serious. They are often associated with
tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...

tourism
and include
guide book A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place designed for the use of visitors or tourists". It will usually include information about sights, accommodation, restaurants, transportation, and activities. Maps of varying det ...
s. Travel writing may be found on web sites, in periodicals, on blogs and in books. It has been produced by a variety of writers, including travelers, military officers, missionaries, explorers, scientists, pilgrims, social and physical scientists, educators, and migrants. Travel literature often intersects with
essay An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying l ...

essay
writing, as in V. S. Naipaul's '' India: A Wounded Civilization'' (1976), whose trip became the occasion for extended observations on a nation and people. This is similarly the case in
Rebecca West Dame Cicily Isabel Fairfield (21 December 1892 – 15 March 1983), known as Rebecca West, or Dame Rebecca West, was a British author, journalist, literary criticism, literary critic, and travel writer. An author who wrote in many genres, ...

Rebecca West
's work on Yugoslavia, ''
Black Lamb and Grey Falcon ''Black Lamb and Grey Falcon: A Journey Through Yugoslavia'' is a travel literature, travel book written by Dame Rebecca West, published in 1941 in two volumes by Macmillan Publishers, Macmillan in the UK and by The Viking Press in the US. The bo ...
'' (1941) as well as
Robin Esrock Robin Esrock ( ; born 1974 in Johannesburg, South Africa Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people * Zulu Kingdom or Zulu Empire, a former monarchy in what is now South Africa * Zulu language, a Bantu language spoken in ...
's series of books about his discoveries in Canada, Australia and around the globe. Sometimes a writer will settle into a locality for an extended period, absorbing a sense of place while continuing to observe with a travel writer's sensibility. Examples of such writings include
Lawrence Durrell Lawrence George Durrell (; 27 February 1912 – 7 November 1990) was an expatriate An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to pro ...

Lawrence Durrell
's ''
Bitter Lemons ''Bitter Lemons'' is an autobiographical An autobiography (from the Greek language, Greek, αὐτός-''autos'' self + βίος-''bios'' life + γράφειν-''graphein'' to write; also informally called an autobio) is a self-written accoun ...
'' (1957),
Bruce Chatwin Charles Bruce Chatwin (13 May 194018 January 1989) was an English travel writer, novelist and journalist. His first book, ''In Patagonia ''In Patagonia'' is an English travel book by Bruce Chatwin Charles Bruce Chatwin (13 May 194018 Januar ...
's widely acclaimed ''
In Patagonia ''In Patagonia'' is an English travel book by Bruce Chatwin Charles Bruce Chatwin (13 May 194018 January 1989) was an English travel writer, novelist and journalist. His first book, '' In Patagonia'' (1977), established Chatwin as a travel writ ...
'' (1977) and ''
The Songlines ''The Songlines'' is a 1987 in literature, 1987 book written by Bruce Chatwin, combining fiction and non-fiction. Chatwin describes a trip to Australia which he has taken for the express purpose of researching Songline, Aboriginal song and its c ...
'' (1987), Deborah Tall's ''The Island of the White Cow: Memories of an Irish Island'' (1986), and
Peter Mayle Peter Mayle ( "mail"; 14 June 1939 – 18 January 2018) was a British businessman turned author who moved to France in the 1980s. He wrote a series of bestselling memoirs of his life there, beginning with '' A Year in Provence'' (1989). Early l ...
's best-selling ''
A Year in Provence ''A Year in Provence'' is a 1989 best-selling memoir by Peter Mayle Peter Mayle ( "mail"; 14 June 1939 – 18 January 2018) was a British businessman turned author who moved to France in the 1980s. He wrote a series of bestselling memoirs of ...
'' (1989) and its sequels. Travel and nature writing merge in many of the works by Sally Carrighar,
Gerald Durrell Gerald Malcolm Durrell, (7 January 1925 – 30 January 1995) was a British naturalist, writer, zookeeper, conservationist, and television presenter. He founded the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust is ...
and
Ivan T. Sanderson Ivan Terence Sanderson (January 30, 1911 – February 19, 1973) was a British biologist and writer born in Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotla ...
. Sally Carrighar's works include ''One Day at Teton Marsh'' (1965), ''Home to the Wilderness'' (1973), and ''Wild Heritage'' (1965).
Gerald Durrell Gerald Malcolm Durrell, (7 January 1925 – 30 January 1995) was a British naturalist, writer, zookeeper, conservationist, and television presenter. He founded the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust is ...
's ''
My Family and Other Animals ''My Family and Other Animals'' (1956) is an autobiography, autobiographical book by British naturalist Gerald Durrell. It tells in an exaggerated and sometimes fictionalised way of the years that he lived as a child with his siblings and wido ...
'' (1956) is an autobiographical work by the British naturalist. It tells of the years that he lived as a child with his siblings and widowed mother on the Greek island of
Corfu Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek island Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group *Greek language, a branch ...

Corfu
between 1935 and 1939. It describes the life of the Durrell family in a humorous manner, and explores the fauna of the island. It is the first and most well-known of Durrell's "Corfu trilogy", together with ''
Birds, Beasts, and Relatives ''Birds, Beasts, and Relatives'' (1969) by British naturalist Gerald Durrell is the second volume of his autobiographical Corfu trilogy, published from 1954 to 1978. The trilogy are memoirs about his childhood with his family between 1935 and ...
'' and ''
The Garden of the Gods ''The Garden of the Gods'' (American title: ''Fauna and Family'') (1978) by British naturalist and author Gerald Durrell (1925-1995) is the third book in his autobiographical Corfu trilogy, following ''My Family and Other Animals'' and ''Birds ...
'' (1978).
Ivan T. Sanderson Ivan Terence Sanderson (January 30, 1911 – February 19, 1973) was a British biologist and writer born in Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotla ...
published ''Animal Treasure'', a report of an expedition to the jungles of then-British West Africa; ''Caribbean Treasure'', an account of an expedition to
Trinidad Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean ( ...

Trinidad
,
Haiti Haiti (; ht, Ayiti ; french: Haïti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (; ), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and J ...

Haiti
, and , begun in late 1936 and ending in late 1938; and ''Living Treasure'', an account of an expedition to
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...

Jamaica
, British Honduras (now
Belize Belize () is a Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primari ...

Belize
) and the
Yucatán Yucatán (, also , , ; yua, Yúukatan ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán,; yua, link=no, Xóot' Noj Lu'umil Yúukatan. is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico Mexico, officially the Un ...
. These authors are
naturalists Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. A person who studies natural history ...

naturalists
, who write in support of their fields of study. Another naturalist,
Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin (; ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that fu ...

Charles Darwin
, wrote his famous account of the journey of HMS ''Beagle'' at the intersection of science, natural history and travel. A number of writers famous in other fields have written about their travel experiences. Examples are
Samuel Johnson Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709  – 13 December 1784), often called Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, critic A critic is a person who communicates an asse ...
's ''A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland'' (1775);
Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Charles Dickens
' ''American Notes for General Circulation'' (1842);
Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft (, ; 27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecraft's life, which encompassed several unconventional personal rela ...

Mary Wollstonecraft
's ''Letters Written during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark'' (1796);
Hilaire Belloc Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (, ; 27 July 187016 July 1953) was an Franco-English writer and historian of the early twentieth century. Belloc was also an orator, poet, sailor, satirist This is an incomplete list of writers, cartoonists ...

Hilaire Belloc
's ''The Path To Rome'' (1902);
D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English writer and poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature t ...
's ''Twilight in Italy and Other Essays'' (1916); ''Mornings in Mexico and Other Essays'' (1927);
Rebecca West Dame Cicily Isabel Fairfield (21 December 1892 – 15 March 1983), known as Rebecca West, or Dame Rebecca West, was a British author, journalist, literary criticism, literary critic, and travel writer. An author who wrote in many genres, ...

Rebecca West
's ''
Black Lamb and Grey Falcon ''Black Lamb and Grey Falcon: A Journey Through Yugoslavia'' is a travel literature, travel book written by Dame Rebecca West, published in 1941 in two volumes by Macmillan Publishers, Macmillan in the UK and by The Viking Press in the US. The bo ...
'' (1941); and
John Steinbeck John Ernst Steinbeck Jr. (; February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) was an American author and the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , caption = , awarded_for = Outstanding contributions in literatu ...

John Steinbeck
's '' Travels with Charley: In Search of America'' (1962).


Contemporary writers of travel books

The Dutch writer
Cees Nooteboom Cees Nooteboom (; born 31 July 1933) is a Dutch novelist, poet and journalist. After the attention received by his novel ''Rituelen'' (''Rituals (novel), Rituals'', 1980), which received the Pegasus Prize, it was the first of his novels to be tr ...
is a prolific travel writer. Among his many travel books is the acclaimed '' Roads to Santiago''. Englishmen
Eric Newby George Eric Newby (6 December 1919 – 20 October 2006) was an acclaimed English travel literature, travel writer. Newby's works include ''A Short Walk in the Hindu Kush'', ''The Last Grain Race'' and ''A Small Place in Italy''. Early life New ...
,
Margalit Fox Margalit Fox (born 1961) is an American writer. She began her career in publishing in the 1980s, before switching to journalism in the 1990s. She joined the obituary department of ''The New York Times'' in 2004, and authored over 1,400 obituarie ...

"Eric Newby, 86, Acclaimed British Travel Writer, Dies"
''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', 24 october 2006.
H. V. Morton, the Americans
Bill Bryson William McGuire Bryson (; born 8 December 1951) is an American–British author of books on travel, the English language, science, and other non-fiction topics. Born in the United States, he has been a resident of Britain for most of his adult ...

Bill Bryson
and
Paul Theroux Paul Edward Theroux (born April 10, 1941) is an American novelist and travel writer who has written numerous books, including the travelogue, ''The Great Railway Bazaar'' (1975). Some of his works of fiction have been adapted as feature films. He ...
, and
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...

Welsh
author
Jan Morris (Catharine) Jan MorrisJan Morris, Paul Clements, University of Wales Press, 2008, p. 7 (born James Humphry Morris; 2 October 192620 November 2020) was a Welsh historian, author and travel writer The genre of travel literature encompasses out ...
are or were widely acclaimed as travel writers (though Morris has frequently claimed herself as a writer of 'place' rather than travel ''per se''). Canadian travel writer
Robin Esrock Robin Esrock ( ; born 1974 in Johannesburg, South Africa Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people * Zulu Kingdom or Zulu Empire, a former monarchy in what is now South Africa * Zulu language, a Bantu language spoken in ...
has written a series of books about discovering unique experiences in Canada, Australia and around the world. Bill Bryson in 2011 won the Golden Eagle Award from the Outdoor Writers and Photographers Guild. On 22 November 2012, Durham University officially renamed the Main Library the Bill Bryson Library for his contributions as the university's 11th chancellor (2005–11). Paul Theroux was awarded the 1981
James Tait Black Memorial Prize The James Tait Black Memorial Prizes are literary prize A literary award or literary prize is an award presented in recognition of a particularly lauded literary piece or body of work. It is normally presented to an author An author is th ...
for his novel ''
The Mosquito Coast The Mosquito Coast The Mosquito Coast, also known as the Miskitu Coast, Mosquito Shore and the Miskitu Kingdom, historically included the kingdom's fluctuating area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua Nicaragua (; ), official ...
'', which was adapted for the 1986 movie of the same name. He was also awarded in 1989 the
Thomas Cook Travel Book Award The Thomas Cook Travel Book Award originated as an initiative of Thomas Cook AG Thomas Cook AG was an Anglo-German, global travel group. The group had its headquarters in Rochdale Rochdale is a large town in Greater Manchester Grea ...
for ''Riding the Iron Rooster''. In 2005, Jan Morris was awarded the
Golden PEN Award The Golden PEN Award is a literary award established in 1993 by English PEN given annually to a British writer for "a Lifetime's Distinguished Service to Literature". The winner is chosen by the Board of English PEN. The award has previously been ...
by
English PEN Founded in 1921, English PEN is one of the world's first non-governmental organisations and amongst the first international bodies advocating for human rights. English PEN was the founding centre of PEN International, a worldwide writers' associa ...
for "a Lifetime's Distinguished Service to Literature".


Adventure literature

In the world of sailing
Joshua Slocum Joshua Slocum (February 20, 1844 – on or shortly after November 14, 1909) was the first person to sail single-handedly around the world. He was a Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map ...

Joshua Slocum
's ''
Sailing Alone Around the World ''Sailing Alone Around the World'' is a outdoor literature, sailing memoir by Joshua Slocum in 1900 about his single-handed sailing, single-handed global circumnavigation aboard the sloop ''Spray (sailing vessel), Spray''. Slocum was the first pe ...
'' (1900) is a classic of outdoor adventure literature. In April 1895,
Joshua Slocum Joshua Slocum (February 20, 1844 – on or shortly after November 14, 1909) was the first person to sail single-handedly around the world. He was a Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map ...

Joshua Slocum
set sail from and in ''Sailing Alone Around the World'',Slocum (1899), ''Sailing Alone Around the World'' he described his departure in the following manner: :I had resolved on a voyage around the world, and as the wind on the morning of April 24, 1895 was fair, at noon I weighed anchor, set sail, and filled away from Boston, where the ''Spray'' had been moored snugly all winter. ... A thrilling pulse beat high in me. My step was light on deck in the crisp air. I felt there could be no turning back, and that I was engaging in an adventure the meaning of which I thoroughly understood. More than three years later, on June 27, 1898, Slocum returned to
Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island Rhode Island, also known as Aquidneck Island, is an island in Narragansett Bay in the state of Rhode Island, which is named after the island. The total land area is , which makes it the largest is ...
, having
circumnavigated Circumnavigation is the complete navigation around an entire island, continent, or astronomical object, astronomical body (e.g. a planet or natural satellite, moon). This article focuses on the circumnavigation of Earth. The first recorded circ ...
the world.


Guide books

A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place, designed for the use of visitors or tourists". An early example is Thomas West's guide to the English
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or ''fells''), and its associations with William Wordsworth ...

Lake District
, published in 1778. Thomas West, an English
priest A priest is a religious leader Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social w ...

priest
, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or ''fells''), and its associations with William Wordsworth ...

Lake District
of 1778. In the introduction he wrote that he aimed:
to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide; and for that purpose, the writer has here collected and laid before him, all the select stations and points of view, noticed by those authors who have last made the tour of the lakes, verified by his own repeated observations.
To this end he included various 'stations' or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to appreciate the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities. Published in 1778 the book was a major success. It will usually include full details relating to accommodation, restaurants, transportation, and activities. Maps of varying detail and historical and cultural information are also often included. Different kinds of guide books exist, focusing on different aspects of travel, from
adventure travel Adventure travel is a type of niche Niche may refer to: Science *Developmental niche{{third-party, date=October 2020 The developmental niche is a theoretical framework for understanding and analyzing how culture Culture () is an umbrel ...
to relaxation, or aimed at travelers with different incomes, or focusing on sexual orientation or types of diet. Travel guides can also take the form of
travel website A travel website is a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the read ...
s.


Travel journals

A travel journal, also called road journal, is a record made by a traveller, sometimes in diary form, of the traveler's experiences, written during the course of the journey and later edited for publication. This is a long-established literary format; an early example is the writing of
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
(2nd century AD) who produced his ''Description of Greece'' based on his own observations.
James Boswell James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (; 29 October 1740 ( N.S.) – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-Eur ...

James Boswell
published his ''
The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides ''The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson, LL.D.'' is a travel journal by Scotsman The Scottish people ( sco, Scots Fowk; gd, Albannaich, ang, Scottas) or Scots are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historicall ...
'' in 1786 and
Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of G ...

Goethe
published his ''
Italian Journey ''Italian Journey'' (in the German original: ) is Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ...
'', based on diaries, in 1816. Fray Ilarione da Bergamo and Fray Francisco de Ajofrín wrote travel accounts of
colonial Mexico Colonial or The Colonial may refer to: * Colonial, of, relating to, or characteristic of a colony In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are ass ...

colonial Mexico
in the 1760s. Fannie Calderón de la Barca, the Scottish-born wife of the Spanish ambassador to Mexico 1839–1842, wrote '' Life in Mexico'', an important travel narrative of her time there, with many observations of local life. A British traveller, Mrs Alec Tweedie, published a number of travelogues, ranging from Denmark (1895) and Finland (1897), to the U.S. (1913), several on Mexico (1901, 1906, 1917), and one on Russia, Siberia, and China (1926). A more recent example is Che Guevara's ''The Motorcycle Diaries (book), The Motorcycle Diaries''. A travelogue is a Travelogue (films), film, book written up from a travel diary, or illustrated talk describing the experiences of and places visited by traveller. American writer
Paul Theroux Paul Edward Theroux (born April 10, 1941) is an American novelist and travel writer who has written numerous books, including the travelogue, ''The Great Railway Bazaar'' (1975). Some of his works of fiction have been adapted as feature films. He ...
has published many works of travel literature, the first success being ''The Great Railway Bazaar''. In addition to published travel journals, archive records show that it was historically common for travellers to record their journey in diary format, with no apparent intention of future publication, but as a personal record of their experiences. This practice is particularly visible in nineteenth-century European travel diaries. Anglo-American
Bill Bryson William McGuire Bryson (; born 8 December 1951) is an American–British author of books on travel, the English language, science, and other non-fiction topics. Born in the United States, he has been a resident of Britain for most of his adult ...

Bill Bryson
is known for ''A Walk in the Woods (book), A Walk in the Woods'', made into a Hollywood A Walk in the Woods (film), film of the same name.


Slave travel narratives

The writings of escaped slaves of their experience under slavery and their escape from it is a type of travel literature that developed during the 18th and 19th centuries, detailing how slaves escaped the Slave codes, restrictive laws of the southern United States and the Caribbean to find freedom. As John Cox says in ''Traveling South'', "travel was a necessary prelude to the publication of a narrative by a slave, for slavery could not be simultaneously experienced and written."Cox, John D. 2005, p. 65 A particularly famous slave travel narrative is Frederick Douglass' autobiographical ''Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Narrative'', which is deeply intertwined with his travel experiences, beginning with his travels being entirely at the command of his masters and ending with him traveling when and where he wishes.Cox, John D. 2005, pp. 66-67 Solomon Northup's ''Twelve Years a Slave'' is a more traditional travel narrative, and he too overcomes the restrictions of law and tradition in the south to escape after he is kidnapped and enslaved.Cox, John D. 2005, p. 68 Harriet Ann Jacobs' ''Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Incidents'' includes significant travel that covers a small distance, as she escapes one living situation for a slightly better one, but also later includes her escape from slavery to freedom in the north.Cox, John D. 2005, pp. 127-129


Fiction

Some fictional travel stories are related to travel literature. Although it may be desirable in some contexts to distinguish fictional from non-fictional works, such distinctions have proved notoriously difficult to make in practice, as in the famous instance of the travel writings of
Marco Polo Marco Polo (, , ; September 15, 1254January 8, 1324) was a merchant, explorer, and writer who travelled through Asia along the between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in ' (also known as ''Book of the Marvels of the World '' and '' ...

Marco Polo
or John Mandeville. Examples of fictional works of travel literature based on actual journeys are: * Joseph Conrad's ''Heart of Darkness'' (1899), which has its origin in an actual voyage Conrad made up the River Congo *Jack Kerouac's ''On the Road'' (1957) and ''The Dharma Bums'' (1958) are fictionalized accounts of his travels across the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s *Travel writer Kira Salak's novel, ''The White Mary'' (2008), a contemporary example of a real-life journey transformed into a work of fiction, which takes place in Papua New Guinea and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo.


Travel blogs

In the 21st century, travel literature became a genre of social media in the form of travel blogs, with travel bloggers using outlets like personal blogs, Pinterest, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram to convey information about their adventures, and provide advice for navigating particular countries, or for traveling generally.F. Hanusch, E. Fürsich, ''Travel Journalism: Exploring Production, Impact and Culture'' (2014), p. 100-101. Travel blogs were among the first instances of blogging, which began in the mid-1990s. Notable travel bloggers include Matthew Kepnes, Johnny Ward (travel blogger), Johnny Ward and Drew Binsky.


Scholarship

The systematic study of travel literature emerged as a field of scholarly inquiry in the mid-1990s, with its own conferences, organizations, journals, monographs, anthologies, and encyclopedias. Important, pre-1995 monographs are: ''Abroad'' (1980) by Paul Fussell, an exploration of British interwar travel writing as escapism; ''Gone Primitive: Modern Intellects, Savage Minds'' (1990) by Marianna Torgovnick, an inquiry into the primitivism, primitivist presentations of foreign cultures; ''Haunted Journeys: Desire and Transgression in European Travel Writing'' (1991) by Dennis Porter, a close look at the psychological correlatives of travel; ''Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing'' by Sara Mills (linguist), Sara Mills, an inquiry into the intersection of gender and colonialism during the 19th century; ''Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation'' (1992), Mary Louise Pratt's influential study of Victorian era, Victorian travel writing's dissemination of a colonial mind-set; and ''Belated Travelers'' (1994), an analysis of colonial anxiety by Ali Behdad.


Travel awards

Prizes awarded annually for travel books have included the
Thomas Cook Travel Book Award The Thomas Cook Travel Book Award originated as an initiative of Thomas Cook AG Thomas Cook AG was an Anglo-German, global travel group. The group had its headquarters in Rochdale Rochdale is a large town in Greater Manchester Grea ...
, which ran from 1980 to 2004, the Boardman Tasker Prize for Mountain Literature, and the Dolman Best Travel Book Award, which began in 2006. The North American Travel Journalists Association holds an annual awards competition honoring travel journalism in a multitude of categories, ranging across print and online media.


See also

* * * * *, a documentary film or television program that describes travel * * *Letters from several parts of Europe and the East


References


Bibliography

* * * Barclay, Jennifer and Logan, Amy (2010). ''AWOL: Tales for Travel-Inspired Minds'': Random House of Canada. . * * * *
Vol. 1
* * Diekmann, Anya and Hannam, Kevin (2010). ''Beyond Backpacker Tourism: Mobilities and Experiences'': Channel View Publications. . * * *Henríquez Jiménez, Santiago J. ''Going the Distance: An Analysis of Modern Travel Writing and Criticism''. Barcelona: Kadle Books. 1995. *Henríquez Jiménez, Santiago J. ''Travel Essentials. Collected Essays on Travel Writing'' (ed.). Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: Chandlon Inn Press. 1998. * * * * * * ; als
Vol. 1
via Internet Archive * * * * *


Further reading

* * Bangs, Jeremy D.: "The Travels of Elkanah Watson" (McFarland & Company, 2015) * Beautiful England (series of travel books from 1910 to 1950s) * Hannigan, Tim: ''The Travel Writing Tribe'' (C Hurst & Co, 2021) 360 p Essay * Lawless, Jill (2000). ''Wild East: Travels in the New Mongolia''. ECW Press. * ''Picador Travel Classics'' * Roy, Pinaki. "Reflections on the Art of Producing Travelogues". ''Images of Life: Creative and Other Forms of Writing''. Ed. Mullick, S. Kolkata: The Book World, 2014 (). pp. 111–29. * Salzani, Carlo & Tötösy de Zepetnek, Steven
"Bibliography for Work in Travel Studies."
CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture (''Library'') (2010–). * Thompson, Carl (2011). ''Travel Writing''. Routledge.


External links


American Journeys
collection of primary exploration accounts of the Americas.
Historical British travel writers
an extensive open access library on th
Vision of Britain
site. * * https://www.nowstarted.com/ {{DEFAULTSORT:Travel Literature Non-fiction literature Travel writing,