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A tower is a tall
structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A ...
, taller than it is wide, often by a significant factor. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of
guy-wires and stays - nautical equivalents of guy wires. A guy-wire, guy-line, or guy-rope, also known as simply a guy, is a tensioned cable designed to add stability to a free-standing structure. They are used commonly for Mast (sailing), ship masts, ...
and are therefore, along with tall buildings, self-supporting structures. Towers are specifically distinguished from
building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a ...

building
s in that they are built not to be habitable but to serve other functions using the
height 200px, A cuboid demonstrating the dimensions length, width">length.html" ;"title="cuboid demonstrating the dimensions length">cuboid demonstrating the dimensions length, width, and height. Height is measure of vertical distance, either vertical ...

height
of the tower. For example, the height of a
clock towerA clock tower is an architectural structure housing a turret clock. Clock Tower may also refer to: Buildings * Clock Tower, Anantapur * Clock Tower of Ateca The Clock Tower of Ateca is a structure in Ateca, Spain. A leaning tower of Mudéjar ...

clock tower
improves the visibility of the clock, and the height of a tower in a fortified building such as a
castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the scope of the word ''castle'', but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. This is distinct ...

castle
increases the visibility of the surroundings for defensive purposes. Towers may also be built for
observation Observation is the active acquisition of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. Th ...

observation
, leisure, or
telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gr ...
purposes. A tower can stand alone or be supported by adjacent buildings, or it may be a feature on top of a larger structure or building.


Etymology

Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
''torr'' is from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
''turris'' via
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
''tor''. The Latin term together with
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
τύρσις was loaned from a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean language, connected with the
Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyrian (South Slavic), a common na ...
toponym Βου-δοργίς. With the
Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominant scale or acoustic scale, a musica ...
toponyms Τύρρα, Τύρσα, it has been connected with the ethnonym Τυρρήνιοι as well as with ''Tusci'' (from ''*Turs-ci''), the Greek and Latin names for the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna ...

Etruscans
(Kretschmer Glotta 22, 110ff.)


History

Towers have been used by mankind since prehistoric times. The oldest known may be the circular stone tower in walls of Neolithic Jericho (8000 BC). Some of the earliest towers were
ziggurat A ziggurat (; AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the ...

ziggurat
s, which existed in
Sumerian architecture The architecture of Mesopotamia is ancient architecture of the region of the Tigris–Euphrates river system (also known as Mesopotamia), encompassing several distinct cultures and spanning a period from the 10th millennium BC, when the first perma ...
since the 4th millennium BC. The most famous ziggurats include the Sumerian
Ziggurat of Ur The Ziggurat (or Great Ziggurat) of Ur (Sumerian language, Sumerian: "Etemenniguru", meaning "temple whose foundation creates aura") is a Neo-Sumerian ziggurat in what was the city of Ur near Nasiriyah, in present-day Dhi Qar Governorate, Dhi ...

Ziggurat of Ur
, built the 3rd millennium BC, and the
Etemenanki Etemenanki (Sumerian language, Sumerian: "temple of the foundation of heaven and earth") was a ziggurat dedicated to Marduk in the ancient city of Babylon. It now exists only in ruins, located about south of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. Etemenanki has ...
, one of the most famous examples of
Babylonian architecture Babylonian may refer to: * Babylon, a Semitic Akkadian city/state of ancient Mesopotamia founded in 1894 BC (before Christ) * Babylonia, an ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic nation state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (pr ...
. The latter was built in
Babylon Babylon was the capital city of the ancient Babylonian empire, which itself is a term referring to either of two separate empires in the Mesopotamian area in antiquity. These two empires achieved regional dominance between the 19th and 15th centu ...

Babylon
during the 2nd millennium BC and was considered the tallest tower of the ancient world. Some of the earliest surviving examples are the
broch A broch () is an Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Ch ...
structures in northern
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
, which are conical
towerhouse A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation. Tower houses began to appear in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discov ...

towerhouse
s. These and other examples from
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
n and
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
cultures emphasised the use of a tower in fortification and sentinel roles. For example, the name of the Moroccan city of
Mogador Essaouira (; ar, الصويرة, aṣ-Ṣawīra; ber, label= Berber, ⵎⵓⴳⴰⴷⵓⵔ, ''Amegdul''; pt, Mogador) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pengu ...

Mogador
, founded in the first millennium BC, is derived from the Phoenician word for
watchtower A watchtower is a type of fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from La ...

watchtower
('migdol'). The Romans utilised octagonal towers as elements of
Diocletian's Palace Diocletian's Palace ( hr, Dioklecijanova palača, ) is an ancient palace built for the at the turn of the fourth century AD, which today forms about half the old town of . While it is referred to as a "palace" because of its intended use as the ...

Diocletian's Palace
in
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
, which monument dates to approximately 300 AD, while the
Servian Walls The Servian Wall ( la, Murus Servii Tullii; it, Mura Serviane) was an ancient Roman defensive barrier constructed around the city of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus ...
(4th century BC) and the
Aurelian Walls The Aurelian Walls ( it, Mura aureliane) are a line of city walls built between 271 AD and 275 AD in Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of ...
(3rd century AD) featured square ones. The Chinese used towers as integrated elements of the
Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against Eurasian nomads, various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Step ...

Great Wall of China
in 210 BC during the
Qin Dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th ...

Qin Dynasty
. Towers were also an important element of
castles in East Sussex East Sussex is a county in South East England on the English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" ( Cotentinais) or (Jèrriais), (Guernésiais), "The Channel"; br, Mor Breizh, ...
. Other well known towers include the
Leaning Tower of Pisa The Leaning Tower of Pisa ( it, torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (''torre di Pisa'' ) is the ''campanile A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Such a ...

Leaning Tower of Pisa
in
Pisa, Italy Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, l ...
built from 1173 until 1372 and the Two Towers in
Bologna, Italy Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese dialect, Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy with about 390,000 inhabitants ...

Bologna, Italy
built from 1109 until 1119. The Himalayan Towers are stone towers located chiefly in
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa people, Monpa, Tamang people, Tamang, Qia ...

Tibet
built approximately 14th to 15th century. Dana Thomas, "Towers to the Heavens"
''Newsweek'', 2003-11-15


Mechanics

Up to a certain height, a tower can be made with the supporting structure with parallel sides. However, above a certain height, the compressive load of the material is exceeded and the tower will fail. This can be avoided if the tower's support structure tapers up the building. A second limit is that of buckling—the structure requires sufficient stiffness to avoid breaking under the loads it faces, especially those due to winds. Many very tall towers have their support structures at the periphery of the building, which greatly increases the overall stiffness. A third limit is dynamic; a tower is subject to varying winds, vortex shedding, seismic disturbances etc. These are often dealt with through a combination of simple strength and stiffness, as well as in some cases
tuned mass damper A tuned mass damper (TMD), also known as a harmonic absorber or seismic damper, is a device mounted in structures to reduce mechanical vibrations. It consists of a mass that is mounted on one or more Damping ratio, damped springs. The oscillatio ...

tuned mass damper
s to damp out movements. Varying or tapering the outer aspect of the tower with height avoids vibrations due to vortex shedding occurring along the entire building simultaneously.


Functions

Although not correctly defined as towers, many modern
high-rise building A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined differently in terms of height depending on the jurisdiction. It is used as a apartment building, residential, office building, or other functions inclu ...
s (in particular
skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers ar ...

skyscraper
) have 'tower' in their name or are colloquially called 'towers'. Skyscrapers are more properly classified as 'buildings'. In the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, tall domestic buildings are referred to as tower blocks. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, the original
World Trade Center World Trade Centers are sites recognized by the World Trade Centers Association The World Trade Centers Association (WTCA) was founded in 1968 following the establishment of the first World Trade Center in New Orleans. WTCA is a not-for-profit, n ...
had the nickname the Twin Towers, a name shared with the
Petronas Twin Towers The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers ( Malay: ''Menara Petronas'', or ''Menara Berkembar Petronas),'' are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s ...

Petronas Twin Towers
in
Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera In Basque mythology, Sugaar (also Sugar, Sugoi, Suarra, Maju) is the male half of a pre-Christianity, Christian Basque people, Basque deity associated with storms and thunder. He is normally ...

Kuala Lumpur
. In addition some of the structures listed below do not follow the strict criteria used at
List of tallest towers This is a list of extant towers that fulfill the engineering definition of a tower A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant factor. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires and a ...
.


Strategic advantages

The tower throughout history has provided its users with an advantage in surveying defensive positions and obtaining a better view of the surrounding areas, including battlefields. They were constructed on
defensive walls A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from La ...
, or rolled near a target (see
siege tower A siege tower or breaching tower (or in the , a belfry''Castle: Stephen Biesty's Cross-Sections''. Pub (T); 1st American edition (September 1994). Siege towers were invented in 300 BC. ) is a specialized , constructed to protect assailants and l ...
). Today, strategic-use towers are still used at prisons, military camps, and defensive perimeters.


Potential energy

By using gravity to move objects or substances downward, a tower can be used to store items or liquids like a
storage silo A silo (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 ...
or a , or aim an object into the earth such as a drilling tower. use the same idea, and in the absence of a natural mountain slope or hill, can be human-made.


Communication enhancement

In history, simple towers like
lighthouse A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses A lens is a transmissive optics, optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple ...

lighthouse
s,
bell tower A bell tower is a tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that ac ...

bell tower
s,
clock towerA clock tower is an architectural structure housing a turret clock. Clock Tower may also refer to: Buildings * Clock Tower, Anantapur * Clock Tower of Ateca The Clock Tower of Ateca is a structure in Ateca, Spain. A leaning tower of Mudéjar ...

clock tower
s, signal towers and
minaret Minaret (; fa, گل‌دسته ', az, minarə, tr, minare,"minaret."
''Online Etymology Dictiona ...

minaret
s were used to communicate information over greater distances. In more recent years, radio masts and cell phone towers facilitate communication by expanding the range of the transmitter. The
CN Tower The CN Tower (french: Tour CN) is a concrete Interior of the Pantheon dome, seen from beneath. The concrete for the coffered dome was laid on moulds, mounted on temporary scaffolding. Concrete is a composite material A composite ...

CN Tower
in
Toronto, Ontario Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto, Ontario
, Canada was built as a communications tower, with the capability to act as both a transmitter and repeater. Its design also incorporated features to make it a tourist attraction, including the world's highest observation deck at 147 storeys.


Transportation support

Towers can also be used to support bridges, and can reach heights that rival some of the tallest buildings above-water. Their use is most prevalent in
suspension bridge A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The first modern examples of this type of bridge were built in the early 1800s. Simple suspension br ...

suspension bridge
s and
cable-stayed bridge A cable-stayed bridge has one or more ''towers'' (or ''pylons''), from which cable Cable may refer to: Mechanical * Nautical cable, an assembly of three or more ropes woven against the weave of the ropes, rendering it virtually waterproof * ...

cable-stayed bridge
s. The use of the pylon, a simple tower structure, has also helped to build railroad bridges, mass-transit systems, and harbors.
Control tower Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary pur ...

Control tower
s are used to give visibility to help direct aviation traffic.


Other

* To access tall or high objects:
launch tower A service structure is a steel framework or tower that is built on a rocket launch pad to facilitate assembly and servicing. An umbilical tower also usually includes an elevator which allows maintenance and crew access. Immediately before ignitio ...
, service tower,
service structure A service structure is a steel framework or tower that is built on a rocket A rocket (from it, rocchetto, , bobbin/spool) is a projectile that spacecraft, aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support ...
,
scaffold Scaffolding, also called scaffold or staging, is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man-made structures. Scaffolds are widely us ...

scaffold
,
tower crane A crane is a type of machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Force, fo ...

tower crane
. * To access atmospheric conditions aloft:
wind turbine A wind turbine is a device that converts Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion Religion is a social s ...

wind turbine
, meteorological
measurement tower Image:Forschungszentrum.Karlsruhe.-.Measurement.Tower.png, 200px, The measurement tower of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe A measurement tower or measurement mast, also known as meteorological tower or meteorological mast (met tower or met mast), is a ...
, tower telescope,
solar power Solar power is the conversion of renewable energy Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural re ...
station * To lift high tension cables for electrical power distribution
transmission tower A transmission tower or power tower (alternatively electricity pylon or variations) is a tall structure, usually a steel lattice tower, used to support an overhead power line. In electrical grids, they are generally used to carry high-voltag ...

transmission tower
* To take advantage of the temperature gradient inherent in a height differential:
cooling tower A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing Work (thermodynamics), work. All such processes give off some w ...

cooling tower
* To expel and disperse potentially harmful gases and particulates into the atmosphere:
chimney A chimney is an architectural ventilation structure made of masonry, clay or metal that isolates hot toxic exhaust gas Exhaust gas or flue gas Flue gas is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for co ...

chimney
* To protect from exposure:
BREN Tower BREN Tower BREN Tower was a Guy-wire, guyed steel framework Radio masts and towers, mast, high, on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, USA. "BREN" stands for "Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada." The structure was owned by the United States Department of ...
, lightning rod tower * For industrial production:
shot tower A shot tower is a tower designed for the production of small-diameter shot (pellet), shot balls by free fall of molten lead, which is then caught in a water basin. The shot is primarily used for projectiles in shotguns, and also for ballast, lead ...
* For surveying: Survey tower * To drop objects:
Drop tube In physics and materials science, a drop tower or drop tube is a structure used to produce a controlled period of weightlessness for an object under study. Air bags, polystyrene pellets, and magnetic or mechanical brakes are sometimes used to arre ...
(drop tower),
bomb tower 250px, The tower used in the Trinity test, 1945. A bomb tower is a lightly constructed tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is ...
,
diving platform Image:Diving Tower.jpg, A competitive diving platform at an outdoor swimming pool. A diving platform or diving tower is a type of structure used for diving (sport), competitive diving. It consists of a vertical rigid "tower" with one or more horizon ...
* To test height-intensive applications: elevator test tower * To improve structural integrity: thyristor tower * To mimic towers or provide height for training purposes:
fire tower A fire lookout tower, fire tower or lookout tower, provides housing and protection for a person known as a "fire lookout" whose duty it is to search for wildfires in the wilderness. The fire lookout tower is a small building, usually located on ...
,
parachute tower A parachute tower is a tower used for parachute training, often by members of a military paratroop unit. A mixture of tower heights are used at different stages of training. Trainees typically begin on towers around in height in fall-arrest harnes ...
* As art:
Shukhov Tower The Shukhov Radio Tower (russian: Шуховская башня), also known as the Shabolovka Tower (russian: Шаболовская башня), is a broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of sound, audio or video content to a dispe ...

Shukhov Tower
* For recreation: * As a symbol:
Tower of Babel The Tower of Babel ( he, , ''Migdal Bavel'') narrative in Book of Genesis, Genesis 11:1–9 is an origin myth meant to explain why the world's peoples speak different languages. According to the story, a united human race in the generations ...

Tower of Babel
, The Tower (Tarot card), The term "tower" is also sometimes used to refer to firefighting equipment with an extremely tall ladder designed for use in firefighting/rescue operations involving high-rise buildings.


Gallery


See also


General

*
Additionally guyed tower An additionally guyed tower is a free-standing tower A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant factor. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires and are therefore, along with tall buil ...
*
Bell tower A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Such a tower commonly serves as part of a church (building), church, and will contain church bells, but there are also many secular b ...

Bell tower
* Inclined towers *
Observation tower An observation tower is a structure used to view events from a long distance and to create a full 360 degree range of vision to conduct long distance observations. Observation towers are usually at least tall and are made from stone, iron, an ...

Observation tower
*
Partially guyed tower A partially guyed tower is a tower structure which consists of a free-standing basement, in most cases of concrete or of lattice steel, with a guyed mast on the top. The anchor basements of the guyed mast can be on the top of the tower or on the ...
*
World's tallest structures The world's tallest artificial structure is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai (of the United Arab Emirates). The building gained the official title of "List of tallest buildings in the world, tallest building in the world" and the tallest self-support ...
*
Spire A spire is a tall, slender, pointed structure on top of a roof or tower, especially at the summit of church steeple In architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (ad ...

Spire
*
Tower house A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation. Tower houses began to appear in the Middle Ages, especially in mountainous or limited access areas, in order to command and defend strateg ...
*
List of tallest towers in the world This is a list of extant towers that fulfill the engineering definition of a tower A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant factor. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires and a ...


Warfare

* Battery tower *
Bergfried ''Bergfried'' (plural: ''bergfriede''; FR: ''tour-beffroi'', EN: ''belfry'', ES: ''torre del homenaje'') is a tall tower that is typically found in castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a ...

Bergfried
* Breaching tower *
Butter-churn tower A butter-churn tower (german: Butterfassturm) is a two-part defensive tower in which the upper section has a smaller diameter than the lower section. This design provides a ledge or fighting platform about half-way up that acts as a chemin de ...
* Flanking tower *
Fortified tower A fortified tower (also defensive tower or castle tower or, in context, just tower) is one of the defensive structures used in fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in wa ...
*
Gate tower A gate tower (german: Torturm) is a tower A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant factor. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires and are therefore, along with tall buildings, self-s ...
*
Turret In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Archit ...

Turret
*
Watchtower A watchtower is a type of fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from La ...

Watchtower
* Wall tower


References


Further reading

* Fritz Leonhardt (1989), ''Towers: a historical survey'', Butterworth Architecture, 343 pages.


External links

{{Authority control sq:Kulla