HOME

TheInfoList




A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of
stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of Rock (geology), stone. Although stone tool-dependent societies and cultures still exist today, most stone tools are associated with prehistory, prehisto ...

stone tool
s dates back hundreds of millennia, have been observed using tools to make other tools. Early tools, made of such materials as stone, bone, and wood, were used for preparation of food, hunting, manufacture of weapons, and working of materials to produce clothing and useful artifacts. The development of metalworking made additional types of tools possible. Harnessing energy sources such as animal power, wind, or steam, allowed increasingly complex tools to produce an even larger range of items, with the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
marking an marked inflection point in the use of tools. The introduction of
automation Automation describes a wide range of technologies that reduce human intervention in processes. Human intervention is reduced by predetermining decision criteria, subprocess relationships, and related actions — and embodying those predeterm ...
allowed tools to operate with minimal human supervision, further increasing the productivity of human labor.


History

Anthropologists An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societies. Social anthropology, cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology study the nor ...
believe that the use of tools was an important step in the
evolution of mankind
evolution of mankind
. Because tools are used extensively by both humans and wild
chimpanzee The chimpanzee (''Pan troglodytes''), also known simply as chimp, is a species of Hominidae, great ape native to the forest and savannah of tropical Africa. It has four confirmed subspecies and a fifth proposed subspecies. The chimpanzee and t ...
s, it is widely assumed that the first routine use of tools took place prior to the divergence between the two species. These early tools, however, were likely made of perishable materials such as sticks, or consisted of unmodified stones that cannot be distinguished from other stones as tools. Stone artifacts date back to about 2.5 million years ago. Also (paperback) However, a 2010 study suggests the
hominin The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae Homininae (), also called "African hominids" or "African apes", is a subfamily of Hominidae The Hominidae (), whose members are known as great apes or hominids (), are a t ...
species ''
Australopithecus afarensis ''Australopithecus afarensis'' is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the endling, last individua ...

Australopithecus afarensis
'' ate meat by carving animal carcasses with stone implements. This finding pushes back the earliest known use of stone tools among hominins to about 3.4 million years ago. Finds of actual tools date back at least 2.6 million years in
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the ...

Ethiopia
. One of the earliest distinguishable stone tool forms is the
hand axe A hand axe (or handaxe or Acheulean hand axe) is a prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is under ...
. Up until recently, weapons found in digs were the only tools of “early man” that were studied and given importance. Now, more tools are recognized as culturally and historically relevant. As well as hunting, other activities required tools such as preparing food, “...nutting, leatherworking, grain harvesting and woodworking...” Included in this group are “flake stone tools". Tools are the most important items that the ancient humans used to climb to the top of the
food chain A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web A food web is the natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation of what-eats-what in an ecological community. Another name for food web is Consumer-resource sy ...

food chain
; by inventing tools, they were able to accomplish tasks that human bodies could not, such as using a
spear A spear is a pole weapon A pole weapon or pole arm is a close combat weapon in which the main fighting part of the weapon is fitted to the end of a long shaft, typically of wood, thereby extending the user's effective range and striking pow ...

spear
or
bow Bow often refers to: * Bow and arrow The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon A ranged weapon is any weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons ar ...

bow
to kill
prey Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical env ...

prey
, since their teeth were not sharp enough to pierce many animals' skins. “Man the hunter” as the catalyst for Hominin change has been questioned. Based on marks on the bones at archaeological sites, it is now more evident that pre-humans were scavenging off of other predators' carcasses rather than killing their own food.
Mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nan ...

Mechanical
devices experienced a major expansion in their use in
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
and
Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
with the systematic employment of new energy sources, especially
waterwheel A water wheel is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine i ...

waterwheel
s. Their use expanded through the
Dark Ages Dark Ages or Dark Age may refer to: History and sociology *Dark Ages (historiography), the use of the term ''Dark Ages'' by historians and lay people **Byzantine Dark Ages (7th–8th centuries), period of large-scale transformation but obscure du ...
with the addition of
windmill A windmill is a structure that converts wind power into rotational energy by means of vanes called windmill sail, sails or blades, specifically to mill (grinding), mill grain (gristmills), but the term is also extended to windpumps, wind turbine ...

windmill
s.
Machine tool A machine tool is a machine for handling or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, Boring (manufacturing), boring, grinding (abrasive cutting), grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformations. Machine tools employ some s ...
s occasioned a surge in producing new tools in the
industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
. Advocates of
nanotechnology Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...

nanotechnology
expect a similar surge as tools become microscopic in size.


Functions

One can classify tools according to their basic functions: * Cutting and edge tools, such as the
knife A knife (plural knives; from Old Norse 'knife, dirk') is a tool or weapon with a cutting edge or blade, often attached to a handle or hilt. One of the earliest tools used by humanity, knives appeared at least Stone Age, 2.5 million years ago ...

knife
,
sickle A sickle, bagging hook, reaping-hook or grasshook is a single-handed agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and typically used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting Succulent plant, succulent forage chiefly for feedi ...

sickle
,
scythe A scythe is an agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated Domestica ...

scythe
,
hatchet A hatchet (from the Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vu ...
, and
axe An axe (sometimes ax in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, ...

axe
are wedge-shaped implements that produce a
shearing force
shearing force
along a narrow face. Ideally, the edge of the tool needs to be harder than the material being cut or else the blade will become dulled with repeated use. But even resilient tools will require periodic
sharpening Sharpening is the process of creating or refining 2 perpendicular axis into a converging "Apex" creating an edge of appropriate shape on a tool or implement designed for cutting. Sharpening is done by removing material on an implement with an abr ...

sharpening
, which is the process of removing deformation wear from the edge. Other examples of cutting tools include gouges and
drill bit Drills are cutting tools used to remove material to create holes, almost always of circular cross-section. Drills come in many sizes and shapes and can create different kinds of holes in many different materials. In order to create holes dri ...

drill bit
s. * Moving tools move large and tiny items. Many are
lever A lever ( or ) is a simple machine A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge o ...

lever
s which give the user a
mechanical advantage Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a N ...
. Examples of force-concentrating tools include the
hammer A hammer is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tool A stone tool is, ...

hammer
which moves a nail or the maul which moves a stake. These operate by applying
physical compression In mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects, more specifically the relationships among force, matter, and motion. Forces applied to objects result in Displacement (vect ...
to a surface. In the case of the
screwdriver A screwdriver is a tool, manual or powered, used for screwing (installing) and unscrewing (removing) screws. A typical simple screwdriver has a handle and a shaft, ending in a tip the user puts into the screw head before turning the handle. Th ...

screwdriver
, the force is rotational and called
torque In physics and mechanics, torque is the rotational equivalent of linear force. It is also referred to as the moment, moment of force, rotational force or turning effect, depending on the field of study. The concept originated with the studies ...

torque
. By contrast, an
anvil An anvil is a metalworking Metalworking is the process of shaping and reshaping metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fr ...

anvil
concentrates force on an object being hammered by ''preventing'' it from moving away when struck.
Writing implement A writing implement or writing instrument is an object used to produce writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages ...
s deliver a fluid to a surface via compression to activate the ink cartridge. Grabbing and twisting nuts and bolts with
pliers Pliers are a hand tool A hand tool is any tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone ...

pliers
, a glove, a
wrench A wrench or spanner is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human beings, whose use of ...

wrench
, etc. likewise move items by applying torque (rotational force). * Tools that enact chemical changes, including temperature and ignition, such as
lighter A lighter is a portable device which generates a flame, and can be used to ignite a variety of items, such as cigarettes, gas stoves, fireworks, candles or campfires. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with a flammable liquid or ...

lighter
s and
blowtorch A blowtorch is a fuel-burning tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human beings, whose use of st ...

blowtorch
es. * Guiding, measuring and perception tools include the
ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of spac ...

ruler
,
glasses Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are vision eyewear, consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically utilizing a bridge over the nose and hinged arms (known ...

glasses
,
square In Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematics , Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the ''Euclid's Elements, Elements''. Euclid's method ...
,
sensor A sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing of a physical phenomenon. In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem that detects events or changes in its environment and s ...

sensor
s,
straightedge A straightedge or straight edge is a tool used for drawing straight lines, or checking their straightness. If it has equally spaced markings along its length, it is usually called a ruler. Straightedges are used in the automotive service and mac ...

straightedge
,
theodolite A theodolite is a precision optical instrument for measuring angle In Euclidean geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two Ray (geometry), rays, called the ''sides'' of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the ''vertex (geometry), ...

theodolite
,
microscope A microscope (from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' 'small' and ''skopeîn'' 'to look (at); examine, inspect') is a used to examine objects that are too small to be seen by the . is the of investigating small objects and structures using a ...

microscope
,
monitor Monitor or monitor may refer to: Places * Monitor, Alberta * Monitor, Indiana, town in the United States * Monitor, Kentucky * Monitor, Oregon, unincorporated community in the United States * Monitor, Washington * Monitor, Logan County, West Virg ...

monitor
,
clock A clock or a timepiece is a device used to measure and indicate time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past ...

clock
, phone,
printer Printers may be: Technology * Printer (publishing) In publishing, printers are both companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal ...
* Shaping tools, such as
molds Mold A mold () or mould () is a fungus A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of Eukaryote, eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and Mold (fungus), molds, as well as the more familiar ...
,
jigs The jig ( ga, port, gd, port-cruinn) is a form of lively folk dance A folk dance is a dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement ...
,
trowel A trowel is a small hand tool A hand tool is any tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of ...

trowel
s. * Fastening tools, such as
welder In a broad sense, a welder is anyone, amateur or professional, who uses welding equipment, perhaps especially one who uses such equipment fairly often. In a narrower sense, a welder is a Tradesman, tradesperson who specializes in welding, fusing ...

welder
s,
soldering iron A soldering iron is a hand tool used in soldering. It supplies heat to melt solder so that it can flow into the joint between two workpieces. A soldering iron is composed of a heated metal tip and an insulated handle. Heating is often achieved ...

soldering iron
s,
rivet gun A rivet gun, also known as a rivet hammer or a pneumatic hammer, is a type of tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only h ...
s,
nail gun 250px, Pneumatic nail gun in use A nail gun, nailgun or nailer is a type of tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only hum ...

nail gun
s, or
glue gun Hot melt adhesive (HMA), also known as hot glue, is a form of thermoplastic adhesive that is commonly sold as solid cylindrical sticks of various diameters designed to be applied using a hot glue gun. The gun uses a continuous-duty heating element ...

glue gun
s. * Information and data manipulation tools, such as computers,
IDE #REDIRECT IDE IDE, iDE, or Ide may refer to: Organisations * ''Institut für Dokumentologie und Editorik'', a German think tank for the application of digital methods on historical documents * Institute of Developing Economies, a semi-governmental ...
,
spreadsheet A spreadsheet is a computer application for organization, analysis, and storage of data in table (information), tabular form. Spreadsheets were developed as computerized analogs of paper accounting Worksheet#Accounting, worksheets. The program op ...

spreadsheet
s Some tools may be combinations of other tools. An alarm-clock is for example a combination of a measuring tool (the clock) and a perception tool (the alarm). This enables the alarm-clock to be a tool that falls outside of all the categories mentioned above. There is some debate on whether to consider protective gear items as tools, because they do not directly help perform work, just protect the worker like ordinary clothing. They do meet the general definition of tools and in many cases are necessary for the completion of the work.
Personal protective equipment Personal protective equipment (PPE) is protective clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabr ...
includes such items as gloves,
safety glasses Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are Visual perception, vision eyewear, consisting of glass or hard plastic lens (optics), lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's Human eye, eyes, typically utilizing a b ...
,
ear defenders
ear defenders
and
biohazard A biological hazard, or biohazard, is a biological substance that poses a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily humans. This could include a sample of a microorganism, virus or toxin that can adversely affect human health. A bioha ...

biohazard
suits.


Simple machines

A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a
force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a Newton's first law, state of rest), i.e., to acce ...

force
. In general, they are the simplest mechanisms that use
mechanical advantage Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a N ...
(also called
lever A lever ( or ) is a simple machine A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge o ...

lever
age) to multiply force. The six classical simple machines which were defined by
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
scientists are: *
Lever A lever ( or ) is a simple machine A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge o ...

Lever
*
Wheel and axle The windlass is a well-known application of the wheel and axle. The wheel and axle is a simple machine A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force In physics Physics (from grc, ...

Wheel and axle
*
Pulley A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft (mechanical engineering), shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a taut cable or belt, or transfer of power between the shaft and cable or belt. In the case of a pulley suppo ...

Pulley
*
Inclined plane An inclined plane, also known as a ramp, is a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle, with one end higher than the other, used as an aid for raising or lowering a load. The inclined plane is one of the six classical simple machines defin ...

Inclined plane
*
Wedge A wedge is a triangular A triangle is a polygon In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branche ...
*
Screw A screw and a bolt Bolt or bolts may refer to: Implements and technology * Bolt (fastener) A bolt is a form of threaded fastener with an external male thread requiring a matching pre-formed female thread such as a nut. Bolts are very clos ...


Tool substitution

Often, by design or coincidence, a tool may share key functional attributes with one or more other tools. In this case, some tools can substitute for other tools, either as a makeshift solution or as a matter of practical efficiency. "One tool does it all" is a motto of some importance for workers who cannot practically carry every specialized tool to the location of every work task; such as a carpenter who does not necessarily work in a shop all day and needs to do jobs in a customer's house. Tool substitution may be divided broadly into two classes: substitution "by-design", or "multi-purpose", and substitution as makeshift. Substitution "by-design" would be tools that are designed specifically to accomplish multiple tasks using only that one tool. Substitution as makeshift is when human ingenuity comes into play and a tool is used for its unintended purpose such as a mechanic using a long screw driver to separate a cars control arm from a ball joint instead of using a tuning fork. In many cases, the designed secondary functions of tools are not widely known. As an example of the former, many wood-cutting hand saws integrate a
square In Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematics , Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the ''Euclid's Elements, Elements''. Euclid's method ...
by incorporating a specially shaped handle that allows 90° and 45° angles to be marked by aligning the appropriate part of the handle with an edge and scribing along the back edge of the saw. The latter is illustrated by the saying "All tools can be used as hammers." Nearly all tools can be used to function as a hammer, even though very few tools are intentionally designed for it and even fewer work as well as the original. Tools are also often used to substitute for many mechanical apparatuses, especially in older mechanical devices. In many cases a cheap tool could be used to occupy the place of a missing mechanical part. A window roller in a car could easily be replaced with a pair of
vise-grips
vise-grips
or regular
pliers Pliers are a hand tool A hand tool is any tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone ...

pliers
. A transmission shifter or ignition switch would be able to be replaced with a screw-driver. Again, these would be considered tools that are being used for their unintended purposes, substitution as makeshift. Tools such as a
rotary tool Die grinders and rotary tools are handheld power tool A power tool is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human ...
would be considered the substitution "by-design", or "multi-purpose". This class of tools allows the use of one tool that has at least two different capabilities. "Multi-purpose" tools are basically multiple tools in one device/tool. Tools such as this are often power tools that come with many different attachments like a rotary tool does, so you could say that a power drill is a "multi-purpose" tool because you can do more than just one thing with a power drill.


Multi-use tools

A
multi-tool A multi-tool (or multitool) is a hand tool A hand tool is any tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple too ...
is a hand tool that incorporates several tools into a single, portable device; the
Swiss army knife The Swiss Army knife is a multi-tool A multi-tool (or multitool) is a hand tool that combines several individual functions in a single unit. The smallest are credit-card or key sized units designed for carrying in a wallet or on a keyring, ...

Swiss army knife
represents one of the earliest examples. Other tools have a primary purpose but also incorporate other functionality – for example,
lineman's pliers Lineman's pliers (US English), Kleins (genericized trademark, US usage), linesman pliers (Canadian English) and combination pliers (UK / US English), or side-cutting pliers are a type of pliers used by Lineworker, linemen, electricians, and other t ...
incorporate a gripper and cutter, and are often used as a hammer; and some
hand sawImage:Crosscut saw.JPG, 280px, A crosscut handsaw In woodworking and carpentry, hand saws, also known as "panel saws", are used to cut pieces of wood into different shapes. This is usually done in order to Woodworking joints, join the pieces toget ...

hand saw
s incorporate a
square In Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematics , Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the ''Euclid's Elements, Elements''. Euclid's method ...
in the right-angle between the blade's dull edge and the saw's handle. This would also be the category of "multi-purpose" tools, since they are also multiple tools in one (multi-use and multi-purpose can be used interchangeably – compare
hand axe A hand axe (or handaxe or Acheulean hand axe) is a prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is under ...
). These types of tools were specifically made to catch the eye of many different craftsman who traveled to do their work. To these workers these types of tools were revolutionary because they were one tool or one device that could do several different things. With this new revolution of tools the traveling craftsman would not have to carry so many tools with them to job sites, in that their space would be limited to the vehicle or to the beast of burden they were driving. Multi-use tools solve the problem of having to deal with many different tools.


Use by other animals

Observation has confirmed that a number of species can use tools including
monkey Monkey is a common name that may refer to most mammals of the infraorder In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structur ...

monkey
s,
ape Apes (Hominoidea ) are a branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of bi ...

ape
s,
elephant Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Three living species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A specie ...

elephant
s, several birds, and
sea otter The sea otter (''Enhydra lutris'') is a marine mammal Marine mammals are aquatic mammals Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals are a diverse group of mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate anim ...

sea otter
s. Philosophers originally thought that only humans had the ability to ''make'' tools, until
zoologist Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical st ...
s observed birds and apes making tools. Now the unique relationship of
human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...

human
s with tools is considered to be that we are the only species that uses tools to make ''other'' tools. Recently, a
Visayan warty pig The Visayan warty pig (''Sus cebifrons'') is a critically endangered species in the pig genus ('' Sus''). It is endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classificat ...
was observed using a stick in digging a hole on the ground at a French
zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () i ...

zoo
.


Tool metaphors

A telephone is a communication tool that interfaces between two people engaged in conversation at one level. It also interfaces between each user and the communication network at another level. It is in the domain of media and communications technology that a counter-intuitive aspect of our relationships with our tools first began to gain popular recognition.
Marshall McLuhan Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911 – December 31, 1980) was a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Province ...

Marshall McLuhan
famously said "We shape our tools. And then our tools shape us." McLuhan was referring to the fact that our social practices co-evolve with our use of new tools and the refinements we make to existing tools.


See also

* Antique tool *
Ergonomics Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as human factors) is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the engineering and design of products, processes, and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human ...
* List of timber framing tools * Tool library * Toolbank *
Toolmaker Tool and die makers are a class of machinists in the manufacturing, manufacturing industries. Variations on the name include tool maker, toolmaker, die maker, diemaker, Moldmaker, mold maker, moldmaker or tool jig and die-maker, or Fitter, depending ...


References


External links

* * {{Authority control Industrial equipment ceb:Himan