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The Crown is the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in all its aspects within the
jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of . Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of , , , and the proper application and rol ...
of the
Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a perma ...
s and their subdivisions (such as the
Crown Dependencies#REDIRECT Crown Dependencies The Crown dependencies (french: Dépendances de la Couronne; gv, Croghaneyn-crooin) are three island territories off the coast of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off t ...

Crown Dependencies
,
overseas territories A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names f ...

overseas territories
,
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gene ...
, or
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
). Legally ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context. It is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as
Head of the Commonwealth Head of the Commonwealth is a title used by the ceremonial leader who symbolises "the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is ...
, or as the king or queen of his or her realms. It can also refer to the rule of law; however, in common parlance 'The Crown' refers to the functions of government and the civil service. A
corporation sole A corporation sole is a legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part ...
, the Crown is the legal embodiment of executive,
legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure i ...
, and
judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is t ...
governance in the
monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore ...
of each commonwealth realm. These monarchies are united by the
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
of their
monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...

monarch
, but they are independent states. The concept of the Crown developed first in
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
as a separation of the literal crown and property of the kingdom from the person and personal property of the monarch. It spread through English and later
British colonisation
British colonisation
and is now rooted in the legal lexicon of the United Kingdom, its Crown dependencies, and the other 14 independent realms. It is not to be confused with any physical crown, such as those of the British regalia. The term is also found in various expressions such as "
Crown land Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies . It is the equivalent of an and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in s such as Cana ...
", which some countries refer to as "public land" or "state land"; as well as in some offices, such as
minister of the Crown Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Commonwealth realms to describe a Minister (government), minister of the reigning sovereign or viceroy. The term indicates that the minister serves ''At Her Majesty's pleasure, at Hi ...
,
Crown attorney Crown attorneys or crown counsel (or, in Alberta and New Brunswick, crown prosecutors) are the prosecutors in the legal system of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ...
, and
Crown prosecutor Crown prosecutor is the title given in a number of jurisdictions to the state prosecutor A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system or the Civil law (legal system), civil law ...
.


Concept

The concept of the Crown took form under the
feudal system Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disco ...
. Though not used this way in all countries that had this system, in England, all rights and privileges were ultimately bestowed by the ruler. Land, for instance, was granted by the Crown to lords in exchange for feudal services and they, in turn, granted the land to lesser lords. One exception to this was common
socage Socage () was one of the feudal duties Feudal duties were the set of reciprocal financial, military and legal obligations among the warrior nobility in a feudal system Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the leg ...
: owners of land held as socage held it subject only to the Crown. When such lands become owner-less they are said to
escheat Escheat is a common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law ...
; i.e., return to direct ownership of the Crown (Crown lands). ''
Bona vacantia Unowned property refers to tangible, physical things which are capable of being reduced to being property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as ...
'' is the royal prerogative by which unowned property, primarily unclaimed inheritances, becomes the property of the Crown. The monarch is the living embodiment of the Crown and, as such, is regarded as the
personification Personification occurs when a thing or abstraction is represented as a person, in literature or art, as an anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread spec ...
of the state. The body of the reigning sovereign thus holds two distinct personas in constant coexistence: that of a natural-born human being and that of the state as accorded to him or her through law; the Crown and the monarch are "conceptually divisible but legally indivisible ... e office cannot exist without the office-holder". The terms ''the state'', ''the Crown'', ''the Crown in Right of urisdiction', ''Her Majesty the Queen in Right of urisdiction', and similar are all synonymous and the monarch's
legal personality In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its b ...
is sometimes referred to simply as the relevant jurisdiction's name. (In countries using systems of government derived from Roman
civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as England and Wales and the law of the United ...
, the State is the equivalent concept to the Crown.) As a consequence, the king or queen is the employer of all government officials and staff (including the viceroys, judges, members of the armed forces, police officers, and parliamentarians), the guardian of foster children ('' Crown wards''), as well as the owner of all state lands (''
Crown land Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies . It is the equivalent of an and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in s such as Cana ...
''), buildings and equipment (''Crown-held property''), state-owned companies (''
Crown corporation A state-owned enterprise (SOE) or government-owned enterprise (GOE) is a business enterprise Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simp ...
s''), and the
copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

copyright
for government publications ('' Crown copyright''). This is all in his or her position as sovereign, not as an individual; all such property is held by the Crown in perpetuity and cannot be sold by the sovereign without the proper
advice and consent Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type o ...
of his or her relevant ministers. The Crown also represents the legal embodiment of executive,
legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure i ...
, and
judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is t ...
governance. While the Crown's legal personality is usually regarded as a
corporation sole A corporation sole is a legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part ...
, it can, at least for some purposes, be described as a
corporation aggregate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal ...
headed by the monarch.


Divisibility of the Crown

Historically, the Crown was considered to be indivisible. Two judgments—''Ex parte'' Indian Association of Alberta (
EWCA The Court of Appeal (formally "Her Majesty's Court of Appeal in England", commonly cited as "CA", "EWCA" or "CoA") is the highest court within the Courts of England and Wales#Senior Courts of England and Wales, Senior Courts of England and Wale ...
, 1982) and ''Ex parte'' Quark (
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...
, 2005)—challenged that view. Today, the Crown is considered separate in every country, province, state, or territory, regardless of its degree of independence, that has the shared monarch as part of the local government, though limitations on the power of the monarch in right of each territory vary according to relevant laws, thus making the difference between full sovereignty, semi-sovereignty, dependency, etc. The Lords of Appeal wrote: "The Queen is as much the Queen of New South Wales and Mauritius and other territories acknowledging her as head of state as she is of England and Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland or the United Kingdom."


Commonwealth realms

The Crown in each of the
Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a perma ...
s is a similar, but separate, legal concept. To distinguish the institution's role in one jurisdiction from its place in another, Commonwealth law employs the expression ''the Crown in right of
lace Lace is a delicate fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, k ...

lace
'; for example, the Crown in right of the United Kingdom, the Crown in right of Canada, the Crown in right of the Commonwealth of Australia, etc. Because both Canada and Australia are federations, there are also crowns in right of each
Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Constitution of Canada, Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of Br ...
and each
Australian state The States and Territories of Australia are the regional governments in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Aust ...
. The Crown's powers are exercised either by the monarch personally or by his or her representative in each jurisdiction, on the advice of the appropriate local ministers, legislature, or judges, none of which may advise the Crown on any matter pertinent to another of the Crown's jurisdictions.


New Zealand

In New Zealand the term "The Crown" is used to mostly to mean the authority of government, its meaning changes in different contexts. In the context of people considering Treaty of Waitangi claims, professor of history Alan Ward defines the Crown as "the people of New Zealand – including Maori themselves – acted through elected parliament and government."


Crown Dependencies

In the
Bailiwick of Guernsey The Bailiwick of Guernsey (french: Bailliage de Guernesey; Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey. It is sometimes known ...

Bailiwick of Guernsey
, legislation refers to ''the Crown in right of the Bailiwick'', and the Law Officers of the Crown of Guernsey submitted that " e Crown in this context ordinarily means the Crown in right of the ''république'' of the Bailiwick of Guernsey" and that this comprises "the collective governmental and civic institutions, established by and under the authority of the Monarch, for the governance of these Islands, including the States of Guernsey and legislatures in the other Islands, the Royal Court and other courts, the Lieutenant Governor, Parish authorities, and the Crown acting in and through the Privy Council". This constitutional concept is also worded as ''the Crown in right of the Bailiwick of Guernsey''. In the
Bailiwick of Jersey A bailiwick () is usually the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff, and once also applied to territories in which a privately appointed bailiff exercised the sheriff's functions under a royal or imperial writ. In English language, English the origina ...

Bailiwick of Jersey
, statements by the
Law Officers of the Crown In England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom ...
define the Crown's operation in that jurisdiction as ''the Crown in right of Jersey'', with all Crown land in the Bailiwick of Jersey belonging to the Crown in right of Jersey and not to the
Crown Estate The Crown Estate is a collection of lands and holdings in the United Kingdom belonging to the British monarch as a Corporation sole#The Crown, corporation sole, making it "the sovereign's public estate", which is neither government property nor ...
of the United Kingdom. The Succession to the Crown (Jersey) Law 2013 defined the Crown, for the purposes of implementing the
Perth Agreement The Perth Agreement is an agreement made by the prime ministers of those sixteen countries of the Commonwealth of Nations A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has so ...
in Jersey law, as the ''Crown in right of the Bailiwick of Jersey''. Legislation in the
Isle of Man ) , anthem = "O Land of Our Birth The "National Anthem of the Isle of Man" ( gv, Arrane Ashoonagh Vannin) was written and composed by William Henry Gill (1839–1923), with the Manx translation by John J. Kneen (1873–1939). It is often r ...

Isle of Man
also defines the Crown in right of the Isle of Man as being separate from the Crown in right of the United Kingdom.


British Overseas Territories

Following the Lords' decision in ''Ex parte'' Quark, 2005, it is held that the Queen in exercising her authority over
British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen all with a constitutional and historical link with the . They are remnants of the and do not form part of the United Kingdom its ...

British Overseas Territories
does not act on the advice of the government of the UK, but in her role as Queen of each territory, with the exception of fulfilling the UK's international responsibilities for its territories. The reserve powers of the Crown for each territory are no longer considered to be exercisable on the advice of the UK government. To comply with the court's decision, the territorial governors now act on the advice of each territory's executive and the UK government can no longer disallow legislation passed by territorial legislatures.


In the courts

In criminal proceedings, the state is the prosecuting party and is usually designated on the title or name of a case as "R v" – where ''R'' can stand for either ''Rex'' (if the current monarch is male) or ''Regina'' (if the monarch is female) against the
defendant In court proceedings, a defendant is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by Logical consequence, drawing conclu ...
; for example, a criminal case against Smith might be referred to as ''R v Smith'', and verbally read as "the Crown against Smith". On the indictment notice, it may state "The Queen - v - ''Defendant''" as well as "R v ''Defendant''". Often cases are brought by the Crown according to the complaint of a
claimant A plaintiff ( Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit A lawsuit is a proceeding by a party or parties against another in the civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affai ...
. The titles of these cases now follow the pattern of "R (on the application of X) v Y", notated as "R (X) v Y" for short. Thus ''
R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union ''R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union'' is a United Kingdom constitutional law case decided by the United Kingdom Supreme Court The Supreme Court (initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of ...
'' is ''R (on the application of Miller and other) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union'', where "Miller" is
Gina Miller Gina Nadira Miller (' Singh; born 19 April 1965) is a Guyanese people, Guyanese-British people, British business owner and activist who initiated the 2016 ''R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union'' court case against the ...
, a citizen. Until the end of the twentieth century, such case titles used the pattern ''R v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union,
ex parte ''Ex parte'' () is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
Miller''. In Scotland, criminal prosecutions are undertaken by the
Lord Advocate , body = , insignia = Crest of the Kingdom of Scotland.svg , insigniasize = 110px , image = File:Lord Advocate James Wolffe (26789821493).jpg , incumbent = The Rt Hon. James Wolffe QC , incumbentsince = J ...
(or the relevant Procurator Fiscal) in the name of the Crown. Accordingly, the abbreviation HMA is used in the
High Court of Justiciary The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of ...

High Court of Justiciary
for "His/Her Majesty's Advocate" in place of ''Rex'' or ''Regina'', as in '' HMA v Al Megrahi and Fahima''. In Australia, each state uses ''R'' in the title of criminal cases and ''The Queen'' (or ''The King'') in criminal appeal cases (i.e., the case name at trial would be ''R v Smith''; if appealed, the case name would be ''Smith v The Queen''). Judges usually refer to the prosecuting party as simply "the prosecution" in the text of judgments (only rarely is ''The Crown'' used in the text, and never ''R''). In civil cases where the Crown is a party, it is a customary to list the appropriate government Minister as the party instead. When a case is announced in court, the Clerk or Bailiff refers to the crown orally as "Our Sovereign Lady the Queen" (or "Our Sovereign Lord the King"). In
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
court reporting, news reports will refer to the prosecuting lawyer (often called a ''Crown prosecutor'', as in Canada and the United Kingdom) as representing the Crown, usages such as "For the Crown, Joe Bloggs argued..." being common. This practice of using the seat of
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate a ...
as the injured party is analogous with criminal cases in the United States, where the format is "the People" or "the State v. efendant (e.g., '' People of the State of New York v. LaValle'' or '' Commonwealth of Pennsylvania v. Brady'') under the doctrine of
popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty is the principle that the authority of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The ...
. In Federal criminal cases, it is "United States v. efendant" as in '' United States v. Nixon''. As an influence of the
American colonial period in the Philippines American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States ** Americans, citizens and nationals of the United States of America ** American ancestry, people who self-id ...
, court cases there also follow this format (e.g. ''People of the Philippines v. Rappler, et al''.). The Crown can also be a plaintiff or defendant in civil actions to which the government of the Commonwealth realm in question is a party. Such Crown proceedings are often subject to specific rules and limitations, such as the enforcement of judgments against the Crown. ''
Qui tam In common law, a writ of ''qui tam'' is a writ through which private citizen, private individuals who assist a prosecution can receive for themselves all or part of the damages or financial penalties recovered by the government as a result of the pr ...
'' lawsuits on behalf of the Crown were once common but have been unusual since the
Common Informers Act 1951 The Common Informers Act 1951 (14 & 15 Geo. 6, c. 39) is an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
ended the practice of allowing such suits by common informers.


Crown forces

The term ''crown forces'' has been applied by militant Irish republicans to British-authorised
security forcesSecurity Forces are statutory organisations with internal security mandates. In the legal context of several nations, the term has variously denoted police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement offi ...
on the island of
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
, including the
British Armed Forces The British Armed Forces, also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military, military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its British Overseas Territories, overseas territories and the Crown dependencies. They a ...
and armed police such as the
Royal Ulster Constabulary The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was the police The police are a constituted body of persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of conscio ...

Royal Ulster Constabulary
, which are seen as enemy combatants or an
occupation Occupation commonly refers to: *Occupation or job, one's role in society, often a regular activity performed for payment *Occupation (protest) As an act of protest, occupation is a strategy often used by social movements and other forms of collec ...
force. Irish nationalists may apply ''crown forces'' to earlier forces raised by the
Dublin Castle administration The Upper Courtyard of Dublin Castle. The Viceregal apartments are on the left. Dublin Castle Dublin Castle ( ga, Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a major Government of Ireland, Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attrac ...
at intervals since the
Tudor conquest of Ireland The Tudor conquest (or reconquest) of Ireland took place under the Tudor dynasty, which held the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from vario ...
to suppress various Irish uprisings.


See also

* Crown copyright *
Crown corporation A state-owned enterprise (SOE) or government-owned enterprise (GOE) is a business enterprise Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simp ...
*
Crown Court The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice The High Court of Justice in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the ...

Crown Court
*
Crown Estate The Crown Estate is a collection of lands and holdings in the United Kingdom belonging to the British monarch as a Corporation sole#The Crown, corporation sole, making it "the sovereign's public estate", which is neither government property nor ...
*
Crown land Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies . It is the equivalent of an and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in s such as Cana ...
*
Crown of the Kingdom of Poland The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland ( pl, Korona Królestwa Polskiego; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, know ...
*
Lands of the Bohemian Crown The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the Middle Ages, medieval and early modern periods connected by feudalism, feudal relations under the List of Bohemian monarchs, Bohemian kings. The cro ...
*
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen The internal official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ( hu, "a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monar ...
*
Royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi- ...


Notes


Further reading

*


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Crown (Commonwealth Realms) Common law Monarchy Legal fictions