HOME
TheInfoList



A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of
yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manu ...
s or threads, which are produced by
spinning Spin or spinning may refer to: Businesses * SPIN (cable system) or South Pacific Island Network * Spin (company), an American scooter-sharing system * SPiN, a chain of table tennis lounges Computing * SPIN model checker, Gerard Holzmann's tool fo ...
raw fibres (from either natural or synthetic sources) into long and twisted lengths. Textiles are then formed by
weaving Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting, felting, and braiding or plaiting. The longitudinal threa ...
,
knitting File:Ibarra (Aramayona), yarn bombing 2.JPG"> fabric;_it's_used_in_many_types_of_garments._...
,_crocheting,_Macramé.html" ;"title="Aramaio, Spain Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or knitted fabric">fabric; it's used in many types of garments. ...
, crocheting, Macramé">knotting,
tatting Tatting is a technique for handcrafting a particularly durable lace from a series of knots and loops. Tatting can be used to make lace edging as well as doilies, collars, accessories such as earrings and necklaces, and other decorative pieces. Th ...
, felting, Nonwoven fabrics, bonding or braiding these yarns together. The related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades (such as
tailor A tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally, especially suits and men's clothing. Although the term dates to the thirteenth century, ''tailor'' took on its modern sense in the late eighteenth century, and now pro ...
ing and
dressmaking Ruth Ford, photographed by Carl Van Vechten">Ruth Ford (actress)">Ruth Ford, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1947 A dressmaker is a person who makes custom clothing for women, such as dresses, blouses, and gown, evening gowns. A dr ...
) as synonyms for ''textile''. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A ''textile'' is any material made of the interlacing fibres, including carpeting and
geotextile upright=1.1, Geotextile sandbags can be 20 m long, such as those used for the artificial reef at Narrow Neck, Queensland. Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, p ...
s, which may not necessarily be used in the production of further goods, such as
clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textiles but over time has included garments made from animal ski ...

clothing
and upholstery. A ''fabric'' is a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, felting, stitching, crocheting or bonding that may be used in the production of further products, such as clothing and upholstery, thus requiring a further step of the production. ''Cloth'' may also be used synonymously with ''fabric'', but often specifically refers to a piece of fabric that has been processed or cut.


Etymology

The word 'textile' comes from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...
adjective , meaning 'woven', which itself stems from , the past participle of the verb , 'to weave'. The word 'fabric' also derives from Latin, with roots in the
Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-Europea ...
. Stemming most recently from the
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the 16th century. It is a period of transition during which: * the French language became clearly distinguished from the ...
, or 'building, thing made', and earlier from the Latin ('workshop; an art, trade; a skilful production, structure, fabric'), the noun stems from the Latin , or 'artisan who works in hard materials', which itself is derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''dhabh-'', meaning 'to fit together'. The word 'cloth' derives from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th centur ...

Old English
, meaning a 'cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one', from the
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic eventually developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three Germanic branches ...

Proto-Germanic
, similar to the
Old Frisian Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast. The Frisian settlers on the coast of South Jutland (today's Northern Friesland) also spoke O ...

Old Frisian
, the
Middle Dutch Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects whose ancestor was Old Dutch and was spoken and written between 1150 and 1500. Until the advent of Modern Dutch after 1500, there was no overarching standard l ...

Middle Dutch
, the
Middle High German Middle High German (abbreviated ''MHG'', german: Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. ') is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages. It is conventionally dated between 1050 and 1350, developing from Old High German and into Early New Hi ...

Middle High German
and the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language * Germanic peoples * Ger ...

German
, all meaning 'garment'.


History

The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of
warp Warp, warped or warping may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books and comics * WaRP Graphics, an alternative comics publisher * ''Warp'' (First Comics), comic book series published by First Comics based on the play ''Warp!'' * Warp (comics), a DC ...

warp
ikat ''Ikat'' (in Indonesian languages means "bind") is a dyeing technique originated from Indonesia used to pattern textiles that employs resist dyeing on the yarns prior to dyeing and weaving the fabric. In ''ikat'', the resist is formed by bindin ...

ikat
in Southeast
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with b ...

Asia
, displayed at the
National Museum of the Philippines The National Museum of the Philippines ( fil, Pambansang Museo ng Pilipinas}) is an umbrella government organization that oversees a number of national museums in the Philippines including ethnographic, anthropological, archaeological and visual ar ...

National Museum of the Philippines
. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asia people of northwest
Romblon Romblon ( ) is an archipelagic province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa region. Its main islands include Tablas, the largest, which covers nine municipalities, Sibuyan with its three towns, as well as the smaller island municipalities o ...

Romblon
. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and perhaps much earlier, were probably made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the elements. At some point, people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles. The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in the
Republic of Georgia
Republic of Georgia
dated to 34,000
BCE
BCE
suggests that textile-like materials were made as early as the Paleolithic era. ,
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area ...

Wales
in the 1940s The speed and scale of textile production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern
manufacturing Manufacturing is the production of goods through the use of labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary sector of the economy. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from h ...

manufacturing
techniques.


Uses

Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for
clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textiles but over time has included garments made from animal ski ...

clothing
and for
containers box. File:Railroad car with container loads.jpg, A spine car with a 20 ft intermodal shipping container with canvas cover. A container is any receptacle or enclosure for holding a product used in storage, _such_as_bags_and_basket.html" "title="packaging">intermodal container">inter ...

containers
such as bags and basket">packaging">intermodal container">inter ...

containers such as bags and basket

packagingintermodal container">inter ...

containers
such as bags and basket" >s. In the household, textiles are used in carpeting, upholstered furniture, furnishings, window shades, towels, coverings for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in art. In the workplace, textiles can be used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include
flag A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colours. It is used as a symbol, a signalling device, or for decoration. The term ''flag'' is also used to refer to the graphic design employed, ...

flag
s,
backpack A backpack—also called knapsack, rucksack, rucksac, pack, sackpack, booksack, bookbag or backsack—is, in its simplest frameless form, a cloth sack carried on one's back and secured with two straps that go over the shoulders, but it can ...

backpack
s,
tent A tent () is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope. While smaller tents may be free-standing or attached to the ground, large tents are usually anchor ...
s, nets,
handkerchief handkerchief A handkerchief (; also called a hankie or, historically, a handkercher) is a form of a kerchief or bandanna, typically a hemmed square of thin fabric which can be carried in the pocket or handbag, and which is intended for personal h ...

handkerchief
s, cleaning
rags Rag or rags may refer to: Common meanings *Rag (newspaper), a derogatory term for a sensationalist or tabloid newspaper *Rag, a tattered piece of cloth Places *Rags Brook, Hertfordshire, England, a tributary of the River Lea People *Rags (nickn ...
,
transportation Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of an organism ...

transportation
devices such as
balloon A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, and air. For special tasks, balloons can be filled with smoke, liquid water, granular media (e.g. sand, flour or rice), or light so ...
s,
kites . This sparless, ram-air inflated kite, has a complex bridle formed of many strings attached to the face of the wing. A kite is a tethered heavier-than-air or lighter-than-air craft with wing surfaces that react against the air to create lift an ...
,
sail A sail is a tensile structure—made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, windsurfers, ice boats, and even sail-powered land vehicles. Sails may be made from ...
s, and
parachute A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift). Parachutes are usually made out of light, strong fabric, originally silk, now most ...
s; textiles are also used to provide strengthening in
composite material A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material which is produced from two or more constituent materials. These constituent materials have notably dissimilar chemical or p ...

composite material
s such as
fibreglass Fiberglass (American English), or fibreglass (Commonwealth English) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be randomly arranged, flattened into a sheet (called a chopped strand mat), or woven into a fabric. ...
and industrial
geotextile upright=1.1, Geotextile sandbags can be 20 m long, such as those used for the artificial reef at Narrow Neck, Queensland. Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, p ...
s. Textiles are used in many traditional
crafts A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages and earlier, the term is usually applied to people occupied in small-scale produc ...
such as
sewing Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic era. Before the invention of spinning yarn or weaving fabric, archaeol ...
,
quilting Quilting is the term given to the process of joining a minimum of three layers of fabric together either through stitching manually by hand using a needle and thread, or mechanically with a sewing machine or specialised longarm quilting syst ...
and
embroidery Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. In modern days, embroidery is usually seen on cap ...
. Textiles produced for industrial purposes, and designed and chosen for technical characteristics beyond their appearance, are commonly referred to as ''
technical textiles A technical textile is a textile product manufactured for non-aesthetic purposes, where function is the primary criterion. Technical textiles include textiles for automotive applications, medical textiles (e.g., implants), geotextiles (reinforcemen ...
.'' Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (such as implants), geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for
crop protection Crop protection is the science and practice of managing plant diseases, weeds and other pests (both vertebrate and invertebrate) that damage agricultural crops and forestry. Agricultural crops include field crops (maize, wheat, rice, etc.), vegetab ...
), protective clothing (such as clothing resistant to heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and
bullet ''cartridge'' consisting of the following:''1.'' ''bullet'', as the projectile; ''2.'' ''metallic'' ''case'', which holds all parts together; ''3.'' ''propellant'', for example gunpowder or cordite;''4.'' ''rim'', which provides the extractor on ...

bullet
proof vests). Due to the often highly technical and legal requirements of these products, these textiles are typically tested in order to ensure they meet stringent performance requirements. Other forms of technical textiles may be produced to experiment with their scientific qualities and to explore the possible benefits they may have in the future. Threads coated with
zinc oxide Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula . ZnO is a white powder that is insoluble in water. It is used as an additive in numerous materials and products including cosmetics, food supplements, rubbers, plastics, ceramics, glass, cement, ...

zinc oxide
nanowire A nanowire is a nanostructure, with the diameter of the order of a nanometre (10−9 meters). It can also be defined as the ratio of the length to width being greater than 1000. Alternatively, nanowires can be defined as structures that have a th ...
s, when woven into fabric, have been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems", using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements to generate energy.


Fibre sources and types

Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal (
wool Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, hide and fur clothing from bison, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids. Wool consists of p ...
,
silk SILK is an audio compression format and audio codec developed by Skype Limited, now a Microsoft subsidiary. It was developed for use in Skype, as a replacement for the SVOPC codec. Since licensing out, it has also been used by others. It has been ...
), plant (
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus ''Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the ...

cotton
,
flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, ''Linum usitatissimum'', in the family Linaceae. It is cultivated as a food and fiber crop in regions of the world with temperate climate. Textiles made from flax are known in West ...
,
jute Jute is a long, soft, shiny bast fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from flowering plants in the genus ''Corchorus'', which is in the mallow family Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is ''Corchorus olito ...
,
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family ''Poaceae''. The origin of the word "bamboo" is uncertain, but it probably comes from the Dutch or Portuguese language, which ...
), mineral (
asbestos Asbestos (pronounced: or ) is a naturally occurring fibrous silicate mineral. There are six types, all of which are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals, each fibre being composed of many microscopic "fibrils" that can be released into t ...
,
glass fibre Glass fiber (or glass fibre) is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass. Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention ...
), and synthetic (
nylon Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers composed of polyamides (repeating units linked by amide links).The polyamides may be aliphatic or semi-aromatic. Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material, generally made from petr ...
,
polyester Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in every repeat unit of their main chain. As a specific material, it most commonly refers to a type called polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include naturall ...
, acrylic,
rayon Rayon is a regenerated cellulose fiber that is made from natural sources of cellulose, such as wood and related agricultural products. It has the same molecular structure as cellulose. Viscose can mean: * A viscous solution of cellulose * A syno ...
). The first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from
petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separate ...
. Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest
microfibre Microfiber (or microfibre) is synthetic fiber finer than one denier or decitex/thread, having a diameter of less than ten micrometers. A strand of silk is about one denier and about a fifth of the diameter of a human hair. The most common type ...
made of strands thinner than one
denier Denier may refer to: * the French form of ''denarius'' (penny) ** French denier (penny), a type of medieval coin ** Denier (unit), a unit of linear mass density of fibers ** ''Denier'', also ''Denyer'', a French and English surname (probably a me ...
to the sturdiest
canvas Canvas is an extremely durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, backpacks, shelters, as a support for oil painting and for other items for which sturdiness is required, as well as in such fashion objects as handbags, el ...
.
Textile manufacturing terminology The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies. To make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. (Both fibre and fiber are used in this article.) The yarn ...
has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light
gauze Gauze is a thin, translucent fabric with a loose open weave. In technical terms "gauze" is a weave structure in which the weft yarns are arranged in pairs and are crossed before and after each warp yarn keeping the weft firmly in place. Th ...
-like gossamer to heavy
grosgrain Grosgrain (, , also sometimes pronounced , ), is a type of fabric or ribbon defined by the fact that its weft is heavier than its warp, creating prominent transverse ribs. It is called a "corded" fabric since the weft resembles a fine cord. Grosg ...
cloth and beyond.


Animal

Animal textiles are commonly made from
hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicles which produce thick terminal and fin ...
,
fur Fur is a thick growth of hair that covers the skin of many different animals. It is a defining characteristic of mammals. It consists of a combination of oily guard hair on top and thick underfur beneath. The guard hair keeps moisture from reach ...
,
skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have different develo ...

skin
or
silk SILK is an audio compression format and audio codec developed by Skype Limited, now a Microsoft subsidiary. It was developed for use in Skype, as a replacement for the SVOPC codec. Since licensing out, it has also been used by others. It has been ...
(in the case of silkworms). *
Wool Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, hide and fur clothing from bison, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids. Wool consists of p ...
refers to the hair of the domestic
sheep Sheep (''Ovis aries'') are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name ''sheep'' applies to many species in the genus ''Ov ...

sheep
or
goat The domestic goat or simply goat (''Capra aegagrus hircus'') is a subspecies of ''C. aegagrus'' domesticated from the wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the animal family Bovidae and the subfamily Caprinae ...

goat
, which is distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightly crimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with a
wax , a typical wax ester. Image:Beeswax foundation.jpg">Commercial honeycomb foundation, made by pressing beeswax between patterned metal rollers. Waxes are a diverse class of malleable_solids_near_ambient_temperatures.__They_include_higher_alkan ...
mixture known as
lanolin Lanolin (from Latin 'wool', and 'oil'), also called wool yolk, wool wax, or wool grease, is a wax secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals. Lanolin used by humans comes from domestic sheep breeds that are raised specifically for ...
(sometimes called wool grease), which is waterproof and dirtproof. The lanolin and other contaminants are removed from the raw wool before further processing.
Woollen Woolen (American English) or woollen (Commonwealth English) is a type of yarn made from carded wool. Woolen yarn is soft, light, stretchy, and full of air. It is thus a good insulator, and makes a good knitting yarn. Woolen yarn is in contrast to ...
refers to a yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while
worstedWorsted ( or ) is a high-quality type of wool yarn, the fabric made from this yarn, and a yarn weight category. The name derives from Worstead, a village in the English county of Norfolk. That village, together with North Walsham and Aylsham, formed ...
refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibers which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is commonly used for warm clothing. ** Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are ''alpaca wool'', ''
vicuña wool
vicuña wool
'', ''llama wool'', and ''camel hair'', generally used in the production of coats,
jacket A man wearing a sports jacket, also known as a "sport(s) coat" in the United States. A jacket is a garment for the upper body, usually extending below the hips. A jacket typically has sleeves, and fastens in the front or slightly on the side. A ja ...
s,
poncho A poncho (; qu, punchu; arn, pontro; "blanket", "woolen fabric") is an outer garment designed to keep the body warm. A rain poncho is made from a watertight material designed to keep the body dry from the rain. Ponchos have been used by the Na ...
s,
blanket A blanket is a piece of soft cloth large enough either to cover or to enfold a great portion of the user's body. It is usually used when a person goes to sleep or is otherwise at rest. It traps radiant bodily heat that otherwise would be lost ...
s, and other warm coverings. ** '' Cashmere'', the hair of the Indian
cashmere goat A cashmere goat is a type of goat that produces cashmere wool, the goat's fine, soft, downy, winter undercoat, in commercial quality and quantity. This undercoat grows as the day length shortens and is associated with an outer coat of coarse hair, ...
, and
mohair Mohair (pronounced ) is a fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat (not to be confused with the Angora rabbit, which produces Angora wool). Both durable and resilient, mohair is notable for its high luster and sheen, and is often used ...
, the hair of the North African
angora goat The Angora goat () is a breed of domesticated goat, historically known as Angora. Angora goats produce the lustrous fibre known as mohair. History The Angora goat has been regarded by some as a direct descendant of the Central Asian markhor (''Ca ...
, are types of wool known for their softness. ** '' Angora'' refers to the long, thick, soft hair of the
angora rabbit The Angora rabbit ( tr, Ankara tavşanı), which is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, is bred for the long fibers of its coat, known as ''Angora wool'', which are gathered by shearing, combing or plucking. Because rabbits do not possess th ...

angora rabbit
.
Qiviut Qiviuq gor qiviut l( ; Inuktitut syllabics: ᕿᕕᐅᖅ; Inuinnaqtun: qiviuq; Inupiaq: qiviu or qiviuqWolf A. Seiler (2012)Iñupiatun Eskimo Dictionary/ref> (sometimes spelled qiveut)) is the inner wool of the muskox. In Inuktitut the same word ca ...

Qiviut
is the fine inner wool of the
muskox The muskox (''Ovibos moschatus'', in Latin "musky sheep-ox"), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in iu, ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak; in Woods Cree: ), is a hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae. Native to the Arctic, it is noted for its thick coat and ...
. ** ''
Wadmal Wadmal (Old Norse: ''vaðmál''; Norwegian: ''vadmål'', "cloth measure") is a coarse, dense, usually undyed wool fabric woven in Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Greenland, and the Orkney, Faroe and Shetland Islands from the Middle Ages into the ...
'' is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia, mostly 1000~1500 CE. *
Sea silk, Italy, probably from the late 19th century '' shell and byssus Image:Fine sea silk threads.JPG">The extreme fineness of the fabric that is made from the long silky filaments or pen_shells_(in_particular_''Pinna_nobilis.html" style="text-decorati ...
is an extremely fine, rare, and valuable fabric that is made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. * Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the
cocoon Cocoon may refer to: *Cocoon (silk), a pupal casing made by moth caterpillars and other insect larvae *Apache Cocoon, web development software *''Cocoon'' (film), a 1985 science fiction-fantasy film **''Cocoon: The Return'', 1988 sequel to ''Cocoon' ...
of the Chinese
silkworm ''Bombyx mori'', the domestic silk moth, is an insect from the moth family Bombycidae. It is the closest relative of ''Bombyx mandarina'', the wild silk moth. The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of a silk moth. It is an economically impor ...
which is spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main types of the silk: 'mulberry silk' produced by the
Bombyx Mori ''Bombyx mori'', the domestic silk moth, is an insect from the moth family Bombycidae. It is the closest relative of ''Bombyx mandarina'', the wild silk moth. The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of a silk moth. It is an economically impor ...
, and 'wild silk' such as Tussah silk (wild silk). Silkworm larvae produce the first type if cultivated in habitats with fresh mulberry leaves for consumption, while Tussah silk is produced by silkworms feeding purely on oak leaves. Around four-fifths of the world's silk production consists of cultivated silk.


Plant

Grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species cultivated in lawns and pasture. ...
, rush,
hemp Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a variety of the ''Cannabis sativa'' plant species that is grown specifically for industrial use. It can be used to make a wide range of products. Along with bamboo, hemp is one of the fastest growing plants on Eart ...
, and
sisal Sisal (, ), with the botanical name ''Agave sisalana'', is a species of flowering plant native to southern Mexico but widely cultivated and naturalized in many other countries. It yields a stiff fibre used in making rope and various other product ...
are all used in making
rope A rope is a group of yarns, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly const ...
. In the first two, the entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant are utilized.
Coir Coir (), or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the outer husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes and mattresses. Coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer co ...
(
coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fru ...

coconut
fibre) is used in making
twine Twine is a strong thread, light string or cord composed of two or more thinner strands twisted, and then twisted together (plied). The strands are plied in the opposite direction to that of their twist, which adds torsional strength to the cord and ...

twine
, and also in floormats, doormats,
brush A brush is a common tool with bristles, wire or other filaments. It generally consists of a handle or block to which filaments are affixed in either a parallel or perpendicular orientation, depending on the way the brush is to be gripped during ...
es,
mattress A mattress is a large, usually rectangular pad for supporting a lying person. It is designed to be used as a bed, or on a bed frame as part of a bed. Mattresses may consist of a quilted or similarly fastened case, usually of heavy cloth, containi ...

mattress
es, floor tiles, and sacking. *
Straw Straw is an agricultural byproduct consisting of the dry stalks of cereal plants after the grain and chaff have been removed. It makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat. It has a number of di ...
and
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family ''Poaceae''. The origin of the word "bamboo" is uncertain, but it probably comes from the Dutch or Portuguese language, which ...
are both used to make hats. Straw, a dried form of grass, is also used for stuffing, as is kapok. * Fibres from
pulpwoodHarvesting a stand of eucalyptus pulpwood in Australia. Pulpwood is timber with the principal use of making wood pulp for paper production. Applications * Trees raised specifically for pulp production account for 16% of world pulp production, old gr ...
trees, cotton,
rice Rice is the seed of the grass species ''Oryza sativa'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''Oryza glaberrima'' (African rice). The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera ''Zizania'' and ''Porteresia'', both wild and domesticated, a ...
, hemp, and
nettle{{redirect, Nettle Nettle is part of the English name of many plants with stinging hairs, particularly those of the genus ''Urtica''. It is also part of the name of plants which resemble ''Urtica'' species in appearance but do not have stinging hairs. ...
are used in making
paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, rags, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through fine mesh leaving the fibre evenly distribut ...

paper
. *
Cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus ''Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the ...

Cotton
,
flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, ''Linum usitatissimum'', in the family Linaceae. It is cultivated as a food and fiber crop in regions of the world with temperate climate. Textiles made from flax are known in West ...
, jute, hemp, modal and even
banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus ''Musa''. In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called "plantains", distinguishi ...
and bamboo fibre are all used in clothing.
Piña Piña ( ) is a traditional Philippine fiber made from pineapple leaves. Pineapples were widely cultivated in the Philippines since the 17th century for weaving lustrous lace-like luxury textiles known as ''nipis'' fabric. The name is derived from ...
(
pineapple The pineapple (''Ananas comosus'') is a tropical plant with an edible fruit and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae. The pineapple is indigenous to South America, where it has been cultivated for many centuries. T ...
fibre) and
ramie Ramie (pronounced: , ; from Malay ) is a flowering plant in the nettle family Urticaceae, native to eastern Asia. It is a herbaceous perennial growing to tall;
are also fibres used in clothing, generally with a blend of other fibres such as cotton. Nettles have also been used to make a fibre and fabric very similar to hemp or flax. The use of milkweed stalk fibre has also been reported, but it tends to be somewhat weaker than other fibres like hemp or flax. * The inner bark of the lacebark tree is a fine netting that has been used to make clothing and accessories as well as utilitarian articles such as rope. *
Acetate An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with a base (e.g. alkaline, earthy, metallic, nonmetallic or radical base). "Acetate" also describes the conjugate base or ion (specifically, the negatively charged ion called an anio ...

Acetate
is used to increase the shininess of certain fabrics such as
silk SILK is an audio compression format and audio codec developed by Skype Limited, now a Microsoft subsidiary. It was developed for use in Skype, as a replacement for the SVOPC codec. Since licensing out, it has also been used by others. It has been ...
s,
velvet Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive soft feel. By extension, the word ''velvety'' means "smooth like velvet". Velvet can be made from either syn ...

velvet
s, and
taffeta Taffeta (; archaically spelled taffety) is a crisp, smooth, plain woven fabric made from silk or cuprammonium rayons as well as acetate and polyester. The word is Persian (تافته) in origin and means "twisted woven". It is considered to be a "h ...
s. *
Seaweed Seaweed, or macroalgae, refers to thousands of species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae. The term includes some types of ''Rhodophyta'' (red), ''Phaeophyta'' (brown) and ''Chlorophyta'' (green) macroalgae. Seaweed species such as k ...
is used in the production of textiles: a water-soluble fibre known as
alginate Alginic acid, also called algin, is a polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae that is hydrophilic and forms a viscous gum when hydrated. With metals such as sodium and calcium, its salts are known as alginates. Its colou ...
is produced and is used as a holding fibre; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is dissolved, leaving an open area. *
Rayon Rayon is a regenerated cellulose fiber that is made from natural sources of cellulose, such as wood and related agricultural products. It has the same molecular structure as cellulose. Viscose can mean: * A viscous solution of cellulose * A syno ...
is a manufactured fabric derived from plant pulp. Different types of rayon can imitate the feel and texture of silk, cotton, wool, or linen. Fibres from the stalks of plants, such as hemp, flax, and nettles, are also known as 'bast' fibres.


Mineral

* Asbestos and
basalt fibre Basalt fiber is a material made from extremely fine fibers of basalt, which is composed of the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. It is similar to fiberglass, having better physicomechanical properties than fiberglass, but being signifi ...
are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting and adhesives, "transite" panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets. *
Glass fibre Glass fiber (or glass fibre) is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass. Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention ...
is used in the production of ironing board and mattress covers, ropes and cables, reinforcement fibre for composite materials, insect netting, flame-retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating fibres. Glass fibres are woven and coated with
Teflon Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The commonly known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon by Chemours, a spin-off from DuPont, which originally discovered th ...
to produce beta cloth, a virtually fireproof fabric which replaced nylon in the outer layer of United States
space suit A space suit or spacesuit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure, a ...
s since 1968. * Metal fibre, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the production of
cloth-of-gold Cloth of gold or gold cloth (Latin: ''Tela aurea'') is a fabric woven with a gold-wrapped or spun weft—referred to as "a spirally spun gold strip". In most cases, the core yarn is silk wrapped (''filé'') with a band or strip of high content ...
and
jewellery Jewellery or jewelry consists of decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes. From a western perspective, the ...
.
Hardware cloth A mesh is a barrier made of connected strands of metal, fiber, or other flexible or ductile materials. A mesh is similar to a web or a net in that it has many attached or woven strands. Types * A plastic mesh may be extruded, oriented, expand ...
(US term only) is a coarse woven
mesh A mesh is a barrier made of connected strands of metal, fiber, or other flexible or ductile materials. A mesh is similar to a web or a net in that it has many attached or woven strands. Types * A plastic mesh may be extruded, oriented, expand ...

mesh
of steel wire, used in construction. It is much like standard
window screen A window screen (also known as insect screen, bug screen, fly screen, wire mesh) is designed to cover the opening of a window. It is usually a mesh made of metal or plastic wire, or other pieces of plastic and stretched in a frame of wood or metal. ...
ing, but heavier and with a more open weave. Minerals and natural and synthetic fabrics may be combined, as in
emery cloth Emery cloth is a type of coated abrasive that has emery glued to a cloth backing. It is used for hand metalworking. It may be sold in sheets or in narrow rolls, typically 25 or 50 mm wide, often described as "emery tape". The cloth backing makes eme ...
, a layer of emery abrasive glued to a cloth backing. Also, "sand cloth" is a U.S. term for fine wire mesh with abrasive glued to it, employed like emery cloth or coarse
sandpaper Sandpaper and glasspaper are names used for a type of coated abrasive that consists of sheets of paper or cloth with abrasive material glued to one face. Despite the use of the names neither sand nor glass are now used in the manufacture of these ...
.


Synthetic

Woven tartan of Clan_Campbell,_Scotland_.html" ;"title="Scotland.html" ;"title="Clan Campbell, Scotland">Clan Campbell, Scotland ">Scotland.html" ;"title="Clan Campbell, Scotland">Clan Campbell, Scotland Synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing, as well as the manufacture of
geotextile upright=1.1, Geotextile sandbags can be 20 m long, such as those used for the artificial reef at Narrow Neck, Queensland. Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, p ...
s. * Polyester fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as cotton. * Aramid fibre (e.g. Twaron) is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and armour. * Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools, including cashmere, and is often used in replacement of them. *
Nylon Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers composed of polyamides (repeating units linked by amide links).The polyamides may be aliphatic or semi-aromatic. Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material, generally made from petr ...
is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of
pantyhose Pantyhose, called sheer tights, or sheers in the United Kingdom and a few other countries, are close-fitting legwear covering the wearer's body from the waist to the toes. Mostly considered to be a garment for women and girls, pantyhose first appe ...
. Thicker nylon fibres are used in
rope A rope is a group of yarns, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly const ...
and outdoor clothing. *
Spandex Spandex, Lycra, or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. It is a polyether-polyurea copolymer that was invented in 1958 by chemist Joseph Shivers at DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro, Virginia., "Segmented copo ...
(trade name ''Lycra'') is a
polyurethane Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links. While most polyurethanes are thermosetting polymers that do not melt when heated, thermoplastic polyurethanes are also available. Polyurethane ...
product that can be made tight-fitting without impeding movement. It is used to make
activewear 300px, 100m race record holder Usain Bolt (in yellow) and other runners in sportswear. Sportswear or activewear is clothing, including footwear, worn for sport or physical exercise. Sport-specific clothing is worn for most sports and physical e ...
, bras, and
swimsuit A swimsuit is an item of clothing designed to be worn by people engaging in a water-based activity or water sports, such as swimming, diving and surfing, or sun-orientated activities, such as sun bathing. Different types may be worn by men, women, ...
s. * Olefin fibre is a fibre used in activewear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefins are hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly. A sintered felt of olefin fibres is sold under the trade name
Tyvek Tyvek () is a brand of flashspun high-density polyethylene fibers, a synthetic material; the name is a registered trademark of the DuPont company, known for their production of chemicals and textiles. Tyvek is often used as housewrap, a synthetic ...
. * Ingeo is a
polylactide Polylactic acid, or polylactide (PLA) is a thermoplastic polyester with backbone formula or , formally obtained by condensation of lactic acid with loss of water (hence its name). It can also be prepared by ring-opening polymerization of lactid ...
fibre blended with other fibres such as cotton and used in clothing. It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away perspiration. * Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment. *
Milk Milk is a nutrient-rich liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals, including breastfed human infants before they are able to digest solid food. Early-lactation milk is calle ...

Milk
proteins have also been used to create synthetic fabric. Milk or
casein Casein ( , from Latin ''caseus'' "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ). These proteins are commonly found in mammalian milk, comprising c. 80% of the proteins in cow's milk and between 20% and 60% of the proteins in ...
fibre cloth was developed during
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
in Germany, and further developed in Italy and America during the 1930s. Milk fibre fabric is not very durable and wrinkles easily, but has a pH similar to human skin and possesses anti-bacterial properties. It is marketed as a
biodegradable Biodegradation is the breakdown of organic matter by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. Mechanisms The process of biodegradation can be divided into three stages: biodeterioration, biofragmentation, and assimilation. Biodeterioration is ...
,
renewable Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portion depleted by usage and consumption, either through natural reproduction or other recurring processes in a fini ...
synthetic fibre. *
Carbon fibre Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (American English), Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (Commonwealth English), or carbon fiber reinforced plastic, or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP, also known as carbon fiber, carbon compo ...
is mostly used in composite materials, together with resin, such as
carbon fibre reinforced plastic Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (American English), Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (Commonwealth English), or carbon fiber reinforced plastic, or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP, also known as carbon fiber, carbon compo ...
. The fibres are made from polymer fibres through carbonization.


Blends (Blended textiles)

Fabric or
yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manu ...
produced with a
combination In mathematics, a combination is a selection of items from a collection, such that the order of selection does not matter (unlike permutations). For example, given three fruits, say an apple, an orange and a pear, there are three combinations of t ...
of two or more types of different
fibers Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. The strongest engineering materials often incorporate fibers ...
, or yarns to obtain desired traits. Blending is possible at various stages of
textile manufacturing Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is largely based on the conversion of fibre into yarn, then yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into cloth which is then converted into useful goods such as clothing, househol ...
. Final composition is liable for the properties of the resultant product.
Natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large, if not the only, part of science. Al ...
and
Synthetic fibers Synthetic fiber or synthetic fibre (in British English; see spelling differences) are fibers made by humans through chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that are directly derived from living organisms. They are the result of extensiv ...
are blended to overcome disadvantage of single fiber properties and to achieve better performance characteristics and aesthetic effects such as devoré, heather effect, cross dyeing and stripes pattern etc.
Clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textiles but over time has included garments made from animal ski ...
woven from a blend of
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus ''Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the ...

cotton
and
polyester Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in every repeat unit of their main chain. As a specific material, it most commonly refers to a type called polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include naturall ...
can be more durable and easier to maintain than material woven solely from cotton. Other than sharing functional properties, blending makes the products more economical. Fiber composition is an important criteria to analyze the behavior, properties such as functional aspects and commercial classification of the merchandise. The fiber composition in textile materials is termed as "fiber identification".


Production methods

*
Weaving Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting, felting, and braiding or plaiting. The longitudinal threa ...
is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer threads (called the
warp Warp, warped or warping may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books and comics * WaRP Graphics, an alternative comics publisher * ''Warp'' (First Comics), comic book series published by First Comics based on the play ''Warp!'' * Warp (comics), a DC ...
) with a set of crossing threads (called the
weft Warp and weft are the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric. The lengthwise or longitudinal warp yarns are held stationary in tension on a frame or loom while the transverse weft (sometimes woof) is drawn thr ...
). This is done on a frame or machine known as a
loom A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the ...
, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanized. *
Knitting File:Ibarra (Aramayona), yarn bombing 2.JPG">Yarn bombing in Ibarra de Aramayona, Aramaio, Spain Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or knitted fabric, fabric; it's used in many types of garments. ...
, looping, and
crochet Crochet (; ) is a process of creating textiles by using a crochet hook to interlock loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials. The name is derived from the French term ''crochet'', meaning 'small hook'. Hooks can be made from a variety ...
ing involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a
knitting needle is helpful in working with knitting needles A knitting needle or knitting pin is a tool in hand-knitting to produce knitted fabrics. They generally have a long shaft and taper at their end, but they are not nearly as sharp as sewing needles. Th ...
, needle, or on a
crochet hook A crochet hook (or crochet needle) is an implement used to make loops in thread or yarn and to interlock them into crochet stitches. It is basically a round shaft pointed on one end, with a lateral groove behind it. The point eases the insertion of ...
, together in a line. The processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while looping and crocheting never have more than one active loop on the needle. Knitting can be performed by machine, but crochet can only be performed by hand. * Spread tow is a production method where the tow fibres are spread into thin tapes, and then the tapes are woven as warp and weft. This method is mostly used for composite materials; spread tow fabrics can be made in
carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Car ...
,
aramid Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in aerospace and military applications, for ballistic-rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in marine cordage, marine hull reinforcement, and as an ...
and other fibres. *
Braid A braid (also referred to as a plait) is a complex structure or pattern formed by interlacing two or more strands of flexible material such as textile yarns, wire, or hair. Historically, the materials used have depended on the indigenous plants ...
ing or plaiting involves intertwining threads together into cloth.
Knotting
Knotting
involves tying threads together and is used in making
tatting Tatting is a technique for handcrafting a particularly durable lace from a series of knots and loops. Tatting can be used to make lace edging as well as doilies, collars, accessories such as earrings and necklaces, and other decorative pieces. Th ...
and macrame. *
Lace Lace is a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open weblike pattern, made by machine or by hand. Generally, lace is divided into two main categories, needlelace and bobbin lace. There are other types of lace, such as knitted or crocheted ...
is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing alongside any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine. *
Carpet A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing. The pile was traditionally made from wool, but since the 20th century, synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, nylon or polyester are oft ...
s, rugs, velvet,
velour Velour or velours is a plush, knitted fabric or textile similar to velvet or velveteen. It is usually made from cotton, but can also be made from synthetic materials such as polyester. Velour is used in a wide variety of applications, including ...

velour
, and
velveteen 125px, Block-printed velveteen fabric designed by William Morris Velveteen (or velveret) is a type of cloth made to imitate velvet. Normally cotton, the term is sometimes applied to a mixture of silk and cotton. Some velveteens are a kind of fustian ...
, referred to as pile fabrics, are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile. *
Non-woven textiles Nonwoven fabric is a fabric-like material made from staple fibre (short) and long fibres (continuous long), bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. The term is used in the textile manufacturing industry to denote fabrics, ...
are manufactured by the bonding of fibres to make fabric. Bonding may be thermal, mechanical, chemical, or adhesives can be used. :* ''
Felting Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool or animal fur, or from synthetic fibers such as petroleum-based acrylic or acrylonitrile or wood pul ...
'' involves applying pressure and friction to a mat of fibres, working and rubbing them together until the fibres become interlocked and tangled, forming a nonwoven textile. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool. :* ''
Barkcloth Barkcloth or bark cloth is a versatile material that was once a treasure in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Barkcloth comes primarily from trees of the family Moraceae, including ''Broussonetia papyrifera'', ''Artocarpus altilis'', and ''Ficus n ...
'' is made by pounding bark until it is soft and flat.


Treatments

Textiles are often
dyed Dyeing is the application of dyes or pigments on textile materials such as fibers, yarns, and fabrics with the goal of achieving color with desired color fastness. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular che ...
, with fabrics available in almost every colour. The dyeing process often requires several dozen gallons of water for each pound of clothing. Coloured designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (
tartan Soldiers from a Highland Regiment circa 1744. The private (on the left) is wearing a belted plaid. Tartan ( gd, breacan ) (Irish: ''breacán'' ) is a patterned cloth consisting of criss-crossed, horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours ...
or Uzbek Ikat), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (
embroidery Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. In modern days, embroidery is usually seen on cap ...
), creating patterns by
resist dyeing . Resist dyeing (resist-dyeing) is a traditional method of dyeing textiles with patterns. Methods are used to "resist" or prevent the dye from reaching all the cloth, thereby creating a pattern and ground. The most common forms use wax, some type ...
methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (
tie-dyeing Tie-dye is a modern term invented in the mid-1960s in the United States (but recorded in writing in an earlier form in 1941 as "tied-and-dyed", and 1909 as "tied and dyed" by Charles E. Pellew, referenced below) for a set of ancient resist-dyeing ...
), drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (
batik Batik is an Indonesian technique of wax-resist dyeing applied to the whole cloth. This technique originated from the island of Java, Indonesia. Batik is made either by drawing dots and lines of the resist with a spouted tool called a ''cantin ...
), or using various printing processes on finished fabric.
Woodblock printing Woodblock printing or block printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper. As a method of printing on cl ...
, still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220 CE in
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
. Textiles are also sometimes
bleach Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to remove color from a fabric or fiber or to clean or to remove stains in a process called bleaching. It often refers, specifically, to a dilute solu ...
ed, making the textile pale or white. , meaning "iron yarn" in English, is a light-reflecting, strong material invented in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German , demonym = German , government_type = Federal parliamentary republi ...
in the 19th century. It is made by soaking cotton threads in a starch and paraffin wax solution. The threads are then stretched and polished by steel rollers and brushes. The end result of the process is a lustrous, tear-resistant yarn which is extremely hardwearing.''Industriegeschichte aus dem Bergischen land''
(in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016)
WDR digit project. ''Eisengarnfabrikation in Barmen''.
(Video (16 min) in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016).
Since the 1990s, with advances in technologies such as
permanent press Wrinkle-resistant or permanent press fabrics are textiles that have been treated to resist external stress and hold their shape. Clothing made from this fabric does not need to be ironed and may be sold as non-iron, no-iron, wash and wear, durable ...
process, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free. More recently, nanomaterials research has led to additional advancements, with companies such as Nano-Tex and NanoHorizons developing permanent treatments based on metallic
nanoparticle A nanoparticle or ultrafine particle is usually defined as a particle of matter that is between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in diameter. The term is sometimes used for larger particles, up to 500 nm, or fibers and tubes that are less than 100 ...

nanoparticle
s for making textiles more resistant to things such as water, stains, wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Textiles receive a range of treatments before they reach the end-user. From
formaldehyde Formaldehyde ( , also ) (systematic name methanal) is a naturally occurring organic compound with the formula CH2O (H−CHO). The pure compound is a pungent-smelling colourless gas that polymerises spontaneously into paraformaldehyde (refer to s ...
finishes (to improve crease-resistance) to biocidic finishes and from flame retardants to dyeing of many types of fabric, the possibilities are almost endless. However, many of these finishes may also have detrimental effects on the end user. A number of disperse, acid and reactive dyes, for example, have been shown to be allergenic to sensitive individuals. Further to this, specific dyes within this group have also been shown to induce purpuric contact dermatitis. Although formaldehyde levels in clothing are unlikely to be at levels high enough to cause an allergic reaction, due to the presence of such a chemical, quality control and testing are of utmost importance. Flame retardants (mainly in the brominated form) are also of concern where the environment, and their potential toxicity, are concerned. Testing for these additives is possible at a number of commercial laboratories, it is also possible to have textiles tested according to the
Oeko-tex#REDIRECT Oeko-Tex ...
certification standard, which contains limits levels for the use of certain chemicals in textiles products.


See also

*
List of textile fibresTextile fibres or textile fibers (see spelling differences) can be created from many natural sources (animal hair or fur, cocoons as with silk worm cocoons), as well as semisynthetic methods that use naturally occurring polymers, and synthetic method ...
*
Textile arts A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarns or threads, which are produced by spinning raw fibres (from either natural or synthetic sources) into long and twisted lengths. Textiles are then formed by w ...
*
Textile manufacturing Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is largely based on the conversion of fibre into yarn, then yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into cloth which is then converted into useful goods such as clothing, househol ...
 (
terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as terminology science. Terms are words and compound words or multi-wor ...
) *
Textile printing , 1883. Textile printing is the process of applying colour to fabric in definite patterns or designs. In properly printed fabrics the colour is bonded with the fibre, so as to resist washing and friction. Textile printing is related to dyeing bu ...
* Technical textile *
Timeline of clothing and textiles technology This timeline of clothing and textiles technology covers the events of fiber and flexible woven material worn on the body; including making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, and manufacturing systems (techno ...


References


Further reading

* Introduction by Teresa Archuleta-Sagel. 196 pages with 125 black and white as well as colour plates. Fisher is Curator Emirta, Textiles & Costumes of the
Museum of International Folk Art The Museum of International Folk Art is a state-run institution in Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States. It is one of many cultural institutions operated by the New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs. History The museum was founded by Florence ...
. * * Arai, Masanao (Textile Industry Research Institute of Gunma).
From Kitsch to Art Moderne: Popular Textiles for Women in the First Half of Twentieth-Century Japan

Archive
. ''Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings''. Textile Society of America, January 1, 1998. * {{Authority control Clothing industry