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Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as terminology science. Terms are words and
compound word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the met ...
s or multi-word expressions that in specific
contexts ''Contexts'': ''Understanding People in their Social Worlds'' is a quarterly Peer review, peer-reviewed academic journal and an official publication of the American Sociological Association. It is designed to be a more accessible source of sociolog ...
are given specific meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language. Terminology is a discipline that studies, among other things, the development of such terms and their interrelationships within a specialized domain. Terminology differs from
lexicography Lexicography is the study of lexicon A lexicon is the of a or branch of (such as or ). In , a lexicon is a language's inventory of s. The word ''lexicon'' derives from word (), neuter of () meaning 'of or for words'. Linguistic th ...

lexicography
, as it involves the study of
concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the bo ...

concept
s, conceptual systems and their labels (''terms''), whereas lexicography studies words and their meanings. Terminology is a discipline that systematically studies the "labelling or designating of concepts" particular to one or more subject fields or domains of
human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...

human
activity. It does this through the research and analysis of terms in context for the purpose of documenting and promoting consistent usage. Terminology can be limited to one or more languages (for example, "multilingual terminology" and "bilingual terminology"), or may have an
interdisciplinarity Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, ...
focus on the use of terms in different fields.


Overview

The discipline of terminology consists primarily of the following aspects: * analyzing the concepts and concept structures used in a field or domain of activity * identifying the terms assigned to the concepts * in the case of bilingual or multilingual terminology, establishing correspondences between terms in the various languages * compiling the terminology on paper or in
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...

database
s * managing terminology databases * creating new terms, as required.


Types of terminology

A distinction is made between two types of terminology work: * Ad hoc work on terminology, which deals with a single term or a limited number of terms * Systematic collection of terminology, which deals with all the terms in a specific subject field or domain of activity, often by creating a structured
ontology Ontology is the branch of philosophy that studies concepts such as existence, being, Becoming (philosophy), becoming, and reality. It includes the questions of how entities are grouped into Category of being, basic categories and which of these ...
of the terms within that domain and their interrelationships. Ad hoc terminology is prevalent in the
translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discusse ...

translation
profession, where a translation for a specific term (or group of terms) is required quickly to solve a particular translation problem.


Terminology as a discipline

A ''terminologist'' intends to hone categorical organization by improving the accuracy and content of its terminology. Technical industries and
standardization Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments. Standardization ...
institutes compile their own glossaries. This provides the consistency needed in the various areas—fields and branches, movements and specialties—to work with core terminology to then offer material for the discipline's traditional and doctrinal literature. Terminology is also then key in boundary-crossing problems, such as in language translation and
social epistemology Social epistemology refers to a broad set of approaches that can be taken in epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the Outline of philosophy, branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of kno ...
. Terminology helps to build bridges and to extend one area into another.
Translator Translation is the communication of the Meaning (linguistic), meaning of a #Source and target languages, source-language text by means of an Dynamic and formal equivalence, equivalent #Source and target languages, target-language text. The E ...

Translator
s research the terminology of the languages they translate. Terminology is taught alongside translation in universities and translation schools. Large translation departments and translation bureaus have a ''Terminology'' section.


Science

Terminology science is a branch of
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
studying special vocabulary. The main objects of terminological studies are special
lexical unitIn lexicography Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups: * Practical lexicography is the art or craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled ...
s (or special
lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeol ...
s), first of all terms. They are analysed from the point of view of their origin, formal structure, their meanings and also functional features. Terms are used to denote concepts, therefore terminology science also concerns itself with the formation and development of concepts, as well as with the principles of exposing the existing relations between concepts and classifying concepts; also, with the principles of defining concepts and appraising the existing definitions. Considering the fact that characteristics and functioning of term depend heavily on its lexical surrounding nowadays it is common to view as the main object of terminology science not separate terms, but rather the whole terminology used in some particular field of knowledge (also called subject field). Terminological research started seventy years ago and was especially fruitful at the last forty years. At that time the main types of special lexical units, such as terms proper, nomens, terminoids, prototerms, preterms and quasiterms were singled out and studied. A nomen, or a nomenclature unit, is a name of a single notion or a certain unit of mass production, e.g. prefix dis-; Canon 550D; UA-24; etc. Terminoids, or jargon terms, are special lexical units which are used to name the phenomena that are absolutely new and whose concepts are not interpreted in a monosemantic way. E.g., Salmon Day, mouse potato, etc. Prototerms are special lexemes that appeared and were used in prescientific times. Preterms are a special group of lexemes which is represented by special lexical units used as terms to name new scientific notions. They are represented by a vast descriptive pattern, e.g.
business process reengineering Business process re-engineering (BPR) is a business management strategy, originally pioneered in the early 1990s, focusing on the analysis and design of workflow A workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of activity, enabled ...
, management by walking about, etc. The main principles of terminological work were elaborated, terminologies of the leading European languages belonging to many subject fields were described and analysed. It should be mentioned that at the former USSR terminological studies were conducted on an especially large scale: while in the 1940s only four terminological dissertations were successfully defended, in the 1950s there were 50 such dissertations, in the 1960s their number reached 231, in the 1970s – 463 and in the 1980s – 1110. As the result of development and specialising of terminological studies, some of the branches of terminology science – such as typological terminology science, semasiological terminology science, terminological derivatology, comparative terminology science, terminography, functional terminology science, cognitive terminology science, historical terminology science and some branch terminology sciences – have gained the status of independent scientific disciplines.


Terminological theories

Terminological theories include general theory of terminology, socioterminology, communicative theory of terminology, sociocognitive terminology, and
frame-based terminology Frame-based terminology is a cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and proces ...
.


See also

*
Applied linguistics Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of ...
*
Concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the bo ...

Concept
*
Controlled vocabulary Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing Subject indexing is the act of describing or classifying a document A document is a written Writing is a medium of ...
* Critical vocabulary *
Dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabetical order, alphabetically (or by radical-and-stroke sorting, radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include in ...

Dictionary
*
Glossary __NOTOC__ A glossary (from grc, γλῶσσα / language, speech, wording) also known as a vocabulary or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge Domain knowledge is knowledge of a specific, specialized di ...

Glossary
*
Euphemism A euphemism () is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that is deemed Profanity, offensive or suggests something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the us ...
*
Interpreting Interpreting is a translational activity in which one produces a first and final translation on the basis of a one-time exposure to an expression in a source language. The most common two modes of interpreting are simultaneous interpreting, wh ...
*
Jargon Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), communicative context and may not be well understood outside that context. The conte ...
*
ISO/TC 37 ISO/TC 37 is a technical committee within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that prepares Technical standard, standards and other documents concerning methodology and principles for terminology and language resources. Titl ...
*
Lexicography Lexicography is the study of lexicon A lexicon is the of a or branch of (such as or ). In , a lexicon is a language's inventory of s. The word ''lexicon'' derives from word (), neuter of () meaning 'of or for words'. Linguistic th ...

Lexicography
* LSP dictionary *
Meme A meme ( ) is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads by means of imitation from person to person within a culture and often carries symbolic meaning representing a particular phenomenon or theme. A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ...

Meme
*
Nomenclature Nomenclature (, ) is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, a ...

Nomenclature
*
Ontology (information science) In computer science and information science, an ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming and definition of the categories, properties and relations between the concepts, data and entities that substantiate one, many, or all Domain of d ...
* Orismology *
Reference work A reference work is a work, such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeri ...
* Specialised lexicography *
Tag cloud File:Web 2.0 Map.svg, A tag cloud with terms related to Web 2.0 A tag cloud (word cloud or wordle or weighted list in visual design) is a novelty visual representation of text data, typically used to depict tag (metadata), keyword metadata (tags ...
* Terminology standardization *
Translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discusse ...

Translation
*
Taxonomy (general) Taxonomy is the practice and science of categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Par ...
*
Technical terminology Jargon is the specialized terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as terminology science. Terms a ...
* Terminology planning policy *
Terminology extraction Terminology extraction (also known as term extraction, glossary extraction, term recognition, or terminology mining) is a subtask of information extraction. The goal of terminology extraction is to automatically extract relevant terms from a give ...


References


Further reading

*Sonneveld, H, Loenning, K: (1994): Introducing terminology, in Terminology, p. 1-6 *Wright, S.E.; Budin, G.: (1997): Handbook of Terminology Management, Volume 1, Basic Aspects of Terminology Management, Amsterdam, Philadelphia, John Benjamins 370 pp. *Gaudin, F., 2003, Socioterminologie: une approche sociolinguistique de la terminologie, éd. De Boeck-Duculot, Belgium. *Wright, S.E.; Budin, G.: (2001): Handbook of Terminology Management, Volume 2, Application-Oriented Terminology Management, Amsterdam, Philadelphia, John Benjamins. *Kockaert, H.J.; Steurs, F.: (2014): Handbook of Terminology, Volume 1, Amsterdam, Philadelphia, John Benjamins.


External links


Terminology
from the OTTIAQ website
TermNet
- International Network for Terminology
Infoterm
- International Information Centre for Terminology
ISO
Technical Committee 37 "Terminology and other language and content resources" (
ISO/TC 37 ISO/TC 37 is a technical committee within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that prepares Technical standard, standards and other documents concerning methodology and principles for terminology and language resources. Titl ...
)
Faoterm
from the
FAO The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a specialized agency ...

FAO
Terminology website
The Online Dictionary of Language TerminologyTermSciences, the Scientific Terminology DatabaseIULA, Institut Universitari de Lingüistica Aplicada
{{Authority control Applied linguistics Lexicography Translation