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Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and
discipline Discipline is action ACTION is a bus operator in Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new n ...
of composing
drawings Drawing is a form of visual art in which an artist uses instruments to mark paper or other two-dimensional surface. Drawing instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, various kinds of paints, inked brushes, colored pencils, crayons, char ...
that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed. Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in
industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one might refer to the wood industry ...
and
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specializ ...

engineering
. To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar
symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meanin ...

symbols
, perspectives,
units of measurement A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude Magnitude may refer to: Mathematics *Euclidean vector, a quantity defined by both its magnitude and its direction *Magnitude (mathematics), the relative size of an object *Norm (mathematics ...
,
notation In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
systems, visual styles, and
page layout 300px, Consumer magazine sponsored advertisements and covers rely heavily on professional page layout skills to compete for visual attention. In graphic design Graphic design is the art, profession and academic discipline whose activity con ...

page layout
. Together, such conventions constitute a
visual language#REDIRECT Visual language Water, rabbit, deer pictographs on a replica of an Aztec Stone of the Sun. The visual language is a system of communication using visual elements. Speech as a means of communication cannot strictly be separated from the ...
and help to ensure that the drawing is
unambiguous Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which a phrase, statement or resolution is not explicitly defined, making several interpretations plausible. A common aspect of ambiguity is uncertainty Uncertainty refers to Epistemology, epistemic sit ...

unambiguous
and relatively easy to understand. Many of the symbols and principles of technical drawing are codified in an
international standard An international standard is a technical standard developed by one or more international standards organization, standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use worldwide. The most prominent such organizatio ...
called
ISO 128 ISO 128 is an International Organization for Standardization, international standard (ISO), about the general principles of presentation in technical drawings, specifically the graphical representation of Object (philosophy), objects on technical ...
. The need for precise communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the
visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to ...

visual arts
. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted; their meanings are multiply determined. Technical drawings are understood to have one intended meaning. A
drafter A drafter, draughtsman/draughtswoman (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engla ...
, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person who makes a
drawing Drawing is a form of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support"). The medium is commonly a ...

drawing
(technical or expressive). A professional drafter who makes technical drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician.


Methods


Sketching

A
sketch Sketch or Sketches may refer to: * Sketch (drawing), a rapidly executed freehand drawing that is not usually intended as a finished work Arts, entertainment and media * Sketch comedy, a series of short scenes or vignettes called sketches Film ...
is a quickly executed, freehand drawing that is usually not intended as a finished work. In general, sketching is a quick way to record an idea for later use. Architect's sketches primarily serve as a way to try out different ideas and establish a composition before a more finished work, especially when the finished work is expensive and time-consuming. Architectural sketches, for example, are a kind of
diagram A diagram is a symbolic representation Representation may refer to: Law and politics *Representation (politics) Political representation is the activity of making citizens "present" in public policy making processes when political actors act in ...

diagram
s.Richard Boland and Fred Collopy (2004). ''Managing as designing''. Stanford University Press, 2004. , p.69. These sketches, like
metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of ...
s, are used by architects as a means of communication in aiding design collaboration. This tool helps architects to abstract attributes of hypothetical provisional design solutions and summarize their complex patterns, hereby enhancing the design process.


Manual or by instrument

The basic drafting procedure is to place a piece of paper (or other material) on a smooth surface with right-angle corners and straight sides—typically a
drawing board A drawing board (also drawing table, drafting table or architect's table) is, in its antique form, a kind of multipurpose desk which can be used for any kind of drawing, writing or impromptu sketching on a large sheet of paper or for reading a lar ...
. A sliding
straightedge A straightedge or straight edge is a tool used for drawing straight lines, or checking their straightness. If it has equally spaced markings along its length, it is usually called a ruler. Straightedges are used in the automotive service and mac ...

straightedge
known as a
T-square A T-square is a technical drawing Drawing is a form of visual art in which an artist uses instruments to mark paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood ...

T-square
is then placed on one of the sides, allowing it to be slid across the side of the table, and over the surface of the paper. "Parallel lines" can be drawn simply by moving the T-square and running a pencil or
technical pen A technical pen is a specialized instrument used by an engineer, architect, or drafter to make lines of constant width for architectural drawing, architectural, Engineering drawing, engineering, or technical drawings. "Rapidograph" is a tradema ...
along the T-square's edge. The T-square is used to hold other devices such as
set square 250px, triangle, set square A set square or triangle (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the ...
s or triangles. In this case, the drafter places one or more triangles of known angles on the T-square—which is itself at right angles to the edge of the table—and can then draw lines at any chosen angle to others on the page. Modern drafting tables come equipped with a
drafting machine A drafting machine is a tool used in technical drawing, consisting of a pair of scales mounted to form a right angle on an articulated protractor Image:Protractor2.jpg, upright=1.35, A half circle protractor marked in degrees (180°). A protracto ...

drafting machine
that is supported on both sides of the table to slide over a large piece of paper. Because it is secured on both sides, lines drawn along the edge are guaranteed to be parallel. In addition, the drafter uses several
technical drawing tools Drafting tools may be used for measurement and layout of drawings, or to improve the consistency and speed of creation of standard drawing elements. Tools such as pens and pencils mark the drawing medium. Other tools such as straight edges, assist ...
to draw curves and circles. Primary among these are the compasses, used for drawing simple arcs and circles, and the
French curve A French curve is a template usually made from metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, a ...

French curve
, for drawing curves. A spline is a rubber coated articulated metal that can be manually bent to most curves. Drafting templates assist the drafter with creating recurring objects in a drawing without having to reproduce the object from scratch every time. This is especially useful when using common symbols; i.e. in the context of
stagecraft Stagecraft is a technical aspect of theatrical Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live ...

stagecraft
, a lighting designer will draw from the
USITT The United States Institute for Theatre Technology (USITT) is a membership organization which aims to advance the skills and knowledge of theatre, entertainment and performing arts professionals involved in the areas of theatrical design, design, t ...
standard library of lighting fixture symbols to indicate the position of a common fixture across multiple positions. Templates are sold commercially by a number of vendors, usually customized to a specific task, but it is also not uncommon for a drafter to create his own templates. This basic drafting system requires an accurate table and constant attention to the positioning of the tools. A common error is to allow the triangles to push the top of the T-square down slightly, thereby throwing off all angles. Even tasks as simple as drawing two angled lines meeting at a point require a number of moves of the T-square and triangles, and in general, drafting can be a time-consuming process. A solution to these problems was the introduction of the mechanical "drafting machine", an application of the
pantograph A pantograph (Greek roots παντ- "all, every" and γραφ- "to write", from their original use for copying writing) is a connected in a manner based on s so that the movement of one pen, in tracing an image, produces identical movements i ...

pantograph
(sometimes referred to incorrectly as a "pentagraph" in these situations) which allowed the drafter to have an accurate right angle at any point on the page quite quickly. These machines often included the ability to change the angle, thereby removing the need for the triangles as well. In addition to the mastery of the mechanics of drawing lines, arcs and circles (and text) onto a piece of paper—with respect to the detailing of physical objects—the drafting effort requires a thorough understanding of geometry, trigonometry and spatial comprehension, and in all cases demands precision and accuracy, and attention to detail of high order. Although drafting is sometimes accomplished by a project engineer, architect, or shop personnel (such as a
machinist A machinist is a tradesperson or trained professional, who not only operates machine tools, but has the knowledge of tooling and materials required to create set ups on machine tools including, but not limited to milling machines, grinders, l ...

machinist
), skilled drafters (and/or designers) usually accomplish the task, and are always in demand to some degree.


Computer aided design

Today, the mechanics of the drafting task have largely been automated and accelerated through the use of
computer-aided design Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of s (or ) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a . This software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications th ...
systems (CAD). There are two types of computer-aided design systems used for the production of technical drawings:
two dimensions 300px, Bi-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system Two-dimensional space (also known as bi-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which two values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Greek wikt:παρ ...
("2D") and
three dimensions Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Greek wikt:παρά#Ancient Greek, παρά, ''par ...
("3D"). 2D CAD systems such as
AutoCAD AutoCAD is a commercial software, commercial computer-aided design (CAD) and technical drawing, drafting software application. Developed and marketed by Autodesk, AutoCAD was first released in December 1982 as a desktop app running on microcomputer ...
or
MicroStation MicroStation is a CAD software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardware, from which the s ...
replace the paper drawing discipline. The lines, circles, arcs, and curves are created within the software. It is down to the technical drawing skill of the user to produce the drawing. There is still much scope for error in the drawing when producing first and third angle
orthographic projection Orthographic projection (sometimes referred to as orthogonal projection, used to be called analemma) is a means of representing three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric settin ...
s, auxiliary projections and s. A 2D CAD system is merely an electronic drawing board. Its greatest strength over direct to paper technical drawing is in the making of revisions. Whereas in a conventional hand drawn technical drawing, if a mistake is found, or a modification is required, a new drawing must be made from scratch, the 2D CAD system allows a copy of the original to be modified, saving considerable time. 2D CAD systems can be used to create plans for large projects such as buildings and aircraft but provide no way to check the various components will fit together. A 3D CAD system (such as KeyCreator,
Autodesk Inventor Autodesk Inventor is a computer-aided design Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers ca ...
, or
SolidWorks SolidWorks is a solid modeling computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) computer program A computer program is a collection of instructions that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific task. A computer ...
) first produces the geometry of the part; the technical drawing comes from user defined views of that geometry. Any orthographic, projected or sectioned view is created by the software. There is no scope for error in the production of these views. The main scope for error comes in setting the parameter of first or third angle projection and displaying the relevant symbol on the technical drawing. 3D CAD allows individual parts to be assembled together to represent the final product. Buildings, aircraft, ships, and cars are modeled, assembled, and checked in 3D before technical drawings are released for manufacture. Both 2D and 3D CAD systems can be used to produce technical drawings for any discipline. The various disciplines (electrical, electronic, pneumatic, hydraulic, etc.) have industry recognized symbols to represent common components. BS and
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task w ...

ISO
produce standards to show recommended practices but it is up to individuals to produce the drawings to a standard. There is no definitive standard for layout or style. The only standard across engineering workshop drawings is in the creation of orthographic projections and cross-section views. In representing complex, three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional drawings, the objects can be described by at least one view plus material thickness note, 2, 3 or as many views and sections that are required to show all features of object.


Applications


Architecture

The art and design that goes into making buildings is known as
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
. To communicate all aspects of the shape or design, detail drawings are used. In this field, the term ''
plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as a modal logic, temporal set (mathematics), set of intended actions through whi ...
'' is often used when referring to the full section view of these drawings as viewed from three feet above finished floor to show the locations of doorways, windows, stairwells, etc. Architectural drawings describe and document an architect's design.


Engineering

Engineering can be a very broad term. It stems from the Latin ''ingenerare'', meaning "to create". Because this could apply to everything that humans create, it is given a narrower definition in the context of technical drawing. Engineering drawings generally deal with mechanical engineered items, such as manufactured parts and equipment. Engineering drawings are usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as
typeface A typeface is the design of lettering Lettering is an umbrella term In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ...

typeface
s and line styles), size, etc. Its purpose is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the geometric features of a product or a component. The end goal of an engineering drawing is to convey all the required information that will allow a manufacturer to produce that component.


Software engineering

Software engineering Software engineering is the systematic application of engineering approaches to the software development, development of software. A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to design, develop, maintain, tes ...
practictioners make use of diagrams for designing software. Formal standards and
modeling language A modeling language is any artificial language that can be used to express information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a single customer ...
s such as
Unified Modeling Language The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling languageA modeling language is any artificial language that can be used to express information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertain ...
(UML) exist but most diagramming happens using informal ad hoc diagrams that illustrate a
conceptual model A conceptual model is a representation Representation may refer to: Law and politics *Representation (politics) Political representation is the activity of making citizens "present" in public policy making processes when political actors act in ...

conceptual model
. Practitioners reported that diagramming helped with analysing
requirements In product development In business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise e ...
, design,
refactoring In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a particular task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, gener ...
, documentation,
onboarding Onboarding; also known as organizational socialization, is management jargon first created in the 1970s that refers to the mechanism through which new employees Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on contract A ...

onboarding
, communication with stake holders. Diagrams are often transient or redrawn as required. Redrawn diagrams can acts as a form of shared understanding in a team.


Related fields


Technical illustration

''Technical illustration'' is the use of
illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digital published media, such as poster A poster is a temporary promotion of an idea, product, or even ...

illustration
to visually communicate information of a technical nature. Technical illustrations can be component technical drawings or
diagram A diagram is a symbolic representation Representation may refer to: Law and politics *Representation (politics) Political representation is the activity of making citizens "present" in public policy making processes when political actors act in ...

diagram
s. The aim of technical illustration is "to generate expressive
image An SAR radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is visible as the purple and white area on the lower right edge of the island. Lava flows ...

image
s that effectively convey certain
information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quant ...

information
via the visual channel to the human observer".Ivan Viola and Meister E. Gröller (2005). "Smart Visibility in Visualization". In: ''Computational Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization and Imaging''. L. Neumann et al. (Ed.) The main purpose of technical illustration is to describe or explain these items to a more or less nontechnical audience. The visual image should be accurate in terms of dimensions and proportions, and should provide "an overall impression of what an object is or does, to enhance the viewer's interest and understanding". According to Viola (2005), "illustrative techniques are often designed in a way that even a person with no technical understanding clearly understands the piece of art. The use of varying line widths to emphasize mass, proximity, and scale helped to make a simple line drawing more understandable to the lay person. Cross hatching, stippling, and other low abstraction techniques gave greater depth and dimension to the subject matter".


Cutaway drawing

A ''cutaway drawing'' is a technical illustration, in which part of the surface of a three-dimensional model is removed in order to show some of the model's interior in relation to its exterior. The purpose of a cutaway drawing is to "allow the viewer to have a look into an otherwise solid opaque object. Instead of letting the inner object shine through the surrounding surface, parts of outside object are simply removed. This produces a visual appearance as if someone had cutout a piece of the object or sliced it into parts. Cutaway illustrations avoid ambiguities with respect to spatial ordering, provide a sharp contrast between foreground and background objects, and facilitate a good understanding of spatial ordering". in


Technical drawings


Types

The two types of technical drawings are based on
graphical projection A 3D projection (or graphical projection) is a design technique used to display a three-dimensional (3D) object on a two-dimensional (2D) surface. These projections rely on visual perspective and aspect analysis to project A project (or progra ...
. This is used to create an image of a three-dimensional object onto a two-dimensional surface.


Two-dimensional representation

Two-dimensional representation uses
orthographic projection Orthographic projection (sometimes referred to as orthogonal projection, used to be called analemma) is a means of representing three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric settin ...
to create an image where only two of the three dimensions of the object are seen.


Three-dimensional representation

In a three-dimensional representation, also referred to as a pictorial, all three dimensions of an object are visible.


Views


Multiview

Multiview is a type of
orthographic projection Orthographic projection (sometimes referred to as orthogonal projection, used to be called analemma) is a means of representing three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric settin ...
. There are two conventions for using multiview, first-angle and third-angle. In both cases, the front or main side of the object is the same. First-angle is drawing the object sides based on where they land. Example, looking at the front side, rotate the object 90 degrees to the right. What is seen will be drawn to the right of the front side. Third-angle is drawing the object sides based on where they are. Example, looking at the front side, rotate the object 90 degrees to the right. What is seen is actually the left side of the object and will be drawn to the left of the front side.


Section

While multiview relates to external surfaces of an object, section views show an imaginary plane cut through an object. This is often useful to show voids in an object.


Auxiliary

Auxiliary views utilize an additional projection plane other than the common planes in a multiview. Since the features of an object need to show the true shape and size of the object, the projection plane must be parallel to the object surface. Therefore, any surface that is not in line with the three major axis needs its own projection plane to show the features correctly.


Pattern

Patterns, sometimes called developments, show the size and shape of a flat piece of material needed for later bending or folding into a three-dimensional shape.


Exploded

An ''exploded-view drawing'' is a technical drawing of an object that shows the relationship or order of
assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the body of ethics, Procedural l ...
of the various parts. It shows the components of an object slightly separated by distance or suspended in surrounding space in the case of a three-
dimension In and , the dimension of a (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of needed to specify any within it. Thus a has a dimension of one (1D) because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on itfor example, the point ...

dimension
al exploded diagram. An object is represented as if there had been a small controlled
explosion An explosion is a rapid expansion in volume associated with an extremely vigorous outward release of energy, usually with the generation of high temperatures and release of high-pressure gases. Supersonic explosions created by high explosives ...

explosion
emanating from the middle of the object, causing the object's parts to be separated relative distances away from their original locations. An exploded view drawing (EVD) can show the intended assembly of mechanical or other parts. In mechanical systems, the component closest to the center is usually assembled first or is the main part inside which the other parts are assembled. The EVD can also help to represent the disassembly of parts, where those on the outside are normally removed first.


Standards and conventions


Basic drafting paper sizes

There have been many standard sizes of
paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * ...

paper
at different times and in different countries, but today most of the world uses the international standard (A4 and its siblings). North America uses its own sizes. Image:A size illustration2 with letter and legal.svg, ISO "A series" paper sizes used in most countries of the world Image:ANSI size illustration.svg, ANSI paper sizes used in North America


Patent drawing

The applicant for a
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention for a limited period of years in exchange for publishing an sufficiency of disclosure, enabling disclo ...

patent
will be required by
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...
to furnish a
drawing Drawing is a form of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support"). The medium is commonly a ...

drawing
of the
invention An invention is a unique or novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the for "new", "news", or ...

invention
if or when the nature of the case requires a drawing to understand the invention with the job. This drawing must be filed with the application. This includes practically all inventions except
composition Composition or Compositions may refer to: Arts * Composition (dance), practice and teaching of choreography * Composition (music), an original piece of music and its creation *Composition (visual arts) The term composition means "putting togethe ...
s of matter or
process A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management *Business process A business process, business method or ...
es, but a drawing may also be useful in the case of many processes. The drawing must show every feature of the invention specified in the claims and is required by the
patent office A patent office is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legi ...
rules to be in a particular form. The Office specifies the size of the sheet on which the drawing is made, the type of paper, the margins, and other details relating to the making of the drawing. The reason for specifying the standards in detail is that the drawings are printed and published in a uniform style when the patent issues and the drawings must also be such that they can be readily understood by persons using the patent descriptions.


Sets of technical drawings


Working drawings for production

Working drawing Plans are a set of technical drawing, drawings or two-dimensional diagrams used to describe a Location (geography), place or Object (philosophy), object, or to communicate building or Manufacturing, fabrication instructions. Usually plans are dr ...
s are the set of technical drawings used during the manufacturing phase of a product. In architecture, these include civil drawings,
architectural drawing An architectural drawing or architect's drawing is a technical drawing of a building (or building project) that falls within the definition of architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 25 ...
s,
structural drawingA structural drawing, a type of engineering drawing, is a plan or set of plans and details for how a building or other structure will be built. Structural drawings are generally prepared by registered professional structural engineer, engineers, and ...
s,
mechanical systems drawing {{Use dmy dates, date=August 2013 Mechanical systems drawing is a type of technical drawing that shows information about heating, ventilating, air conditioning and transportation around the building (Elevators or Lifts and Escalator).electrical drawingAn electrical drawing is a type of technical drawing that shows information about power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the International System o ...
s, and
plumbing drawingA plumbing drawing, a type of technical drawing, shows the system of piping for fresh water Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transpa ...
s.


Assembly drawings

Assembly drawings show how different parts go together, identify those parts by number, and have a parts list, often referred to as a bill of materials.Goetsch et al. (2000), p. 613 In a technical service manual, this type of drawing may be referred to as an exploded view drawing or diagram. These parts may be used in engineering.


As-fitted drawings

Also called ''As-Built drawings'' or ''As-made drawings''. As-fitted drawings represent a record of the completed works, literally 'as fitted'. These are based upon the ''working drawings'' and updated to reflect any changes or alterations undertaken during construction or manufacture.


See also

*
Circuit diagram A circuit diagram (wiring diagram, electrical diagram, elementary diagram, electronic schematic) is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical component An electroni ...

Circuit diagram
*
Linear scale A linear scale, also called a bar scale, scale bar, graphic scale, or graphical scale, is a means of visually showing the scale of a map, nautical chart A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a sea area and adjacent coastal regions ...

Linear scale
*
ReprographyReprography is the reproduction of graphics Graphics (from Greek ''graphikos'', "belonging to drawing") are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechani ...
*
Schematic diagram A schematic, or schematic diagram, is a representation of the elements of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded a ...

Schematic diagram
*
Shop drawing File:Chiller elect req2.jpg, Installation information for electrical connections for chiller unit with surface mounted starter. Installation information will need to be reviewed with electrical and plumbing trades to coordinate third-party service c ...
*
Technical communication Technical communication is used to convey scientific, engineering, or other technical information. Individuals in a variety of contexts and with varied professional credentials engage in technical communication. Some individuals are designated as te ...
* Technical lettering *
Specification (technical standard) A specification often refers to a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. A specification is often a type of technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or require ...


References


Further reading

* Peter J. Booker (1963). ''A History of Engineering Drawing''. London: Northgate. * Franz Maria Feldhaus (1963). ''The History of Technical Drawing'' * Wolfgang Lefèvre ed. (2004). ''Picturing Machines 1400–1700: How technical drawings shaped early engineering practice.'' MIT Press, 2004.


External links


Historical technical diagrams and drawings
at NASA.


Drafting Standards
{{Authority control Architecture occupations Engineering occupations Infographics