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Table wine (rarely abbreviated TW) is a
wine term The glossary of wine terms lists the definitions of many general terms used within the wine industry. For terms specific to viticulture Viticulture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
with two different meanings: a style of
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...

wine
and a quality level within
wine classificationThe classification of wine can be done according to various methods including Protected designation of origin, place of origin or appellation, vinification methods and style, Sweetness of wine, sweetness and vintage,J. Robinson (ed) ''"The Oxford Com ...
. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, the term primarily designates a wine style: an ordinary wine which is not
fortified A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, w ...
or expensive and is usually but not always not sparkling. In the
European Union wine regulations European Union wine regulations are common legislation related to wine existing within the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an ...
, the term is the lower of two overall quality categories, the higher of which is ''
quality wines produced in specified regions 300px, "Bottled at Origin" printed on a Spanish QWpsr cork Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (often abbreviated to QWpsr or simply "quality wines") is a quality indicator used within European Union wine regulations. The QWpsr category i ...
'' (QWPSR). All levels of national wine classification systems within the EU correspond to either TW or QWPSR, although the terms that actually appear on
wine label Wine labels are important sources of information for consumers since they tell the type and origin of the wine. The label A label (as distinct from signage) is a piece of paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/ ...
s are defined by national
wine lawWine laws are legislation regulating various aspects of winemaking, production and sales of wine. The purpose of wine laws includes combating wine fraud, by means of regulated protected designation of origin, protected designations of origin, wine la ...
s with the EU regulations as a framework. Most EU countries have a national classification called ''table wine'' in the country's official language. Examples include ''vin de table'' in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, ''vino da tavola'' in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, ''vino de mesa'' in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, ''vinho de mesa'' in
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, ''Tafelwein'' in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, and ''επιτραπέζιος οίνος'' (''epitrapézios oínos'') in
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
. These classifications generally represent the lowest level of classification in their country.


United States

The
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, statutorily named the Tax and Trade Bureau and frequently shortened to TTB, is a bureau of the United States Department of the Treasury The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is the national treasury ...
and
Code of Federal Regulations The ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (''CFR'') is the codification of the general and permanent regulations published in the ''Federal Register The ''Federal Register'' (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal A government gazett ...

Code of Federal Regulations
define table wine as
grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grape
wine having a maximum alcoholic content of 14 percent
alcohol by volume Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a volume percent). It is defined as the number of millilitres (mL) o ...
. Wines between 14% and 24% ABV are known as
dessert wine Dessert wines, sometimes called pudding wines in the United Kingdom, are sweet wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes ...
s. Table wine may also be designated using terms such as light wine, light white wine, red table wine, sweet table wine, etc.


European Union

European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
guidelines stipulate that all wine produced must fall into one of two categories: ''table wine'' or the superior ''
quality wines produced in specified regions 300px, "Bottled at Origin" printed on a Spanish QWpsr cork Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (often abbreviated to QWpsr or simply "quality wines") is a quality indicator used within European Union wine regulations. The QWpsr category i ...
'' (often referred to as ''quality wine psr'').Council Regulation (EC) No 479/2008 of 29 April 2008 on the common organisation of the market in wine
/ref> Within the category of table wines, a difference is made between "plain" table wines, which are only allowed to display the country of origin, and ''table wines with geographical indication'', which may indicate a region of origin and are a form of
protected geographical indication Three European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total popula ...
(PGI) applied to wine. For the lowest ''vin de table'' level in France, the producers must use postal codes to prevent the name of an appellation from appearing even in fine print on the label or its vintage date (though "lot numbers" which can bear a striking resemblance to dates are permitted). The new appellation ''vin de France'' permits a vintage date.


List of national table wine designations

The following national levels of wine classification correspond to table wines and table wines with geographical indication.Commission Regulation (EC) No 607/2009 of 14 July 2009 laying down certain detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 479/2008 as regards protected designations of origin and geographical indications, traditional terms, labelling and presentation of certain wine sector products
/ref>


Distribution

The fraction of national production classified as table wine varies dramatically from country to country. As of 2000, in France, a majority (by volume) of wine is ''vin de table'', while in Germany only 5% is ''deutscher Tafelwein''. Table wine from anywhere in the EU can be blended together to produce European table wine. European table wines are generally made from the highest-yielding sites and vinified in an industrial manner. In the 1950s, when per capita consumption of wine was much higher, there was a need for vast quantities of cheap wine, but now much of it goes into the European Union's troublesome "
wine lake The wine lake refers to a perceived surplus of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The f ...
." Even today it is possible in France or Spain to purchase a litre of thin, pale wine, packaged in a box rather than a bottle, for the equivalent of a couple of U.S. dollars.


Naming contradictions

In contradiction to the presumed order, exceptional table wines are uncommon in Europe, but do exist. Ambitious wine-making outcomes may be classified as mere "table wine" if they are made from non-traditional
grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grape
s or with unconventional
wine making Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance ...
processes. Even wines made with every measure of care (such as low vine yields and hand harvesting) and grown on sites otherwise entitled to a prestigious appellation may be denied status. The best-known examples are the wines called
Super Tuscans Tuscan wine (Italian ''Toscana'') is Italian wine Italian wine is produced in every region of Italy, home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Italy is the List of wine-producing countries, world's largest producer of wine, ...
, which are made either with more than allowed quantities of international varieties (grapes not indigenous to Italy such as
Merlot Merlot is a dark blue–colored wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continua ...

Merlot
or ) or without the once mandated inclusion of small proportions of
Canaiolo Canaiolo (; also called Canaiolo nero or Uva Canina) is a red Italian wine grape grown through Central Italy but is most noted in Tuscany (wine), Tuscany. Other regions with plantings of Canaiolo include Lazio, Marche and Sardegna. In Umbria a ...
,
Malvasia Malvasia (, also known as Malvazia) is a group of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom ...

Malvasia
and
Trebbiano Trebbiano is an Italians, Italian wine grape, one of the most widely planted grape varieties in the world. It gives good yields, but tends to yield undistinguished wine. It can be fresh and fruity, but does not keep long. Also known as ugni b ...
per the relevant Tuscan appellation (i.e. Montevertine's Pergole Torte). In 1992, Italy created the
Indicazione Geografica Tipica ''Indicazione geografica tipica'' () is the third of four classifications of wine recognized by the government of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of ...
(IGT) specifically to permit Super Tuscans to leave the table wine classification and become quality wine. Still, wherever legitimacy in a given appellation is stipulated by something more than a geographic boundary, one may find producers willing to ignore limitations in pursuit of extreme quality. In common usage ''vin de table'' is the fourth and lowest ranked wine under the French wine classification. These wines are the cheapest to buy and to make (they can be bought from €.80), and are generally drunk accompanying a midday meal or used to make wine-based cocktails.


See also

*
List of grape varieties This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, Zante currant, currant, sultana (grape), sultana). The term ''grape variety'' refers to cultivars rather than act ...
* * House wine


References

{{Authority control French wine Wine terminology Wine classification Wine styles