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Succession of states is a
theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observational study or research ...

theory
and practice in
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
regarding ''successor states''. A successor state is a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
over a territory and populace that was previously under the sovereignty of another state. The theory has its roots in 19th-century
diplomacy Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, negotiation, and other nonviolent means. Diplomacy usually refers to international relations carried out through the inte ...

diplomacy
. A successor state often acquires a new
international legal personality International legal personality (International juridical personality) is an important facet of international law that has developed throughout history as a means of international representation and capacity to contract and institute International le ...
, which is distinct from a continuing state, also known as a continuator or historical heir, which despite change to its borders retains the same legal personality and possess all its existing rights and obligations (such as a
rump state A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (n ...
).


Partial and universal state succession

A state succession can be characterized as either being ''universal'' or ''partial''. A universal state succession occurs when one state is completely extinguished and its sovereignty is replaced by that of one or more successor states. A partial state succession occurs when the state continues to exist after it has lost control of a part of its territory. An example of a partial state succession is the case of the split of
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
from Pakistan, there was no challenge to Pakistan's claim to continue to exist and to retain its membership of the United Nations: it was a continuator and not a successor. Bangladesh eventually was recognized as a new state: it was a successor and had to apply for UN membership. An example of a universal state succession is the dissolution of
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Re ...

Czechoslovakia
. Neither part claimed any continuity: both the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
were new successor states.


Rights and obligations

Consequent upon the acquisition of
international legal personality International legal personality (International juridical personality) is an important facet of international law that has developed throughout history as a means of international representation and capacity to contract and institute International le ...
, the difficult matter of succession to treaty rights and obligations arises. Succession may refer to the transfer of rights, obligations, or property from a previously well-established predecessor state to its successor state, and can include overseas assets such as
diplomatic missions A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newsp ...
,
foreign-exchange reserves Foreign exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) are cash In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distr ...
, and museum artifacts; and participation in treaties in force at the date of succession or
international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the behavior of states and other actors in the international system. Organizations ...
s. In an attempt to codify the rules of succession of states, the 1978 Vienna Convention entered into force on November 6, 1996.


Classification of cases

In their application to the acquisition of independence, distinctions should be drawn between different cases though the line of demarcation is not always clear:''Commonwealth and Colonial Law'' by
Kenneth Roberts-Wray Sir Kenneth Owen Roberts-Wray, GCMG The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British founded on 28 April 1818 by , later , while he was acting as regent for his father, . It is named in honour of two , and . Th ...
, London, Stevens, 1966. P. 267.
* Bilateral and multilateral treaties necessarily give rise to different considerations. * There are ''real'' treaties and ''personal'' treaties. Real treaties affect the territory itself, such as boundary agreements or the grant of transit rights, which can continue irrespective of the personality of the state. The new state must take over the country in the condition in which it finds it, as the parent state cannot give more than it possesses. Such treaties can be described as "treaties creating purely local obligations."


Exceptions to orderly succession

There are several recent examples where a succession of states, as described above, has not been entirely adhered to. This is mostly a list of the exceptions that have occurred since the creation of the United Nations in 1945. In previous historical periods, the exceptions would be too many to list.


Afghanistan

The
Taliban The Taliban (; ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students or 'seekers'), which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Taliban Islamic Movement and/or Islamic Movement of Taliban is a Deobandi Deobandi ( hi, देव ...

Taliban
state in
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
(the
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the ea ...
) became the ''de facto'' government of nearly all the country in the mid-1990s, but the
Afghan Northern Alliance The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan ( fa, جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان ''Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i ...
was still recognised by many nations and retained the UN seat.


China

The
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
(PRC) was established in 1949 in
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
, claiming succession from the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
(ROC). However, the succession of the PRC over mainland China was not initially recognized by many states because of
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
politics and because the ROC which continues to maintain its claim over mainland China had continued to exist on the island of
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
and other islands, such as
Penghu The Penghu (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Phîⁿ-ô͘''  or ''Phêⁿ-ô͘'' ) or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which i ...

Penghu
,
Kinmen Kinmen, alternatively known as Quemoy, is a group of islands An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features ...

Kinmen
, Matsu,
Pratas Pratas Island, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is an island in the northern part of the South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea o ...
and Taiping ever since 1949. Despite this situation, the ROC in
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
maintained their membership as "China" in the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, and a permanent seat on the
UN Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, secu ...

UN Security Council
. However, the PRC was granted the seat of "China" in the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
and Security Council in 1971, in place of the ROC whose diplomatic recognition was withdrawn and the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek were expelled. This was done through the adoption of General Assembly Resolution 2758, although the resolution makes no mention over
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
. Since 1999, the PRC exercises sovereignty over
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
,
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
and
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Lond ...

Macau
; while the ROC continues to be unrepresented within the United Nations but exercises sovereignty over the
Taiwan Area The free area of the Republic of China, also known as the "Taiwan Area of the Republic of China", "Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", "Tai-Min Area (Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia ...

Taiwan Area
, with both claiming they are the sole legitimate government of both the mainland and Taiwan. The ROC also has claimed borderlands unclaimed by the PRC, most notably ( Outer)
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
.


Ireland

Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...
, then called the
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of St ...
, seceded from the United Kingdom in 1922. The new state took the view that when a new state comes into being after formerly being part of an older state, its acceptance of treaty relationships established by the older state is a matter for the new state to determine by express declaration, or by conduct in the case of each individual treaty. In practice, however, the Irish regarded the commercial and administrative treaties of the United Kingdom previously applying to the territory of the Irish Free State as remaining in force.


Israel

Israel took the view that, by virtue of its declaration of independence in 1948, a new international personality was created, and that it started with a clean slate, and was bound only by such of the former international obligations affecting the territory as Israel might accept.


Kampuchea/Cambodia

When
Democratic Kampuchea Kampuchea ( km, កមពជា, ), officially from 5 January 1976 the Democratic Kampuchea (DK; km, កមពជាបរជាធបតេយយ, ), was the Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), official ...
led by
Pol Pot Pol Pot; (born Saloth Sâr;; 19 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who governed Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a ...

Pol Pot
was militarily displaced by the
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
ese-backed
People's Republic of Kampuchea The People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) was founded in Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula i ...
, the country's
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
seat was held by Democratic Kampuchea for many years. It is now held by the Kingdom of
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
.


Korea

An important tenet of the modern state of 
Republic of Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A cou ...
is that the
Korean Empire The Korean Empire (transcribed as ''Daehan Jeguk'', , ) was a Korean kingdom proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon Dynasty. The empire stood until Empire of Japan, Japan's Korea under Japanese rule, annexation of Korea in ...
's incorporation into the 
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...

Empire of Japan
from 1910 to 1945 is internationally recognized as an illegal occupation. In 1919 when the
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea The Korean Provisional Government (KPG), formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to b ...

Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
was formed it claimed continuity directly from their pre-1910 status. In 1948 when the modern
Republic of Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A cou ...
was formed it claimed that it was identical with
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea The Korean Provisional Government (KPG), formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to b ...

Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
and that the Provisional Government succeeded the
Korean Empire The Korean Empire (transcribed as ''Daehan Jeguk'', , ) was a Korean kingdom proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon Dynasty. The empire stood until Empire of Japan, Japan's Korea under Japanese rule, annexation of Korea in ...
. South Korea resumed membership to international organizations such as the
Universal Postal Union The Universal Postal Union (UPU, french: Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874, is a specialized agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations ...
and re-affirmed that pre-1910 treaties were still in force.


Ottoman Empire/Turkey

There is some debate over whether the modern
Republic of Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...
is a continuing state to the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
or a successor. The two entities fought on opposing sides in the
Turkish War of Independence The Turkish War of Independence "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as ''İstiklâl Harbi'' "Independence War" or ''Millî Mücadele'' "National Struggle" (19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was a series of military campaigns waged by t ...
(1919–23), and even briefly co-existed as separate administrative units (whilst at war with one another): Turkey with its capital in Angora (now
Ankara Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban centre and over ...

Ankara
) and the Ottoman Empire from
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...
(now
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
), but this type of scenario is also common in
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
s. The nationalist faction, led by
Mustafa Kemal Mustafa ( ar, مصطفى , Muṣṭafā) is one of the names of Muhammad ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationa ...

Mustafa Kemal
who defected from the Ottoman army, established the modern republic as a nation-state (or new government regime) by defeating the opposing elements in the independence war. There remains debate about whether the Turkish War of Independence was a war of independence, or a civil war that led to a regime change. The question of state succession is relevant to the issue of
Armenian genocide reparationsThe issue of Armenian Genocide reparations derives from the Armenian Genocide of 1915 committed by the Ottoman Empire. Such reparations might be of financial, estate or territorial nature, and could cover individual or collective claims as well as th ...
.


Pakistan

When Pakistan became independent it claimed that it was automatically a member of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, as
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
had been a founding member of the United Nations despite its colonial status. The United Nations Secretariat however expressed the following opinion:


Soviet Union

International convention since the end of the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
has come to distinguish two distinct circumstances where such privileges are sought by such a successor state, in only the first of which may such successor states assume the name or privileged international position of their predecessor. The first set of circumstances arose at the
dissolution Dissolution may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books * Dissolution (Forgotten Realms novel), ''Dissolution'' (''Forgotten Realms'' novel), a 2002 fantasy novel by Richard Lee Byers * Dissolution (Sansom novel), ''Dissolution'' (Sansom novel), a 2 ...
of the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a Political union, union of multiple national Republics of t ...
(USSR) in 1991. One of the constituent republics of the USSR, the
Russian Federation Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russian Federation
has declared itself to be "the continuator state of the USSR" on the grounds that it contained 51% of the population of the USSR and 77% of its territory. Consequently,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
agreed that it would acquire the USSR's seat as a permanent member of the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...

United Nations Security Council
. This was also accepted by the rest of the former states of the USSR; in a letter dated 24 December 1991, the Russian President
Boris Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin ( rus, links=no, Борис Николаевич Ельцин, a=ru-Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin.ogg, p=bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ ˈjelʲtsɨn; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian and former Soviet ...

Boris Yeltsin
informed the Secretary-General that the membership of the USSR in the Security Council and all other United Nations organs was being continued by the Russian Federation with the support of the nine member countries of the
Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, translit=Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Euro ...

Commonwealth of Independent States
. All Soviet embassies became Russian embassies. A special case for the
Baltic states The Baltic states ( et, Balti riigid, Baltimaad; lv, Baltijas valstis; lt, Baltijos valstybės), also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations, or simply the Baltics, is a geopolitical term, typically used to group the ...

Baltic states
had existed. An important tenet of the modern states of
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
,
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...

Latvia
and
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countr ...
is that their incorporation into the Soviet Union from 1940 to 1991 constituted an illegal occupation. In 1991 when each Baltic state regained their independence they claimed continuity directly from their pre-1940 status. Many other states share this view, and as such, these states were not considered either predecessor or successor states of the Soviet Union. As a consequence, the Baltic states were able to simply re-establish diplomatic relations with countries, re-affirm pre-1940 treaties still in force, and resume membership to international organizations.


Yugoslavia

After four of the six constituent republics of the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a Socialist state, socialist country in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the afte ...
in 1991 and 1992, the
rump state A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (n ...
, renamed the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, known as FR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in the that existed from 1992 to 2003, following the of the . The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia comprised the and the . In February 2003, FR Yu ...
, stated it was the continuation of the state of
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...

Yugoslavia
—against the objections of the newly independent republics. Representatives from
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Serbia, largest city of Serbia. It is located ...

Belgrade
continued to hold the original Yugoslavian UN seat—however, the United States refused to recognize it. The remaining territory of the federation was less than half of the population and territory of the former federation. In 1992 the
Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, sec ...
on September 19 ( Resolution 777) and the
General Assembly A general assembly or general meeting is a meeting of all the members of an organization or shareholders of a company. Specific examples of general assembly include: Churches * General Assembly (presbyterian church), the highest court of presbyt ...
on September 22, decided to refuse to allow the new federation to sit in the General Assembly under the name of "Yugoslavia" on the theory that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had dissolved. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (later renamed
Serbia and Montenegro The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, known as FR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent ...

Serbia and Montenegro
) was admitted as a new member to the United Nations in 2000; in 2006,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
declared independence and
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
continued to hold the federation's seat. Additionally,
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
declared independence in 2008.


The Agreement on Succession Issues

The first negotiations on succession issues of the former Socialist Yugoslavia had begun in 1992 within the framework of the ''Working Group on Succession Issues'' of the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia. The agreement was initially prevented by the insistence of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that it is exclusive legal and political continuator of the Socialist Yugoslavia as well as the owner of all state property owned by the earlier socialist federal government, and was willing to renounce a part of it only as an act of goodwill. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia interpreted breakup of Yugoslavia as a process of serial secessions and not as a complete dismemberment of the earlier state, interpretation rejected by other former Yugoslav republics.
Badinter Arbitration CommitteeThe Arbitration Commission of the Conference on Yugoslavia (commonly known as Badinter Arbitration Committee) was an arbitration body set up by the Council of Ministers of the European Economic Community (EEC) on 27 August 1991 to provide the Con ...
recommended a division of assets and liabilities based on principle of
equity Equity may refer to: Finance, accounting and ownership *Equity (finance), ownership of assets that have liabilities attached to them ** Stock, equity based on original contributions of cash or other value to a business ** Home equity, the differe ...
and even referred to the 1983 ''Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of State Property, Archives and Debt'' (convention not in force which at the time was signed by only six states, including SRF Yugoslavia). This proposal was unacceptable to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which therefore motivated the
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The ...

International Monetary Fund
to develop alternative key model which included economic power of republics and their contribution to the federal budget which was accepted by all. The key determined participation of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with 36.52%, Croatia with 28.49%, Slovenia 16.39%, Bosnia and Herzegovina with 13.20% and Macedonia with 5.20%. Agreement was also reached on gold and other reserves at the
Bank for International Settlements The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject ...

Bank for International Settlements
but the final conclusion was postponed by the beginning of the
Kosovo War The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () i ...
. After the end of the
NATO bombing of Yugoslavia The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between ...
followed next year by the
overthrow of Slobodan Milošević The overthrow of Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of citie ...
successor states concluded their agreement. In 2001, with the support of the international community, five countries (
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, l ...

Slovenia
,
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia – today
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A sub ...
and the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, known as FR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in the that existed from 1992 to 2003, following the of the . The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia comprised the and the . In February 2003, FR Yu ...
– today
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
) signed the ''Agreement on Succession Issues'' which conclusively confirmed that five sovereign equal successor states were formed upon the dissolution of the former SFR Yugoslavia. It entered into force on 2 June 2004 when the last successor state ratified it. The agreement was signed as an umbrella agreement which included annexes on diplomatic and consular properties, financial assets and liabilities, archives, pensions, other rights, interests and liabilities as well as private properties and acquired rights. At the subsequent dissolution of the state union of
Serbia and Montenegro The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, known as FR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent ...

Serbia and Montenegro
(one of the five successor states) two countries agreed on Serbian sole succession of rights and obligations of their federation.


Examples

* The
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, successor state to the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
* The
Russian Federation Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russian Federation
, successor state to the Soviet Union *
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
, successor state to the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, known as FR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in the that existed from 1992 to 2003, following the of the . The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia comprised the and the . In February 2003, FR Yu ...
(earlier claim to
SFR Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until ...

SFR Yugoslavia
succession dropped in 2000) * The
Islamic Republic of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tur ...

Islamic Republic of Iran
, successor state to the
Imperial State of Iran Imperial is that which relates to an empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a single ruling authority, often an emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a mona ...
* The
Republic of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...
, the current successor state of the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
*
Sudan Sudan ( or ; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It borders the countries of Central African Republ ...

Sudan
, the reduced state after the creation of
South Sudan South Sudan (), officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East Africa, east/central Africa. It is bordered to the east by Ethiopia, to the north by Sudan, to the west by the Central African Republic, to th ...

South Sudan
. * Predecessors of sovereign states in Africa * Predecessors of sovereign states in Asia * Predecessors of sovereign states in North America * Predecessors of sovereign states in South America * List of predecessors of sovereign states in Europe, Predecessors of sovereign states in Europe * List of predecessors of sovereign states in Oceania, Predecessors of sovereign states in Oceania


See also

* Comparative history * International law * ''Translatio imperii'' * Universal history * Vienna Convention on Succession of States in respect of Treaties * State continuity of the Baltic states * Timeline of historical geopolitical changes * Peaceful transition of power * Odious debt * Rump state


References


Bibliography

*Burgenthal/Doehring/Kokott: ''Grundzüge des Völkerrechts'', 2. Auflage, Heidelberg 2000


External links


European Journal of International Law – State Succession in Respect of Human Rights Treaties
* Wilfried Fiedler
''Der Zeitfaktor im Recht der Staatensukzession''
in: Staat und Recht. Festschrift für Günther Winkler, Wien, 1997. P. 217–236. * Wilfried Fiedler

in: B. Ziemske u.a. (Hrsg.), Festschrift für Martin Kriele, München 1997. P. 1371–1391
Draft Articles on Nationality of Natural Persons in relation to the Succession of States with commentaries (1999)
* - Published online on 5 August 2011 {{DEFAULTSORT:Succession Of States Historiography International law Successor states,