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A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a
commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and se ...
,
mixed-use Mixed-use is a style of Real estate development, urban development, urban planning and/or a zoning type that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or entertainment uses into one space, where those functions are to some degree ...
or
residential area A residential area is a land used in which housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizat ...
. It can exist either as part of a city/urban area and can often have a large degree of employment. In some metropolitan areas they exist as separate residential communities within
commuting Commuting is periodically recurring travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

commuting
distance of a city. Suburbs might have their own political or legal jurisdiction, especially in the United States, but this is not always the case, especially in the United Kingdom where most suburbs are located within the administrative boundaries of cities. In most
English-speaking countries Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wo ...
, suburban areas are defined in contrast to
central Central is an adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign languag ...
or
inner city The term ''inner city'' has been used, especially in the United States, as a euphemism A euphemism () is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that is deemed Profanity, offensive or suggests something unpleasant. Some euphemi ...

inner city
areas, but in
Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to Australia. Australian English is the country's national and ''de facto'' common language. English is the Lan ...
and
South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the U ...
, ''suburb'' has become largely synonymous with what is called a "
neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar ...

neighborhood
" in other countries, and the term encompasses
inner city The term ''inner city'' has been used, especially in the United States, as a euphemism A euphemism () is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that is deemed Profanity, offensive or suggests something unpleasant. Some euphemi ...

inner city
areas. In some areas, such as Australia, India, China, New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom, and parts of the United States, new suburbs are routinely
annexed upCivilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the reversal of the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq (28 February 1991). Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging t ...
by adjacent cities due to
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
. In others, such as
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
, France, and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed locally as part of a larger
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
such as a county, district or
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
. In the United States, regions beyond the suburbs are
exurbs An exurb (alternately: exurban area) is an area outside the typically denser inner suburban area File:Husby Kista.jpg, The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A s ...
or "exurban areas", with less population density (but still more than rural areas) but linked to the metropolitan area economically, particularly by commuters. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they are less densely populated than
inner city The term ''inner city'' has been used, especially in the United States, as a euphemism A euphemism () is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that is deemed Profanity, offensive or suggests something unpleasant. Some euphemi ...

inner city
neighborhoods within the same metropolitan area, and most residents routinely commute to city centers or
business districts A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it often coincides with ...
via private vehicles or
public transit Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (a ...
s; however, there are many exceptions, including
industrial suburb An industrial suburb is a community, near a large city, with an industrial organization, industrial economy. These communities may be established as tax havens or as places where zoning promotes industry, or they may be industrial city, industria ...
s,
planned communities A planned community, planned city, or planned town is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped land. This contrasts with settlements that evolve in a more ''ad hoc'' ...
and
satellite cities Satellite cities or satellite towns are smaller municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnation ...
. Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land.


Etymology and usage

The English word is derived from the
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
, which is in turn derived from the Latin , formed from (meaning "under" or "below") and ("city"). The first recorded usage of the term in English, was by
John Wycliffe John Wycliffe (; also spelled Wyclif, Wickliffe, and other variants; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, biblical translator, reformer, priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford. H ...

John Wycliffe
in 1380, when the form was used, according to the ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
''.


In Australia and New Zealand

In Australia and also New Zealand, suburban areas (in the wider sense noted in the lead paragraph) have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities (see suburbs and localities). The terms ''inner suburb'' and ''outer suburb'' are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city centre (which would not be referred to as 'suburbs' in most other countries), and the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term 'middle suburbs' is also used.
Inner suburbs ''Inner suburb'' is a term used for a variety of suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixed-use or reside ...
, such as
Te Aro Te Aro (formerly also known as Te Aro Flat) is an inner-city suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a , or . It can exist either as part of a city/urban area and can often have a large degree of employment. In some metropol ...
in
Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-TaraTe Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of New Zealand. It i ...

Wellington
,
Eden Terrace Eden Terrace is an inner city suburb of Auckland, located 2 km south of the Auckland CBD, in the North Island of New Zealand. Eden Terrace is one of Auckland's oldest suburbs, and also one of the smallest; at just 47 hectares only Newton, Ne ...

Eden Terrace
in
Auckland Auckland ( mi, Tāmaki Makaurau) is a large metropolitan city in the North Island of New Zealand. The List of New Zealand urban areas by population, most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of about It is locate ...

Auckland
,
Prahran Prahran (), also known colloquially as Pran, is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 5 km south-east of Melbourne's Melbourne city centre, Central Business District, located within the City of Stonnington Local government areas ...
in
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
and Ultimo in
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
, are usually characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas. In New Zealand, most suburbs are not legally defined, which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. A geospatial dataset defining suburbs for use by emergency services is developed and maintained by
Fire and Emergency New Zealand Fire and Emergency New Zealand is New Zealand's main firefighting and emergency services body. Fire and Emergency was formally established on 1 July 2017, after the New Zealand Fire Service, the National Rural Fire Authority, and 38 rural fire d ...
and is published under an open license.


In the United Kingdom and Ireland

In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the term ''suburb'' simply refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries. Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, many suburbs are formerly separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's expansion, such as
Ealing Ealing () is a district in West London West London is the western part of London, England. The area lies north of the River Thames and extends from its historic and commercial core of Westminster and the West End of London, West End to the ...
,
Bromley Bromley is a large town in Greater London, England, located in the Historic counties of England, historic county of Kent. It is south-east of Charing Cross, and had a population of 87,889 as of 2011. A market town, chartered in 1158, its locat ...
, and
Guiseley Guiseley ( ) is a town in metropolitan borough of the City of Leeds The City of Leeds is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. The metropolitan borough includes the administrative cent ...
. In Ireland, this can be seen in the Dublin suburban areas of
Swords A sword A sword is an edged, bladed weapon intended for manual cutting or thrusting. Its blade, longer than a knife A knife (plural knives; from Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of ...
,
Blanchardstown Blanchardstown () is a large outer suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixed-use or residential area, e ...
, and
Tallaght ) , image_skyline = Tallaght Centre, South Dublin, 2007.jpg , image_caption = Central Tallaght , image_flag = , flag_size = , pushpin_map = Dublin#Ireland , pushpin_label_position = left , pushp ...
.


In North America

In the United States and Canada, ''suburb'' can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or
unincorporated area Sign at Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota.">Minnesota.html" ;"title="Otter Tail County, Minnesota">Otter Tail County, Minnesota. An unincorporated area is a region not governed by a local municipal corporat ...
outside a town or city. Although a majority of Americans regard themselves as residents of suburban communities, the federal government of the Unisted States has no formal definition for what constitutes a ''suburb'' in the United States leaving its precise meaning disputed. In Canada, the term may also be used in the British sense, especially as cities annex formerly outlying areas.


History

The history of suburbia is part of the study of
urban history Urban history is a field of history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeas ...
, which focuses on the origins, growth, diverse typologies, culture, and politics of suburbs, as well as on the gendered and family-oriented nature of suburban space. Many people have assumed that early-20th-century suburbs were enclaves for middle-class whites, a concept that carries tremendous cultural influence yet is actually stereotypical. Some suburbs are based on a society of working-class and minority residents, many of whom want to own their own house. Meanwhile, other suburbs have instituted "explicitly racist" policies to deter people deemed as "other", a practice most common in the United States in contrast to other countries around the world. Mary Corbin Sies argues that it is necessary to examine how "suburb" is defined as well as the distinction made between cities and suburbs, geography, economic circumstances, and the interaction of numerous factors that move research beyond acceptance of stereotyping and its influence on scholarly assumptions.


Early history

The earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the
market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and p ...
. The word ''suburbani'' was first employed by the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
statesman
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the
Eastern Han Dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...
(until 190 AD, when
Dong Zhuo Dong Zhuo () (died 22 May 192), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...
razed the city) the capital,
Luoyang Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, afte ...

Luoyang
, was mainly occupied by the emperor and important officials; the city's people mostly lived in small cities right outside Luoyang, which were suburbs in all but name. As populations grew during the
Early Modern Period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
in Europe, towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the
countryside A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.">South_Karelia.html" ;"title="Lappeenranta, South Karelia">Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic ...

countryside
. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded. The peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were generally inhabited by the very poorest.


Origins of the modern suburb

Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrializing cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop, whereby newly rich members of the middle classes began to purchase estates and villas on the outskirts of London. This trend accelerated through the 19th century, especially in cities like London and
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Ro ...

Birmingham
that were growing rapidly, and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Initially, such growth came along rail lines in the form of ribbon developments, as suburban residents could commute via train into the city centre for work. In Australia, where Melbourne would soon become the second-largest city in the British Empire, the distinctively Australasian suburb, with its loosely aggregated quarter-acre sections, developed in the 1850s and eventually became a component of the
Australian Dream The Australian Dream or Great Australian Dream is, in its narrowest sense, a belief that in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia ...
. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public
transit Transit may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film * Transit (1979 film), ''Transit'' (1979 film), a 1979 Israeli film * Transit (2005 film), ''Transit'' (2005 film), a film produced by MTV and Staying-Alive about four people in countries in the wo ...

transit
systems such as the
underground railways Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn, metropolitana or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit s ...
, trams and buses, it became possible for the majority of a city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the center for work. By the mid-19th century, the first major suburban areas were springing up around London as the city (then the largest in the world) became more overcrowded and unsanitary. A major catalyst for suburban growth was the opening of the
Metropolitan Railway The Metropolitan Railway (also known as the Met) was a passenger and goods railway that served London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction betwee ...
in the 1860s. The line later joined the capital's financial heart in to what were to become the suburbs of
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
. The line reached
Harrow Harrow may refer to: Places * Harrow, Victoria, Australia * Harrow, Ontario, Canada * The Harrow, County Wexford, a village in Ireland * London Borough of Harrow, England, UK ** Harrow, London, a town ** Harrow (UK Parliament constituency) ** Harr ...
in 1880. Unlike other railway companies, which were required to dispose of surplus land, London's Met was allowed to retain such land that it believed was necessary for future railway use. Initially, the surplus land was managed by the Land Committee, and, from the 1880s, the land was developed and sold to domestic buyers in places like Willesden Park Estate, Cecil Park, near
Pinner Pinner is a suburb in the borough of London Borough of Harrow, Harrow, Greater London, England, northwest of Charing Cross, close to the border with London Borough of Hillingdon, Hillingdon, in the historic county of Middlesex. The population ...
and at Wembley Park. In 1912 it was suggested that a specially formed company should take over from the Surplus Lands Committee and develop suburban estates near the railway. However,
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
(1914–1918) delayed these plans until 1919, when, with the expectation of a postwar housing-boom, Metropolitan Railway Country Estates Limited (MRCE) formed. MRCE went on to develop estates at Kingsbury Garden Village near
Neasden Neasden is a suburban area in northwest London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of Engl ...
,
Wembley Park Wembley Park is a district of the London Borough of Brent The London Borough of Brent () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for ...
, Cecil Park and Grange Estate at
Pinner Pinner is a suburb in the borough of London Borough of Harrow, Harrow, Greater London, England, northwest of Charing Cross, close to the border with London Borough of Hillingdon, Hillingdon, in the historic county of Middlesex. The population ...
and the Cedars Estate at
Rickmansworth Rickmansworth () is a town in southwest Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to i ...

Rickmansworth
and to found places such as Harrow Garden Village. The Met's marketing department coined the term "
Metro-land Metro-land (or Metroland) is a name given to the suburban File:Husby Kista.jpg, The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is ...
" in 1915 when the ''Guide to the Extension Line'' became the ''Metro-land'' guide, priced at 1 d. This promoted the land served by the Met for the walker, visitor and later the house-hunter. Published annually until 1932 (the last full year of independence for the Met), the guide extolled the benefits of "The good air of the Chilterns", using language such as "Each lover of Metroland may well have his own favourite wood beech and coppice — all tremulous green loveliness in Spring and russet and gold in October". The dream as promoted involved a modern home in beautiful countryside with a fast railway-service to central London. By 1915 people from across London had flocked to live the new suburban dream in large newly-built areas across north-west London.


Interwar suburban expansion in England

Suburbanisation in the interwar period was heavily influenced by the
garden city movement The garden city movement is a method of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design ...
of
Ebenezer Howard Sir Ebenezer Howard (29 January 1850 – 1 May 1928) was an English urban planner and founder of the garden city movement, known for his publication ''To-Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform'' (1898), the description of a utopian city in whic ...

Ebenezer Howard
and the creation of the first garden suburbs at the turn of the 20th century. The first garden suburb was developed through the efforts of
social reform A reform movement is a type of social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting pop ...
er
Henrietta Barnett Dame Henrietta Octavia Weston Barnett, Order of the British Empire, DBE (''née'' Rowland; 4 May 1851 – 10 June 1936) was an English social reformer, educationist, and author. She and her husband, Samuel Augustus Barnett, founded the first "Uni ...
and her husband; inspired by
Ebenezer Howard Sir Ebenezer Howard (29 January 1850 – 1 May 1928) was an English urban planner and founder of the garden city movement, known for his publication ''To-Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform'' (1898), the description of a utopian city in whic ...

Ebenezer Howard
and the model housing development movement (then exemplified by
Letchworth Letchworth Garden City, commonly known as Letchworth, is a town in Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders ...
garden city), as well as the desire to protect part of
Hampstead Heath Hampstead Heath (locally known simply as the Heath) is a large, ancient London heath A heath () is a shrubland Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterized by vegetation dominance (ecology), dominated by ...

Hampstead Heath
from development, they established trusts in 1904 which bought 243 acres of land along the newly opened Northern line extension to
Golders Green Golders Green is an area in the London Borough of Barnet The London Borough of Barnet () is a suburban London boroughs, London borough in North London. The borough was formed in 1965 from parts of the ceremonial counties of Middlesex and Her ...

Golders Green
and created the
Hampstead Garden Suburb Hampstead Garden Suburb is an elevated suburb of London, north of Hampstead, west of Highgate and east of Golders Green. It is known for its intellectual, liberal, artistic, musical and literary associations. It is an example of early twentiet ...
. The suburb attracted the talents of architects including
Raymond Unwin Sir Raymond Unwin (2 November 1863 – 29 June 1940) was a prominent and influential English engineer, architect and town planner, with an emphasis on improvements in working class housing. Early years Raymond Unwin was born in Rotherham, Yorks ...
and Sir
Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens ( ; 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country house An Englis ...

Edwin Lutyens
, and it ultimately grew to encompass over 800 acres. During the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
the
Tudor Walters Committee The Ministry of Works was a department of the UK Government formed in 1940, during World War II, to organise the requisitioning of property for wartime use. After the war, the ministry retained responsibility for government building projects. In ...
was commissioned to make recommendations for the post war reconstruction and housebuilding. In part, this was a response to the shocking lack of fitness amongst many recruits during World War One, attributed to poor living conditions; a belief summed up in a housing poster of the period "you cannot expect to get an A1 population out of C3 homes" – referring to military fitness classifications of the period. The Committee's report of 1917 was taken up by the government, which passed the Housing, Town Planning, &c. Act 1919, also known as the Addison Act after Dr.
Christopher Addison Christopher Addison, 1st Viscount Addison, (19 June 1869 – 11 December 1951) was a British medical doctor and politician. A member of the Liberal and Labour parties, he served as Minister of Munitions The Minister of Munitions was a Britis ...
, the then Minister for Housing. The Act allowed for the building of large new housing estates in the suburbs after the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, and marked the start of a long 20th century tradition of state-owned housing, which would later evolve into
council estate Public housing (known as ''council housing'' or ''social housing'' in the UK) provided the majority of rented accommodation in the United Kingdom until 2011 when the number of households in private rental housing surpassed the number in social ...
s. The Report also legislated on the required, minimum standards necessary for further suburban construction; this included regulation on the maximum housing density and their arrangement and it even made recommendations on the ideal number of bedrooms and other rooms per house. Although the
semi-detached A semi-detached house (often abbreviated to semi) is a single family duplex dwelling house that shares one common wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security, Shelter in place, shelter, or ...
house was first designed by the Shaws (a father and son architectural partnership) in the 19th century, it was during the suburban housing boom of the interwar period that the design first proliferated as a suburban icon, being preferred by middle class home owners to the smaller
terraced house In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Archite ...
s. The design of many of these houses, highly characteristic of the era, was heavily influenced by the
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Gr ...

Art Deco
movement, taking influence from
Tudor Revival Tudor Revival architecture (also known as mock Tudor in the UK) first manifested itself in domestic architecture in the United Kingdom in the latter half of the 19th century. Based on revival of aspects that were perceived as Tudor architecture ...
, chalet style, and even ship design. Within just a decade suburbs dramatically increased in size.
Harrow Weald Harrow Weald is a suburban district in Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subd ...
went from just 1,500 to over 10,000 while
Pinner Pinner is a suburb in the borough of London Borough of Harrow, Harrow, Greater London, England, northwest of Charing Cross, close to the border with London Borough of Hillingdon, Hillingdon, in the historic county of Middlesex. The population ...
jumped from 3,000 to over 20,000. During the 1930s, over 4 million new suburban houses were built, the 'suburban revolution' had made England the most heavily suburbanized country in the world, by a considerable margin.


North America

Boston and New York spawned the first major suburbs. The streetcar lines in Boston and the rail lines in Manhattan made daily commutes possible. No metropolitan area in the world was as well served by railroad commuter lines at the turn of the twentieth century as New York, and it was the rail lines to Westchester from the Grand Central Terminal commuter hub that enabled its development. Westchester's true importance in the history of American suburbanization derives from the upper-middle class development of villages including Scarsdale,
New Rochelle New Rochelle (; older french: La Nouvelle-Rochelle) is a Political subdivisions of New York State#City, city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state. In 2010, the city had a population of 77,062 ...
and
Rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationshi ...
serving thousands of businessmen and executives from Manhattan.


Post-war suburban expansion

The suburban population in North America exploded during the post-World War II economic expansion. Returning veterans wishing to start a settled life moved in masses to the suburbs.
Levittown Aerial view of Levittown, Pennsylvania circa 1959 Levittown is the name of seven large suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or ...
developed as a major prototype of mass-produced housing. Due to the influx of people in these suburban areas, the amount of shopping centers began to increase as suburban America took shape. These malls helped supply goods and services to the growing urban population. Shopping for different goods and services in one central location without having to travel to multiple locations, helped to keep shopping centers a component of these newly designed suburbs which were booming in population. The television helped contribute to the rise of shopping centers due to the increased advertisement on television in addition to a desire to have products shown in suburban life in various television programs. Another factor that led to the rise of these shopping centers was the building of many highways. The Highway Act of 1956 helped to fund the building of 64,000 kilometers across the nation by having $26 thousand-million to use, which helped to link many more to these shopping centers with ease. These newly built shopping centers, which were often large buildings full of multiple stores, and services, were being used for more than shopping, but as a place of leisure and a meeting point for those who lived within suburban America at this time. These centers thrived offering goods and services to the growing populations in suburban America. In 1957, 940 Shopping centers were built and this number more than doubled by 1960 to keep up with the demand of these densely populated areas.


Housing

Very little housing had been built during the Great Depression and World War II, except for emergency quarters near war industries. Overcrowded and inadequate apartments was the common condition. Some suburbs had developed around large cities where there was rail transportation to the jobs downtown. However, the real growth in suburbia depended on the availability of automobiles, highways, and inexpensive housing. The population had grown, and the stock of family savings had accumulated the money for down payments, automobiles and appliances. The product was a great housing boom. Whereas, an average of 316,000 new housing non-farm units should have been constructed 1930s through 1945, there were 1,450,000 annually from 1946 through 1955. The
G.I. Bill The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, commonly known as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for some of the returning World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, ...
guaranteed low cost loans for veterans, with very low down payments, and low interest rates. With 16 million eligible veterans, the opportunity to buy a house was suddenly at hand. In 1947 alone, 540,000 veterans bought one; their average price was $7300. The construction industry kept prices low by standardization – for example standardizing sizes for kitchen cabinets, refrigerators and stoves, allowed for mass production of kitchen furnishings. Developers purchased empty land just outside the city, installed tract houses based on a handful of designs, and provided streets and utilities, or local public officials race to build schools. The most famous development was
Levittown Aerial view of Levittown, Pennsylvania circa 1959 Levittown is the name of seven large suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or ...
, in Long Island just east of New York City. It offered a new house for $1000 down, and $70 a month; it featured three bedrooms, fireplace, gas range and gas furnace, and a landscaped lot of 75 by 100 feet, all for a total price of $10,000. Veterans could get one with a much lower down payment. At the same time, African Americans were rapidly moving north and west for better jobs and educational opportunities than were available to them in the segregated South. Their arrival in Northern and Western cities en masse, in addition to being followed by race riots in several large cities such as
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...
,
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...
,
Detroit (strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait in either direction. Mo ...
,
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...
, and
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
, further stimulated white suburban migration. The growth of the suburbs was facilitated by the development of
zoning Zoning is a method of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan ...
laws,
redlining Redlining is the systematic denial of various services or goods by governments or the private sector either directly or through the selective raising of prices. The word itself is rooted back to the early 1930's after the color correlating prope ...
and numerous innovations in transport. The policy of redlining and other discriminatory measures built into federal housing policy furthered the racial segregation of postwar America for example by refusing to insure mortgages in and near African-American neighborhoods. The government's efforts were primarily designed to provide housing to white, middle-class or lower middle-class families. African-Americans and other people of color largely remained concentrated within decaying cores of urban poverty.Rothstein, Richard: The Color of Law. A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America, Liveright, 2017. After World War II, availability of
FHA loan An FHA insured loan is a US Federal Housing Administration The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) is a United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contigu ...
s stimulated a housing boom in American suburbs. In the older cities of the northeast U.S.,
streetcar suburb A streetcar suburb is a residential community A residential community is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Iden ...
s originally developed along train or lines that could shuttle workers into and out of city centers where the jobs were located. This practice gave rise to the term "
bedroom community A bedroom is a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless extent in which and events have relative and . In , physical space is often conceived in three s, although modern s usually consider it, with , to be par ...
", meaning that most daytime business activity took place in the city, with the working population leaving the city at night for the purpose of going home to sleep. Economic growth in the United States encouraged the suburbanization of American cities that required massive investments for the new infrastructure and homes. Consumer patterns were also shifting at this time, as purchasing power was becoming stronger and more accessible to a wider range of families. Suburban houses also brought about needs for products that were not needed in urban neighborhoods, such as lawnmowers and automobiles. During this time commercial shopping malls were being developed near suburbs to satisfy consumers' needs and their car–dependent lifestyle.Beauregard, Robert A. When America Became Suburban. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2006. Zoning laws also contributed to the location of residential areas outside of the city center by creating wide areas or "zones" where only residential buildings were permitted. These suburban residences are built on larger lots of land than in the central city. For example, the lot size for a residence in Chicago is usually deep, while the width can vary from wide for a row house to wide for a large stand–alone house. In the suburbs, where stand–alone houses are the rule, lots may be wide by deep, as in the Chicago suburb of
Naperville Naperville () is a city in DuPage and Will Will may refer to: Common meanings * Will and testament A will or testament is a legal document that expresses a person's ( testator) wishes as to how their property (estate (law), estate) is to b ...
. Manufacturing and commercial buildings were segregated in other areas of the city. Alongside suburbanization, many companies began locating their offices and other facilities in the outer areas of the cities, which resulted in the increased density of older suburbs and the growth of lower density suburbs even further from city centers. An alternative strategy is the deliberate design of "new towns" and the protection of
green belt A green belt is a policy and land-use zone designation used in land-use planning Land use planning is the process of regulating the use of land by a central authority. Usually, this is done to promote more desirable social and environmental ...

green belt
s around cities. Some social reformers attempted to combine the best of both concepts in the
garden city movement The garden city movement is a method of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design ...
. In the U.S., 1950 was the first year that more people lived in suburbs than elsewhere. In the U.S, the development of the skyscraper and the sharp inflation of downtown real estate prices also led to downtowns being more fully dedicated to businesses, thus pushing residents outside the city center.


Australia and New Zealand


Worldwide

In many parts of the developed world, suburbs can be economically distressed areas, inhabited by higher proportions of recent immigrants, with higher delinquency rates and social problems. Sometimes the notion of suburb may even refer to people in real misery, who are kept at the limit of the city borders for economic, social, and sometimes ethnic reasons. An example in the developed world would be the ''
banlieue In France, a banlieue (; ) is a suburb of a large city. Banlieues are divided into autonomous administrative entities and do not constitute part of the city proper A city proper is the geographical area contained within city limits. The term ...
s'' of France, or the concrete suburbs of Sweden, even if the suburbs of these countries also include middle-class and upper-class neighbourhoods that often consist of single-family houses. Some of the suburbs in most of the developed world are comparable to several
inner cities The term ''inner city'' has been used, especially in the United States, as a euphemism for lower income housing, lower-income residential districts that often refer to African-American neighborhoods, in a downtown or city centre area. Sociologi ...

inner cities
of the U.S.


Africa

Following the growth of the middle class due to the industrialization of many African countries, the development of middle-class suburbs has boomed since the beginning of the 1990s, particularly in cities such as
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
,
Nairobi Nairobi ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Nairobi
,
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
, and
Lagos Lagos (Nigerian English Nigerian English, also known as Nigerian Standard English, is a List of dialects of the English language, dialect of English spoken in Nigeria. Based on British English, the dialect contains various loanwords an ...

Lagos
. In an illustrative case of South Africa, RDP housing has been built. In much of
Soweto Soweto () is a township A township is a kind of human settlement or administrative subdivision, with its meaning varying in different countries. While the term is occasionally associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception t ...

Soweto
, many houses are American in appearance, but are smaller, and often consist of a kitchen and living room, two or three bedrooms, and a bathroom. However, there are more affluent neighborhoods, more comparable to American suburbs, particularly east of the
FNB Stadium First National Bank Stadium or simply FNB Stadium, also known as Soccer City and The Calabash, is an association football (soccer) and Rugby union stadium located in Nasrec, Gauteng, Nasrec, bordering the Soweto area of Johannesburg, South Afric ...
and south of the city in areas like Eikenhof, where the “Eye of Africa” planned community exists. This master-planned community is nearly indistinguishable from the most amenity-rich resort-style American suburbs in Florida, Arizona, and California, complete with a golf course, resort pool, equestrian centre, 24-hour manned gates, gym, and BMX track, as well as several tennis, basketball, and volleyball courts. In Cape Town, there is a distinct European style which is due to the European influence during the mid-1600s when the Dutch settled the Cape. Houses like these are called Cape Dutch Houses and can be found in the affluent suburbs of Constantia and Bishopscourt.


Australia

The Australian usage came about as outer areas were quickly surrounded in fast-growing cities, but retained the appellation ''suburb''; the term was eventually applied to the original core as well. In Australia,
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
's urban sprawl has occurred predominantly in the Western Suburbs. The locality of
Olympic Park An Olympic Park is a sports campus A campus is traditionally the land on which a college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of co ...
was designated an official suburb in 2009.


Canada

Canada is an urbanized nation where over 80% of the population live in urban areas (loosely defined), and roughly two-thirds live in one of Canada's 33
census metropolitan area The census geographic units of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest b ...
s (CMAs) with a population of over 100,000. However, of this metropolitan population, in 2001 nearly half lived in low-density neighborhoods, with only one in five living in a typical "urban" neighborhood. The percentage living in low-density neighborhoods varied from a high of nearly two-thirds of Calgary CMA residents (67%), to a low of about one-third of Montréal CMA residents (34%). Often, Canadian suburbs are less automobile-centred and
public transit Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (a ...
use is encouraged but can be notably unused. Throughout Canada, there are comprehensive plans in place to curb sprawl. Population and income growth in Canadian suburbs had tended to outpace growth in core urban or rural areas, but in many areas this trend has now reversed. The suburban population increased 87% between 1981 and 2001, well ahead of urban growth. The majority of recent population growth in Canada's three largest metropolitan areas (
Greater Toronto The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atla ...

Greater Toronto
, Greater Montréal, and
Greater Vancouver Greater Vancouver, also known as Metro Vancouver, is the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * ...
) has occurred in non-core municipalities. This trend is also beginning to take effect in
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth desc ...

Vancouver
, and to a lesser extent,
Montréal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk language, Mohawk) is the List of the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population, second-most populous city in Canada and List of towns in Quebec, most populous city in the Provinc ...

Montréal
. In certain cities, particularly
Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, which is surrounded by Central Albert ...

Edmonton
and
Calgary Calgary Calgary ( ) is a city in the western Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America ...

Calgary
, suburban growth takes place within the city boundaries as opposed to in bedroom communities. This is due to annexation and large geographic footprint within the city borders. Calgary is unusual among Canadian cities because it has developed as a unicity – it has annexed most of its surrounding towns and large amounts of undeveloped land around the city. As a result, most of the communities that Calgarians refer to as "suburbs" are actually inside the city limits. In the 2016 census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,239,220, whereas the Calgary Metropolitan Area had a population of 1,392,609, indicating the vast majority of people in the Calgary CMA lived within the city limits. The perceived low population density of Calgary largely results from its many internal suburbs and the large amount of undeveloped land within the city. The city actually has a policy of densifying its new developments.


China

In China, the term suburb is new, although suburbs are already being constructed rapidly. Chinese suburbs mostly consist of rows upon rows of
apartment block '' high-rise building in Kalasatama, Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on t ...

apartment block
s and condos that end abruptly into the countryside. Also new town developments are extremely common. Single family suburban homes tend to be similar to their Western equivalents; although primarily outside Beijing and Shanghai, also mimic Spanish and Italian architecture.


Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, however, suburbs are mostly government-planned new towns containing numerous public housing estates. New Towns such as
Tin Shui Wai Tin Shui Wai New Town is a satellite town Satellite cities or satellite towns are smaller municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country ...
may gain notoriety as a slum. However, other new towns also contain private housing estates and low density developments for the upper classes.


Italy

In the illustrative case of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
, Italy, in the 1920s and 1930s, suburbs were intentionally created ''ex novo'' to give lower classes a destination, in consideration of the actual and foreseen massive arrival of poor people from other areas of the country. Many critics have seen in this development pattern (which was circularly distributed in every direction) also a quick solution to a problem of
public order In criminology Criminology (from Latin , "accusation", and Ancient Greek , ''-logia'', from λόγος ''logos'' meaning: "word, reason") is the study of crime and Deviance (sociology), deviant behaviour. Criminology is an interdisciplin ...
(keeping the unwelcome poorest classes together with the criminals, in this way better controlled, comfortably remote from the elegant "official" town). On the other hand, the expected huge expansion of the town soon effectively covered the distance from the central town, and now those suburbs are completely engulfed by the main territory of the town. Other newer suburbs (called
exurbs An exurb (alternately: exurban area) is an area outside the typically denser inner suburban area File:Husby Kista.jpg, The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A s ...
) were created at a further distance from them.


Japan

In Japan, the construction of suburbs has boomed since the end of World War II and many cities are experiencing the
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
effect.


Latin America

In Mexico, suburbs are generally similar to their United States counterparts. Houses are made in many different architectural styles which may be of European, American and International architecture and which vary in size. Suburbs can be found in
Guadalajara Guadalajara ( , ) is a metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significan ...

Guadalajara
, Mexico City,
Monterrey Monterrey (; ) is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. Located at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental, the city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico w ...

Monterrey
, and most major cities.
Lomas de Chapultepec Lomas (Spanish for "hills"), also called fog oases and mist oases, are areas of fog-watered vegetation in the coastal desert of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú. ...

Lomas de Chapultepec
is an example of an affluent suburb, although it is located inside the city and by no means is today a suburb in the strict sense of the word. In other countries, the situation is similar to that of Mexico, with many suburbs being built, most notably in Peru and Chile, which have experienced a boom in the construction of suburbs since the late 1970s and early 80s. As the growth of middle-class and upper-class suburbs increased, low-class squatter areas have increased, most notably "lost cities" in Mexico, campamentos in Chile, barriadas in Peru,
villa miseria A ''villa miseria'' (), or just ''villa'', is a type of shanty town A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised buildings known as shanties or shacks, typically made of materials such as mud and wood. A typical shanty town is sq ...
s in Argentina,
asentamientoAn asentamiento irregular, known colloquially as an asentamiento () is a shanty town in Latin America, particularly around Guatemala City and Montevideo. Most have been established in the last 20 years as a result of economic inequalities between ...
s in Guatemala and
favela A favela () is a type of slum A slum is a highly populated urban Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and ci ...

favela
s of Brazil. Brazilian affluent suburbs are generally denser, more vertical and mixed in use
inner suburb ''Inner suburb'' is a term used for a variety of suburban communities that are generally located very close to the centre of a large city (the inner city and central business district). Their urban density is lower than the inner city or central ...
s. They concentrate infrastructure, investment and attention from the municipal seat and the best offer of mass transit. True sprawling towards neighboring municipalities is typically empoverished – (''the periphery'', in the sense of it dealing with spatial
marginalization Social exclusion or social marginalisation is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measu ...
) –, with a very noticeable example being the rail suburbs of
Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (; ), or simply Rio, is the List of largest cities in Brazil, second-most populous city in Brazil and the Largest cities in the Americas, sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the Rio de Janeiro (s ...

Rio de Janeiro
– the North Zone, the
Baixada Fluminense 375px, Map of the municipalities in Baixada Fluminense. The Baixada Fluminense (standard ; local pronounce: ) (literally " Fluminense Lowland") is a region in the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Mag ...
, the part of the West Zone associated with SuperVia's Ramal de Santa Cruz. These, in comparison with the inner suburbs, often prove to be remote, violent
food desert A food desert is an area that has limited access to affordable and nutritious food, in contrast with an area with higher access to supermarkets or vegetable shops with fresh foods, which is called a food oasis. The designation considers the type ...
s with inadequate sewer structure coverage, saturated mass transit, more precarious running water, electricity and communication services, and lack of urban planning and landscaping, while also not necessarily qualifying as actual or slums. They often are former agricultural land or wild areas settled through squatting, and grew in amount particularly due to mass
rural exodus Rural flight (or rural exodus) is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outsid ...
during the years of the military dictatorship. This is particularly true to
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a municipality in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an global city, alpha global city (as listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Ga ...

São Paulo
, Rio de Janeiro and
Brasília Brasília (; ) is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of Forms of government, government of the Federal District (Brazil), Federal District. The city is located at the top of the Brazilian highlands in the country's Central-West Region, Brazi ...

Brasília
, which grew with migration from more distant and impoverished parts of the country and dealt with overpopulation as a result.


Malaysia

In Malaysia, suburbs are common, especially in areas surrounding the
Klang Valley Klang Valley ( ms, Lembah Klang) is an urban conglomeration A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative divisio ...
, which is the largest
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbati ...
in the country. These suburbs also serve as major housing areas and
commuter town A commuter town is a populated area that is primarily residential, rather than commercial or industrial. Routine travel from home to work and then from work to home is called commuting Commuting is periodically recurring travel betwe ...
s.
Terraced houses __NOTOC__ In agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domestication, dome ...
,
Semi-detached A semi-detached house (often abbreviated to semi) is a single family duplex dwelling house that shares one common wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security, Shelter in place, shelter, or ...
houses and
shophouse A shophouse is a building type serving both as a residence and a commercial business. It is defined in dictionary as a building type found in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#Sout ...
s are common concepts in suburbs. In certain areas such as Klang,
Subang Jaya Subang Jaya is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledg ...

Subang Jaya
and
Petaling Jaya ) , website = , image_skyline = , image_caption = ''From top, left to right:Skyline of Petaling Jaya, the 1 Utama Mall integrated with Bandar Utama Station, the Kota Darul Ehsan arch, the Petaling Ja ...
, suburbs form the core of these places. The latter one has been turned into a
satellite city Satellite cities or satellite towns are smaller municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

satellite city
of
Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , su ...

Kuala Lumpur
. Suburbs are also evident in other major conurbations in the country including
Penang Penang, officially the State of Penang, is a States and federal territories of Malaysia, Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Strait of Malacca, Malacca Strait. It has two parts: Penang Island, where t ...

Penang
(e.g.
Pulau Tikus Pulau Tikus is a northwestern suburb of George Town in Penang Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait. It has two parts: Penang Island, where the capital city, George Tow ...
),
Ipoh ) , image_map = , map_caption = Location of Ipoh in Perak , pushpin_map = #Malaysia#Asia#Earth , pushpin_mapsize = 275px , pushpin_map_caption = Ipoh ...

Ipoh
(e.g. Bercham),
Johor Bahru Johor Bahru () is the capital of the state of Johor Johor (; ), also spelled as Johore, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department o ...

Johor Bahru
(e.g.
Tebrau Tebrau or Teberau is a mukim A mukim is a type of administrative division used in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. The word ''mukim'' is a loanword in English language, English. However, it was also originally a loanword in Malay langu ...
),
Kota Kinabalu ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = From top, left to right, bottom:Kota Kinabalu skyline, Wawasan intersection, Tun Mustapha Tower, Jalan Tun Fuad Stephens, Kota Kinabalu Coastal Highway, the Kota Kinabal ...

Kota Kinabalu
(e.g.
Likas Likas is a sub-district in the city of Kota Kinabalu ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = From top, left to right, bottom:Kota Kinabalu skyline, Wawasan intersection, Tun Mustapha Tower, Jalan Tun Fuad St ...
),
Kuching Kuching (), officially the City of Kuching, is the capital and the most populous city in the States and federal territories of Malaysia, state of Sarawak in Malaysia. It is also the capital of Kuching Division. The city is on the Sarawak River ...
(e.g.
Stampin Stampin is a name of a district and also a suburb located in Kuching city in the Malaysian state of Sarawak. Administratively, it is located in the Kuching South City Council area. Most of its area is made up of the B.D.C (Borneo Development Corpora ...
),
Melaka City Malacca City ( ms, Bandaraya Melaka or ') is the List of capitals in Malaysia, capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca. As of 2019 it has a population of 579,000.https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/uploads/files/6_Newsletter/Newsletter%202020/DOS ...
(e.g.
Batu Berendam Batu Berendam is a small town in Central Melaka District, Melaka Malacca ( ms, Melaka; ta, மலாக்கா; ; dubbed "The Historic State"; ms, "Bandar Raya Bersejarah") is a Federated state, state in Malaysia located in the southe ...

Batu Berendam
) and
Alor Setar Alor Setar (JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or sp ...
(e.g.
Anak Bukit Anak Bukit is a mukim A mukim is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...
).


Russia

In Russia, until recently, the term suburb refers to high-rise residential apartments which usually consist of two bedrooms, one bathroom, a kitchen and a living room. However, since the beginning of the 21st century in Russia there has been a "cottage boom", as a result of which a huge number of cottage villages appeared in almost every city of the country (including Moscow), no different from the suburbs in western countries.


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom suburbs are located between the
exurb An exurb (alternately: exurban area) is an area outside the typically denser inner suburban area File:Husby Kista.jpg, The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A s ...
s and
city centre A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political, and geographic heart of a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and ...

city centre
s of a
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
. The growth in the use of trains, and later automobiles and highways, increased the ease with which workers could have a job in the city while
commuting Commuting is periodically recurring travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

commuting
in from the suburbs. In the United Kingdom, as mentioned above, railways stimulated the first mass exodus to the suburbs. The
Metropolitan Railway The Metropolitan Railway (also known as the Met) was a passenger and goods railway that served London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction betwee ...
, for example, was active in building and promoting its own housing estates in the north-west of London, consisting mostly of detached houses on large plots, which it then marketed as "
Metro-land Metro-land (or Metroland) is a name given to the suburban File:Husby Kista.jpg, The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is ...
". In the UK, the government is seeking to impose minimum densities on newly approved housing schemes in parts of
South East England South East England is one of the nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of the counties of england, ...
. The goal is to "build sustainable communities" rather than housing estates. However, commercial concerns tend to delay the opening of services until a large number of residents have occupied the new neighbourhood.


United States

In the 20th century, many suburban areas, especially those not within the political boundaries of the city containing the central business area, began to see independence from the central city as an asset. In some cases, suburbanites saw self-government as a means to keep out people who could not afford the added suburban property maintenance costs not needed in city living. Federal
subsidies A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extended from the government, the ter ...
for suburban development accelerated this process as did the practice of
redlining Redlining is the systematic denial of various services or goods by governments or the private sector either directly or through the selective raising of prices. The word itself is rooted back to the early 1930's after the color correlating prope ...
by banks and other lending institutions. In some cities such as Miami and San Francisco, the main city is much smaller than the surrounding suburban areas, leaving the city proper with a small portion of the metro area's population and land area.
Mesa, Arizona Mesa ( ) is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, Maricopa County, in the U.S. state of Arizona. It is the most populous city in the East Valley (Phoenix metropolitan area), East Valley section of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. It is bordered by T ...

Mesa, Arizona
, and
Virginia Beach, Virginia Virginia Beach is an independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the Holy Roman Empir ...
, the two most populous suburbs in the United States, are actually more populous than many core cities, including
Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a coast, coastal metropolis located in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade County in southeastern Florida, United States. With a population of 467,963 as of the 2020 United States census, 2020 censu ...

Miami
,
Minneapolis Minneapolis () is a city in the U.S. state of Minnesota. With a population of 429,954 as of 2020 United States census, 2020, it is the most populous city in the state and the 46th most populous in the nation. The county seat of Hennepin County, ...

Minneapolis
,
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
,
Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North ...

Cleveland
,
Tampa Tampa () is a major city on the Gulf Coast The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the bo ...
,
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...

St. Louis
,
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Allegheny County. A population of 302,971 residents lives within the city limit ...

Pittsburgh
,
Cincinnati Cincinnati ( ) is a city in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the ...

Cincinnati
, and others. Virginia Beach is now the largest city in all of Virginia, having long since exceeded the population of its neighboring primary city,
Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambe ...
. While Virginia Beach has slowly been taking on the characteristics of an urban city, it will not likely achieve the population density and urban characteristics of Norfolk. It is generally assumed that the population of
ChesapeakeChesapeake often refers to: *Chesapeake people, a Native American tribe also known as the Chesepian * The Chesapeake, a.k.a. Chesapeake Bay *Delmarva Peninsula, also known as the Chesapeake Peninsula Chesapeake may also refer to: Populated place ...
, another Hampton Roads city, will also exceed that of Norfolk in 2018 if its current growth rate continues at its same pace.
Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North ...

Cleveland
, Ohio, is typical of many American central cities; its municipal borders have changed little since 1922, even though the Cleveland urbanized area has grown many times over. Several layers of suburban municipalities now surround cities like
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
,
Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North ...

Cleveland
, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles,
Dallas Dallas (), colloquially referred to as Big D, is a city in the U.S. state of Texas and the largest city in and County seat, seat of Dallas County, Texas, Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin County, Texas, Collin, Denton County, ...

Dallas
,
Denver Denver () is a consolidated city and county, the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more forma ...

Denver
,
Houston Houston ( ) is the List of cities in Texas by population, most populous city in Texas, List of United States cities by population, fourth-most populous city in the United States, most populous city in the Southern United States, as well as th ...

Houston
, New York City, San Francisco,
Sacramento ) , image_map = Sacramento County California Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Sacramento Highlighted.svg , mapsize = 250x200px , map_caption = Location within Sacramento ...

Sacramento
,
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
, Miami,
Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city prop ...

Baltimore
,
Milwaukee Milwaukee ( ) is the largest city in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in ...

Milwaukee
,
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Allegheny County. A population of 302,971 residents lives within the city limit ...

Pittsburgh
,
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
, , ,
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...

St. Louis
,
Salt Lake City Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or c ...

Salt Lake City
,
Las Vegas Las Vegas (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambi ...

Las Vegas
,
Minneapolis Minneapolis () is a city in the U.S. state of Minnesota. With a population of 429,954 as of 2020 United States census, 2020, it is the most populous city in the state and the 46th most populous in the nation. The county seat of Hennepin County, ...

Minneapolis
, and Washington, D.C.. Suburbs in the United States have a prevalence of usually
detached A stand-alone house (also called a single-detached dwelling, detached residence or detached house) is a free-standing residential building. It is sometimes referred to as a single-family home, as opposed to a multi-family residential dwelling. ...
single-family homes. They are characterized by: * Lower
densities The density (more precisely, the volumetric mass density; also known as specific mass), of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ''ρ'' (the lower case Greek letter Rho (letter), rho), although the L ...
than central cities, dominated by single-family homes on small plots of land – anywhere from 0.1 acres. and up – surrounded at close quarters by very similar dwellings. *
Zoning Zoning is a method of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan ...
patterns that separate residential and commercial development, as well as different intensities and densities of development. Daily needs are not within walking distance of most homes. * A greater percentage of
whites White is a racialized classification of people and a skin color Afghan children with fair skin Human skin color ranges from the darkest brown to the lightest hues. Differences in skin color among individuals is caused by variation in p ...
(both non-Hispanic and, in some areas,
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and ...
) and lesser percentage of citizens of other ethnic groups than in urban areas. However,
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
suburbanization grew between 1970 and 1980 by 2.6% as a result of central city neighborhoods expanding into older neighborhoods vacated by whites. *
Subdivisions Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre) In music, metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter ( American spelling; see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country a ...
carved from previously rural land into multiple-home developments built by a single
real estate company Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more general ...
. These subdivisions are often
segregatedSegregation may refer to: Separation of people * Geographical segregation, rates of two or more populations which are not homogenous throughout a defined space *Educational segegration * Housing segregation * Racial segregation, separation of huma ...
by minute differences in home value, creating entire communities where family incomes and demographics are almost completely homogeneous.. * Shopping malls and
strip mall A strip mall or strip center or strip plaza is a type of shopping center A shopping center (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varie ...
s behind large parking lots instead of a classic downtown
shopping district This page lists shopping streets and districts by city. Typically these are open-air street-side upscale shopping districts that are destination locations in cities. They may be located along a designated street, or clustered in mixed-use commer ...
. * A road network designed to conform to a
hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarch ...
, including
cul-de-sac A dead end, also known as a cul-de-sac (, from French for 'bag-bottom'), no through road or no exit road, is a street with only one inlet or outlet. The term "dead end" is understood in all varieties of English, but the official terminology ...

cul-de-sac
, leading to larger residential streets, in turn leading to large collector roads, in place of the
grid pattern In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design of land use and the built environment, ...
common to most central cities and pre-World War II suburbs. * A greater percentage of one-
story Story or stories may refer to: Common uses * Story, a narrative (an account of imaginary or real people and events) ** Short story, a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting * Story, or storey, a floor or level of a build ...
administrative buildings than in urban areas. * Compared to rural areas, suburbs usually have greater population density, higher standards of living, more complex road systems, more franchised stores and restaurants, and less farmland and wildlife. By 2010, suburbs increasingly gained people in racial minority groups, as many members of minority groups gained better access to education and sought more favorable living conditions compared to inner city areas. Conversely, many white Americans also moved back to city centers. Nearly all major city downtowns (such as
Downtown Miami Downtown Miami is an urban city center A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political, and geographic heart of a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human ...

Downtown Miami
,
Downtown Detroit Downtown Detroit is the central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's "financia ...

Downtown Detroit
, Downtown Philadelphia,
Downtown Roanoke Downtown is the central business district of Roanoke, Virginia, Roanoke, Virginia, United States. Located geographically at the center of the city, Downtown began its development with the completion of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad (N&W), Shenando ...
, or
Downtown Los Angeles Downtown Los Angeles (DTLA) is the central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's ...

Downtown Los Angeles
) are experiencing a renewal, with large population growth, residential apartment construction, and increased social, cultural, and infrastructural investments, as have suburban neighborhoods close to city centers. Better
public transit Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (a ...
, proximity to work and cultural attractions, and frustration with suburban life and
gridlock Gridlock is a form of traffic congestion where "continuous queues of vehicles block an entire network of intersecting streets, bringing traffic in all directions to a complete standstill". The term originates from a situation possible in a gri ...

gridlock
have attracted young Americans to the city centers.


Traffic flows

Suburbs typically have longer travel times to work than traditional neighborhoods. Only the traffic ''within'' the short streets themselves is less. This is due to three factors: almost-mandatory automobile ownership due to poor suburban
bus A bus (contracted from omnibus, with variants multibus, motorbus, autobus, etc.) is a road vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement t ...

bus
systems, longer travel distances and the
hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarch ...
system, which is less efficient at distributing traffic than the traditional
grid Grid, The Grid, or GRID may refer to: Common usage * Cattle grid or stock grid, a type of obstacle is used to prevent livestock from crossing the road * Grid reference, used to define a location on a map Arts, entertainment, and media * News gri ...
of streets. In the suburban system, most trips from one component to another component requires that cars enter a
collector road A collector road or distributor road is a low-to-moderate-capacity road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by ...
, no matter how short or long the distance is. This is compounded by the hierarchy of streets, where entire neighborhoods and
subdivisions Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre) In music, metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter ( American spelling; see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country a ...
are dependent on one or two collector roads. Because all traffic is forced onto these roads, they are often heavy with traffic all day. If a traffic crash occurs on a collector road, or if road construction inhibits the flow, then the entire road system may be rendered useless until the blockage is cleared. The traditional "grown" grid, in turn, allows for a larger number of choices and alternate routes. Suburban systems of the sprawl type are also quite inefficient for cyclists or pedestrians, as the direct route is usually not available for them either. This encourages car trips even for distances as low as several hundreds of yards or meters (which may have become up to several miles or kilometers due to the road network). Improved sprawl systems, though retaining the car
detour __NOTOC__ A detour or (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of gramm ...

detour
s, possess
cycle path Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure permissible for use by cyclists, including the network of road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), pa ...
s and footpaths connecting across the arms of the sprawl system, allowing a more direct route while still keeping the cars out of the residential and side streets. More commonly, central cities seek ways to tax nonresidents working downtown – known as commuter taxes – as property tax bases dwindle. Taken together, these two groups of taxpayers represent a largely untapped source of potential revenue that cities may begin to target more aggressively, particularly if they're struggling. According to struggling cities, this will help bring in a substantial revenue for the city which is a great way to tax the people who make the most use of the highways and repairs. Today more companies settle down in suburbs because of low property costs.


Criticism


In popular culture

Suburbs and suburban living have been the subject for a wide variety of films, books, television shows and songs. French songs like ''La Zone'' by
Fréhel Fréhel (; born Marguerite Boulc'h; 13 July 1891 – 3 February 1951) was a French singer and actress. Biography Born in Paris to a poor and dysfunctional family, dysfunctional Breton people, Breton family, Marguerite Boulc'h was a child left to ...
(1933), ''Aux quatre coins de la banlieue'' by Damia (1936), ''Ma banlieue'' by Reda Caire (1937), or ''Banlieue'' by
Robert Lamoureux Robert Lamoureux (4 January 1920 – 29 October 2011) was a French actor, screenwriter and film director. He appeared in 37 films between 1951 and 1994. He starred in the film ''The Adventures of Arsène Lupin'', which was entered into the 7t ...
(1953), evoke the suburbs of Paris explicitly since the 1930s. Those singers give a sunny festive, almost bucolic, image of the suburbs, yet still few urbanized. During the fifties and the sixties, French singer-songwriter
Léo Ferré Léo Ferré (24 August 1916 – 14 July 1993) was a Monégasque poet and composer, and a dynamic and controversial live performer, whose career in France dominated the years after the Second World War until his death. He released some forty albums ...

Léo Ferré
evokes in his songs popular and proletarian suburbs of Paris, to oppose them to the city, considered by comparison as a bourgeois and conservative place.
French cinema French cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made within the nation of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinent ...
was although soon interested in urban changes in the suburbs, with such movies as ''
Mon oncle ''Mon Oncle'' (; ''My Uncle'') is a 1958 comedy film by French filmmaker Jacques Tati. The first of Tati's films to be released in colour, ''Mon Oncle'' won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, a Jury Prize (Cannes Film Festival), Spe ...

Mon oncle
'' by
Jacques Tati Jacques Tati (; born Jacques Tatischeff, ; 9 October 1907 – 5 November 1982) was a French mime, filmmaker, actor, and screenwriter. In an ''Entertainment Weekly ''Entertainment Weekly'' (sometimes abbreviated as ''EW'') is an American mont ...
(1958), '' L'Amour existe'' by
Maurice Pialat Maurice Pialat (; 31 August 1925 – 11 January 2003) was a French film director A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the film crew and actors in the fulfil ...
(1961) or ''
Two or Three Things I Know About Her ''Two or Three Things I Know About Her'' () is a 1967 French New Wave The New Wave (french: La Nouvelle Vague) is a French art film movement which emerged in the late 1950s. The movement was characterized by its rejection of traditional filmm ...
'' by
Jean-Luc Godard Jean-Luc Godard ( , ; ; born 3 December 1930) is a French-Swiss film director, screenwriter, and film critic. He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the 1960s French New Wave The New Wave (french: La Nouvelle Vague) is a French art film ...

Jean-Luc Godard
(1967). In his one-act opera ''
Trouble in Tahiti ''Trouble in Tahiti'' is a one-act opera in seven scenes composed by Leonard Bernstein with an English libretto by the composer. It is the darkest among Bernstein's "musicals", and one of only two for which he wrote the words and the music. (He als ...
'' (1952),
Leonard Bernstein Leonard Bernstein ( ; August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, pianist, music educator, author, and humanitarian. Among the most important conductors of his time, he was also the first American conductor to ...
skewers American suburbia, which produces misery instead of happiness. The American
photojournalist Photojournalism is journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of report Image:Hurt Report cover page.png, 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for ...

photojournalist
Bill Owens documented the culture of suburbia in the 1970s, most notably in his book ''
Suburbia The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a Mixed-use development, mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of ...
''. The 1962 song "
Little Boxes "Little Boxes" is a song written and composed by Malvina Reynolds Malvina Reynolds (August 23, 1900 – March 17, 1978) was an American folk/blues Blues is a music genre and musical form which was originated in the Deep South of the Un ...
" by
Malvina Reynolds Malvina Reynolds (August 23, 1900 – March 17, 1978) was an American folk/blues Blues is a music genre and musical form which was originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from roots in Planta ...
lampoons the development of suburbia and its perceived
bourgeois Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeois
and
conformist Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to social group, group Norm (social), norms, politics or being like-minded. Norms are implicit, specific rules, shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions wit ...

conformist
values, while the 1982 song ''
Subdivisions Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre) In music, metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter ( American spelling; see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country a ...
'' by the Canadian band
Rush Rush(es) may refer to: Places United States * Rush, Colorado * Rush, Kentucky * Rush, New York * Rush City, Minnesota * Rush Creek (Kishwaukee River tributary), Illinois * Rush Creek (Marin County, California), a stream * Rush Creek (Mono County, ...
also discusses suburbia, as does
Rockin' the Suburbs ''Rockin' the Suburbs'' is the debut studio album by American alternative rock singer-songwriter Ben Folds. His first solo album after leaving his band Ben Folds Five, ''Rockin' the Suburbs'' was recorded in Adelaide, Australia, where Folds was l ...
by
Ben Folds Benjamin Scott Folds (born September 12, 1966) is an American singer-songwriter, musician, composer and record producer. Folds was the frontman The lead vocalist in popular music is typically the member of a group or band whose voice is the ...
. The 2010 album ''
The Suburbs ''The Suburbs'' is the third studio album packaged in book form, like a photograph album An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc (CD), Phonograph record, vinyl, audio tape, or another medium. Alb ...
'' by the Canadian-based alternative band
Arcade Fire Arcade Fire is a Canadian indie rock Indie rock is a genre of rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music indust ...
dealt with aspects of growing up in suburbia, suggesting aimlessness, apathy and endless rushing are ingrained into the suburban culture and mentality. ''Suburb The Musical,'' was written by Robert S. Cohen and David Javerbaum. Over the Hedge is a syndicated comic strip written and drawn by Michael Fry and T. Lewis. It tells the story of a raccoon, turtle, a squirrel, and their friends who come to terms with their woodlands being taken over by suburbia, trying to survive the increasing flow of humanity and technology while becoming enticed by it at the same time. A film adaptation of Over the Hedge was produced in 2006. British television series such as '' The Good Life'', ''
Butterflies Butterflies are insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', m ...
'' and ''
The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin ''The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin'' is a British sitcom A sitcom, Clipping (morphology), clipping for situational comedy (situation comedy in the U.S.), is a genre of comedy centered on a fixed set of characters who (mostly) carry over f ...
'' have depicted suburbia as well-manicured but relentlessly boring, and its residents as either overly conforming or prone to going stir crazy. In contrast, U.S. shows such as ''
Knots Landing ''Knots Landing'' is an American prime time The prime time or the peak time is the block of broadcast programming Broadcast programming is the practice of organizing and/or ordering (scheduling) of broadcast media shows, typically radio a ...
'', ''
Desperate Housewives ''Desperate Housewives'' is an American comedy-drama and Mystery fiction, mystery television series created by Marc Cherry and produced by ABC Studios and Marc Cherry, Cherry Productions. It originally aired for eight seasons on American Broadca ...

Desperate Housewives
'' and '' Weeds'' portray the suburbs as concealing darker secrets behind a façade of manicured lawns, friendly people, and beautifully kept houses. Films such as ''
The 'Burbs ''The 'Burbs'' is a 1989 American dark comedy film directed by Joe Dante, starring Tom Hanks Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is an American actor and filmmaker. Known for both his comedic and dramatic roles, he is one of the most ...
'' and '' Disturbia'' have brought this theme to the cinema.


See also


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Archer, John; Paul J.P. Sandul, and Katherine Solomonson (eds.), ''Making Suburbia: New Histories of Everyday America.'' Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2015. * Baxandall, Rosalyn and Elizabeth Ewen. ''Picture Windows: How the Suburbs Happened.'' New York: Basic Books, 2000. * Beauregard, Robert A. '' When America Became Suburban''. University of Minnesota Press, 2006. * * Fishman, Robert. ''Bourgeois Utopias: The Rise and Fall of Suburbia''. Basic Books, 1987; in U.S. * * Galinou, Mireille. ''Cottages and Villas: The Birth of the Garden Suburb'' (2011), in England * * * Harris, Richard. ''Creeping Conformity: How Canada Became Suburban, 1900–1960'' (2004) * Hayden, Dolores. ''Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820–2000''. Vintage Books, 2003. * * * * * * Stilgoe, John R. ''Borderland: Origins of the American Suburb, 1820–1939''. Yale University Press, 1989. * Teaford, Jon C. ''The American Suburb: The Basics''. Routledge, 2008.


External links


A Future Vision for the North American Suburb

Centre for Suburban Studies


* ttp://www.endofsuburbia.com/ The end of suburbia(documentary film) {{Authority control City * Types of populated places Urban planning Squatting