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A stand-alone house (also called a single-detached dwelling, detached residence or detached house) is a free-standing residential building. It is sometimes referred to as a single-family home, as opposed to a
multi-family residential Multi-family residential (also known as multi-dwelling unit or MDU) is a classification of House, housing where multiple separate housing units for residential inhabitants are contained within one building or several buildings within one complex. Un ...
dwelling In law, a dwelling (also known as a residence or an abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more households A household consists of one or several persons who live in the same dwelling and share meals. It may also con ...

dwelling
.


Definitions

The definition of this type of house may vary between legal jurisdictions or statistical agencies. The definition, however, generally includes two elements: * Single-family (home, house, or dwelling) means that the building is usually occupied by just one
household A household consists of one or several persons who live in the same dwelling In law, a dwelling (also residence, abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more households as a home A home, or domicile, is a s ...

household
or
family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ...

family
, and consists of just one dwelling unit or suite. In some jurisdictions allowances are made for basement suites or mother-in-law suites without changing the description from "single family". It does exclude, however, any short-term accommodation (hotel, motels, inns), large-scale rental accommodation ( rooming or boarding houses,
apartments An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, Americ ...

apartments
), or condominia. * Detached (house, home, or dwelling) means that the building does not share wall with other houses. This excludes duplexes, threeplexes, fourplexes, or linked houses, as well as all
row house In architecture and city planning, a terrace or terraced house (British English, UK) or townhouse (American English, US) is a form of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, whereby a row of attached dwellings party ...
s and most especially
tower block '' high-rise building in Kalasatama, Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on t ...
s which can hold hundreds of families in a single building. Most single-family homes are built on lots larger than the structure itself, adding an area surrounding the house, which is commonly called a ''
yard 300px, Bronze Yard No.11, the official standard of length for the Treasury Department A treasury is either *A government department related to finance and taxation, a Finance minister, finance ministry. *A place or location where treasure, s ...
'' in
North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures, plus the similarities between the pronu ...
or a ''
garden A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the cultivation, display, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The single feature identifying even the wildest wild garden A wildlife garden (or wild garden) is an Biophy ...

garden
'' in
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a populatio ...
. Garages can also be found on most lots. Houses with an attached front entry garage that is closer to the street than any other part of the house is often derisively called a
snout house A snout house is a house with a protruding Garage (house), garage that takes up most of the street frontage. This layout is worked into many styles of houses, including single-family houses, duplex (building), duplexes and other multifamily structu ...
.


Regional terminologies

Terms corresponding to a single-family detached home in common use are ''single-family home'' (in the US and Canada), ''single-detached dwelling'' (in Canada), ''detached house'' (in the United Kingdom and Canada), and ''separate house'' (in New Zealand). In the United Kingdom, the term ''single-family home'' is almost unknown, except through Internet exposure to US media. Whereas in the US, housing is commonly divided into "single-family homes", " multi-family dwellings", "condo/
townhouse A townhouse, townhome, town house, or town home, is a type of Terraced house, terraced housing. A modern townhouse is often one with a small footprint on multiple floors. In a different British usage, the term originally referred to any type of ...

townhouse
", etc., the primary division of residential property in British terminology is between "houses" (including "detached", "
semi-detached A semi-detached house (often abbreviated to semi) is a single family duplex dwelling house that shares one common wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security, Shelter in place, shelter, or ...
", and " terraced" houses and
bungalow A bungalow is a small house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a var ...

bungalow
s) and "flats" (i.e., "apartments" or "condominiums" in American English).


History and distribution

In pre-industrial societies, most people lived in multi-family dwellings for most of their lives. A child lived with their parents from birth until marriage, and then generally moved in with the parents of the man (
patrilocal In social anthropology, patrilocal residence or patrilocality, also known as virilocal residence or virilocality, are terms referring to the social system In sociology, social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coheren ...
) or the woman (
matrilocal In social anthropology, matrilocal residence or matrilocality (also uxorilocal residence or uxorilocality) is the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wife's parents. Thus, the female offspring of a mother A m ...
), so that the grandparents could help raise the young children and so the middle generation could care for their aging parents. This type of arrangement also saved some of the effort and materials used for construction and, in colder climates, heating. If people had to move to a new place or were wealthy enough, they could build or buy a home for their own family, but this was not the
norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy) Norms are concepts ( sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rat ...
. The idea of a
nuclear family A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the ...
living separately from their relatives as the norm is a relatively recent development related to rising living standards in North America and Europe during the
early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of 's past. It is understood through , , , and , and since the , from and s. Humanity's written history was preceded by its , beginning with ...
and
modern era Human history, or world history, is the narrative of humanity Humanity most commonly refers to: * Human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, ...
s. In the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
, where land was plentiful, settlement patterns were quite different from the close-knit villages of Europe, meaning many more people lived in large farms separated from their neighbors. This has produced a cultural preference in settler societies for privacy and space. A countervailing trend has been industrialization and urbanization, which has seen more and more people around the world move into multi-story
apartment block '' high-rise building in Kalasatama, Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on t ...

apartment block
s. In the New World, this type of
densification Urban density is a term used in urban planning and urban design to refer to the number of people inhabiting a given urbanized area. As such it is to be distinguished from other measures of population density. Urban density is considered an important ...
was halted and reversed following the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
when increased automobile ownership and cheaper building and heating costs produced
suburbanization pattern in the US Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through ...
instead. Single-family homes are now common in rural and suburban and even some urban areas across the New World and
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
, as well as wealthier enclaves within the
Third World The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Warsaw Pact. The United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Western European nations and their allies represented the "First Wor ...

Third World
. They are most common in low-density, high-income regions. For example, in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
, according to the 2006 census, 55.3% of the population lived in single-detached houses, but this varied substantially by region. In the city of
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and w ...

Montreal
, Quebec, Canada's second- most populous municipality, only 7.5% of the population lived in single-detached homes, while in the city of
Calgary Calgary Calgary ( ) is a city in the western Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America ...

Calgary
, the third-most populous, 57.8% did. Note that this includes the "city limits" populations only, not the wider region. Culturally, single-family houses are associated with
suburbanization pattern in the US Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through ...
in many parts of the world. Owning a home with a yard and a " white picket fence" is seen as a key component of the "
American dream The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It ...
" (which also exists with variations in other parts of the world). In the 21st century, a lack of
affordable housing Affordable housing is housing which is deemed affordable to those with a household income at or below the median household income, median as rated by the Government, national government or a local government by a recognized housing affordability in ...

affordable housing
, the
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
impacts of
urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
, and concerns about
racial inequality Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through Norm (social), norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons. It is the differen ...
has increasingly led cities to abandon single-family housing in favor of higher-density homes.


Separating types of homes

House types include: *
Cottage A cottage, during Feudalism in England, England's feudal period, was the holding by a cottager (known as a cotter or ''bordar'') of a small house with enough garden to feed a family and in return for the cottage, the cottager had to provide so ...

Cottage
, a small house. In the US, a cottage typically has four main rooms, two either side of a central corridor. It is common to find a lean-to added to the back of the cottage which may accommodate the kitchen, laundry and bathroom. In
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, it is common for a cottage to have a
verandah A veranda or verandah is a roof A roof is the top covering of a building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a var ...

verandah
across its front. In the UK and Ireland, any small, old (especially pre-World War I) house in a rural or formerly rural location whether with one, two or (rarely) three storeys is a cottage. *
Bungalow A bungalow is a small house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a var ...

Bungalow
, in American English this term describes a medium- to large-sized freestanding house on a generous block in the suburbs, with generally less formal floor plan than a villa. Some rooms in a bungalow typically have doors which link them together. Bungalows may feature a flat roof. In British English, it refers to any single-storey house (much rarer in the UK than the US). *
Villa A villa is a type of house that was originally an ancient Roman In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman ...

Villa
, a term originating from Roman times, when it was used to refer to a large house which one might retreat to in the country. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, ''villa'' suggested a freestanding comfortable-sized house, on a large block, generally found in the suburbs. In Victorian
terraced housing __NOTOC__ In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming. This type of landscaping is th ...
, a villa was a house larger than the average
byelaw terraced house A byelaw terraced house is a type of dwelling built to comply with the Public Health Act 1875. It is a type of Terraced houses in the United Kingdom, British terraced house at the opposite end of the social scale from Townhouse (Great Britain), th ...
, often having double street
frontage Frontage is the boundary between a plot of land or a building and the road onto which the plot or building fronts. Frontage may also refer to the full length of this boundary. This length is considered especially important for certain types of ...

frontage
. *
Mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word ''mansio'' "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb ''manere'' "to dwell". The English word ''manse'' originally defined a property la ...

Mansion
, a very large, luxurious house, typically associated with exceptional wealth or aristocracy, usually of more than one story, on a very large block of land or estate.
Mansions usually will have many more rooms and bedrooms than a typical single-family home, including specialty rooms, such as a library, study, conservatory, theater, greenhouse, infinity pool, bowling alley, or server room.
Many mansions are too large to be maintained solely by the owner, and as such there will be maintenance staff. This staff may also live on site in 'servant quarters'.


See also

*
Semi-detached A semi-detached house (often abbreviated to semi) is a single family duplex dwelling house that shares one common wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security, Shelter in place, shelter, or ...
*
Single-family zoning Single-family zoning is a type of zoning Zoning is a method of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the deve ...


References


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Single-Family Detached Home House types