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diplomacy Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, negotiation, and other nonviolent means. Diplomacy usually refers to international relations carried out through the inte ...

diplomacy
and
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
, shuttle diplomacy is the action of an outside party in serving as an intermediary between (or among) principals in a dispute, without direct principal-to-principal contact. Originally and usually, the process entails successive travel (" shuttling") by the intermediary, from the working location of one principal, to that of another. The term was first applied to describe the efforts of
United States Secretary of State The United States secretary of state is an officer of the United States who implements foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and intern ...
Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (; ; born Heinz Alfred Kissinger; May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, diplomat, and Geopolitics, geopolitical consultant who served as United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor (Unite ...

Henry Kissinger
, beginning November 5, 1973, which facilitated the cessation of hostilities following the
Yom Kippur War The Yom Kippur War, also known as the Ramadan War, the October War, the 1973 Arab–Israeli War or the Fourth Arab–Israeli War, was an armed conflict fought from 6 to 25 October 1973 between Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵ ...
. Negotiators often use shuttle diplomacy when one or both of two principals refuses
recognition Recognition may refer to: *Award, something given in recognition of an achievement In science and technology In computer science *Pattern recognition, a branch of machine learning which encompasses the meanings below Biometric *Recognition of h ...
of the other prior to mutually desired
negotiation Negotiation is a dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English l ...
.
Mediator Mediator may refer to: *A person who engages in mediation *Business mediator, a mediator in business *Vanishing mediator, a philosophical concept *Mediator variable, in statistics Chemistry and biology *Mediator (coactivator), a multiprotein com ...

Mediator
s have adopted the term "shuttle diplomacy" as well.


Examples

An early form of shuttle diplomacy emerged at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 when
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
briefly withdrew from the Conference in protest of the other international delegations' refusal to grant its
irredentist Irredentism is a political and popular movement whose members claim (usually on behalf of their nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a sha ...
territorial claims promised by the Treaty of London in 1915. Upon Italy's return, Colonel Edward House of the U.S. delegation attempted to solve its conflict with
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...

Yugoslavia
by placing the two countries' delegates in separate rooms and attempting to broker a compromise between the two. House's efforts were ultimately unsuccessful, leading to the collapse of Italian Prime Minister
Vittorio Orlando Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (19 May 1860 – 1 December 1952) was an Italian statesman, known for representing Italy in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference with his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino. He was also known as "Premier of Victory" for defeat ...
's government in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
and
Gabriele D'Annunzio General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral ...

Gabriele D'Annunzio
's takeover of
Fiume Rijeka ( , , ; hu, Fiume, it, Fiume ; local Chakavian Chakavian or Čakavian (, , , sh-Latn, čakavski proper name: or own name: ''čokovski, čakavski, čekavski'') is a South Slavic regiolect or language A language is a s ...
. Kissinger continued to participate in shuttle diplomacy in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
during the Nixon and Ford administrations (1969–1977); it resulted in the
Sinai Interim Agreement The Sinai Interim Agreement, also known as the Sinai II Agreement, was a diplomatic agreement signed by Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeas ...
(1975) and arrangements between
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
and
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
on the
Golan Heights The Golan Heights ( ar, هَضْبَةُ الْجَوْلَانِ, Haḍbatu l-Jawlān or , he, רמת הגולן, ), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region ...
(1974). The term became widespread during Kissinger's service as Secretary of State. Soon after Kissinger's efforts, shuttle diplomacy came to the United States in the form of Israel and
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
conducting negotiations at
Camp David Camp David is the country retreat for the president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of the presidency has grown sub ...

Camp David
. The negotiations were successfully facilitated by President
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
.
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
has carried out shuttle diplomacy, often involving Israel: Turkey was Israel's closest ally in the
Muslim world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...

Muslim world
, and some Arab countries (notably Syria, which has common borders with Turkey and with Israel) have been amenable to Turkey, with its own Muslim majority population. Another Turkish mediation took place between
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
and
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia (, ; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region, bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north and east by ...
during their war in 2008. Secretary of State
Alexander Haig Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. (; December 2, 1924February 20, 2010) was the United States Secretary of State under President Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the ...
attempted to use shuttle diplomacy to mediate between the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
and
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
during the
Falklands War The Falklands War ( es , link=no, Guerra de las Malvinas) was a ten-week undeclared war An undeclared war is military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
in 1982.


See also

*
Track II diplomacyTrack II diplomacy or "backchannel diplomacy" is the practice of "non-governmental, informal and unofficial contacts and activities between private citizens or groups of individuals, sometimes called 'non-state actorsNon-state actors include organiza ...


References

Types of diplomacy {{poli-term-stub