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A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized
perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and incl ...
woody plant A woody plant is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, ca ...
. Unlike
herbaceous plant Herbaceous plants are vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), ...
s, shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. Shrubs can be deciduous or evergreen. They are distinguished from
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
s by their multiple
stems
stems
and shorter
height 200px, A cuboid demonstrating the dimensions length, width">length.html" ;"title="cuboid demonstrating the dimensions length">cuboid demonstrating the dimensions length, width, and height. Height is measure of vertical distance, either vertical ...

height
, less than tall. Small shrubs, less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall are sometimes termed
subshrub A subshrub (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...

subshrub
s. Many
botanical groups
botanical groups
have species that are shrubs, and others that are trees and herbaceous plants. Some definitions state that a shrub is less than and tree is over 6 m. Others use as the cut-off point. Many species of tree may not reach this mature height because of less than ideal growing conditions, and resemble a shrub-sized plant. However such species have the potential to grow taller under the ideal growing conditions for that plant. In terms of longevity, most shrubs fit in between perennials and trees; some may only last about five years even in good conditions, others, usually the larger and more woody, may live to 70 or more.
Shrubland Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community A plant community is a collection or Association (ecology), association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguishab ...

Shrubland
is natural landscape dominated by various shrubs; there are many distinct types around the world, including
fynbos Fynbos (; meaning fine plants) is a small belt of natural shrubland or Heath (habitat), heathland vegetation located in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. This area is predominantly coastal and mountainous, with a M ...

fynbos
, maquis, shrub-steppe,
shrub swamp Shrub swamps — also called scrub swamps or buttonbush swamps — are a type of freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and tra ...

shrub swamp
and
moorland Moorland or moor is a type of habitat Ibex in an alpine habitat In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, includi ...
. In gardens and parks, an area largely dedicated to shrubs (now somewhat less fashionable than a century ago) is called a
shrubbery A shrubbery, shrub border or shrub garden is a part of a garden where shrubs, mostly flowering species, are thickly planted. The original shrubberies were mostly sections of large gardens, with one or more paths winding through it, a less-rememb ...

shrubbery
, shrub border or shrub garden. There are many garden
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s of shrubs, bred for flowering, for example
rhododendron ''Rhododendron'' (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following ...

rhododendron
s, and sometimes leaf colour or shape. Compared to trees and herbaceous plants, perhaps a relatively small number of shrubs have agricultural or commercial uses. Apart from several
berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who speci ...

berry
-bearing species (using the culinary rather than botanical definition), few are eaten directly, and they are generally too small for
timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, sup ...

timber
use. Those that are used include several perfumed species such as
lavender ''Lavandula'' (common name lavender) is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living or ...

lavender
and
rose A rose is a woody perennial plant, perennial flowering plant of the genus ''Rosa'', in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred Rose species, species and Garden roses, tens of thousands of cultivars. They form ...

rose
, and a wide range of plants with medicinal uses.
Tea Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured A cure is a completely effective treatment for a disease. Cure, or similar, may also refer to: Places * Cure (river), a river in France * Cures, Sabinum, an ...

Tea
and
coffee Coffee is a drink prepared from roasted s, the seeds of from certain s in the ' genus. From the coffee fruit, the seeds are separated to produce a stable, raw product: unroasted ''green coffee''. The seeds are then , a process which transfo ...

coffee
are on the tree-shrub boundary; they are normally harvested from shrub-sized plants, but these would become small trees if left to grow.


Definition

Shrubs are perennial woody plants, and therefore have persistent woody above ground (compare with
herbaceous plant Herbaceous plants are vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), ...
s). Usually shrubs are distinguished from trees by their height and multiple stems. Some shrubs are
deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, ...
(e.g. hawthorn) and others
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
(e.g.
holly ''Ilex'' (), or holly, is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classificati ...

holly
).
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
philosopher
Theophrastus Theophrastus (; grc-gre, Θεόφραστος ; c. 371c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos Eresos (; el, Ερεσός; grc, Ἔρεσος) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Le ...

Theophrastus
divided the plant world into trees, shrubs and herbs. Small, low shrubs, generally less than tall, such as
lavender ''Lavandula'' (common name lavender) is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living or ...

lavender
, and most small garden varieties of
rose A rose is a woody perennial plant, perennial flowering plant of the genus ''Rosa'', in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred Rose species, species and Garden roses, tens of thousands of cultivars. They form ...

rose
, are often termed
subshrub A subshrub (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...

subshrub
s. Most definitions characterize shrubs as possessing multiple stems with no main trunk. This is because the stems have branched below ground level. There are exceptions to this, with some shrubs having main trunks, but these tend to be very short and divide into multiple stems close to ground level. Many trees can grow in multiple stemmed forms also, such as
oak An oak is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including on ...

oak
or
ash Ash or ashes are the solid remnants of fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because th ...
.


Use in gardens and parks

An area of cultivated shrubs in a
park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is ...

park
or a
garden A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the cultivation, display, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The single feature identifying even the wildest wild garden A wildlife garden (or wild garden) is an Biophy ...

garden
is known as a
shrubbery A shrubbery, shrub border or shrub garden is a part of a garden where shrubs, mostly flowering species, are thickly planted. The original shrubberies were mostly sections of large gardens, with one or more paths winding through it, a less-rememb ...

shrubbery
. When clipped as
topiary Topiary is the horticultural practice of training perennial plants by clipping the foliage and twigs of trees, shrubs and subshrubs to develop and maintain clearly defined shapes, whether geometric or fanciful. The term also refers to plants w ...
, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense
foliage A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artē ...

foliage
and many small leafy
branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who spe ...

branch
es growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal
pruning Pruning is a horticultural Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as wel ...

pruning
, in which hard cutting back to a " stool" results in long new known as "canes". Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their structure and character. Shrubs in common garden practice are generally considered , though some smaller
conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single extant class, Pinopsida. All exta ...

conifers
such as
mountain pine ''Pinus mugo'', known as bog pine, creeping pine, dwarf mountain pine, mugo pine, mountain pine, scrub mountain pine, or Swiss mountain pine, is a species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organism ...
and
common juniper ''Juniperus communis'', the common juniper, is a species of small tree or shrub in the genus ''Juniperus'', in the family (biology), family Cupressaceae. This evergreen conifer has the largest geographical range of any woody plant, with a circumpo ...
are also shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be either
deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, ...
or
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
.


Botanical structure

In
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
and
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms In biol ...
, a shrub is more specifically used to describe the particular physical structural or
plant life-form Plant life-form schemes constitute a way of classifying plants alternatively to the ordinary species-genus-family scientific classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circu ...
of woody plants which are less than high and usually have many stems arising at or near the base. For example, a descriptive system widely adopted in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or
dominant Domination or dominant may refer to: Society * World domination, which is mainly a conspiracy theory * Colonialism in which one group (usually a nation) invades another region for material gain or to eliminate competition * Chauvinism in which a p ...
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
.Costermans, L. F. (1993) ''Native trees and shrubs of South-Eastern Australia''. rev. ed. For shrubs high the following structural forms are categorized: * dense foliage cover (70–100%) — closed-shrub * mid-dense foliage cover (30–70%) — open-shrub * sparse foliage cover (10–30%) — tall shrubland * very sparse foliage cover (<10%) — tall open shrubland For shrubs less than high the following structural forms are categorized: * dense foliage cover (70–100%) — closed-
heath A heath () is a shrubland Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterized by vegetation dominance (ecology), dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, Herbaceous plant, herbs, and geophytes. Shrubland m ...
or closed low shrubland—(''North America'') * mid-dense foliage cover (30–70%) — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland—(''North America'') * sparse foliage cover (10–30%) — low shrubland * very sparse foliage cover (<10%) — low open shrubland


List of shrubs

Those marked with * can also develop into tree form. ;A * ''
Abelia ''Abelia'' is a formerly recognized genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organis ...

Abelia
'' (Abelia) * '' Acer'' (Maple) * * '''' (Actinidia) * ''
Aloe ''Aloe'' ( , ), also written ''Aloë'', is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circum ...

Aloe
'' (Aloe) * ''
Aralia ''Aralia'' , or spikenard, is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, in ...

Aralia
'' (Angelica Tree, ) * * ''
Arctostaphylos ''Arctostaphylos'' (; from "bear" and "bunch of grapes") is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie ...
'' (
Bearberry Bearberries ( indigenous kinnickinnick) are three species of dwarf shrub A shrub (or bush, but this is more of a gardening term) is a small- to medium-sized perennial woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody ste ...

Bearberry
,
Manzanita Manzanita is a common name for many species of the genus ''Arctostaphylos ''Arctostaphylos'' (; from "bear" and "bunch of grapes") is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science o ...

Manzanita
) * * ''
Aronia ''Aronia'' is a genus of deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agricultur ...
'' (Chokeberry) * '' Artemisia'' (
Sagebrush Sagebrush is the common name of several woody and herbaceous species of plants in the genus ''Artemisia (genus), Artemisia''. The best known sagebrush is the shrub ''Artemisia tridentata''. Sagebrushes are native to the North American west. F ...

Sagebrush
) * ''
Aucuba ''Aucuba'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their a ...
'' (Aucuba) ;B * ''
Berberis ''Berberis'' (), commonly known as barberry, is a large genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such class ...

Berberis
'' (Barberry) * ''
Bougainvillea ''Bougainvillea'' ( , ) is a genus of thorny ornamental vines, bushes, and trees belonging to the four o' clock family, Nyctaginaceae. It is native to eastern South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hem ...

Bougainvillea
'' (Bougainvillea) * ''
Brugmansia ''Brugmansia'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruse ...

Brugmansia
'' (Angel's trumpet) * ''
Buddleja ''Buddleja'' (orth. var. ''Buddleia'') (; also historically given as ''Buddlea'') is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the pri ...
'' (Butterfly bush) * ''
Buxus ''Buxus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including ...

Buxus
'' (Box) * ;C * ''
Calia ''Dermatophyllum'' is a genus of three or four species of shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukary ...
'' (Mescalbean) * ''
Callicarpa ''Callicarpa'' (beautyberry) is a genus of shrubs and small trees in the family (biology), family Lamiaceae.Heywood, V.H., Brummitt, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. 2007: Flowering Plant Families of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. They are n ...
'' (Beautyberry) * * ''
Callistemon ''Callistemon'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), c ...

Callistemon
'' (Bottlebrush) * * ''
Calluna ''Calluna vulgaris'', common heather, ling, or simply heather, is the sole species in the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the s ...

Calluna
'' (Heather) * ''
Calycanthus ''Calycanthus'', called sweetshrub, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Calycanthaceae, endemism, endemic to North America. The genus includes two to four species depending on taxonomic interpretation; three are accepted by most 21st cen ...
'' (Sweetshrub) * ''
Camellia ''Camellia'' (pronounced or ) is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organism ...

Camellia
'' (Camellia,
Tea Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured A cure is a completely effective treatment for a disease. Cure, or similar, may also refer to: Places * Cure (river), a river in France * Cures, Sabinum, an ...

Tea
) * * ''
Caragana ''Caragana'' is a genus of about 80–100 species of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Family (b ...
'' ( Pea-tree) * * ''
Carpenteria ''Carpenteria californica'' , the tree anemone or bush anemone, is a species of flowering plant in the hydrangea family (botany), family Hydrangeaceae. It is the sole species in the monotypic genus ''Carpenteria'', which is closely related to ...
'' (Carpenteria) * '''' ( Blue Spiraea) * ''
Cassiope Cascade, Smallsat and Ionospheric Polar Explorer (CASSIOPE), is a Canadian Space Agency The Canadian Space Agency (CSA; french: Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) is the national space agency of Canada, established in 1990 by the ''Canadian Space ...
'' ( Moss-heather) * ''
Ceanothus ''Ceanothus'' is a genus of about 50–60 species of Actinorhizal plant, nitrogen-fixing shrubs and small trees in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae). Common names for members of this genus are buckbrush, California lilac, soap bush, or just ceanot ...

Ceanothus
'' (Ceanothus) * * ''
Celastrus ''Celastrus'', commonly known as staff vine, staff tree or bittersweet, is a genus in the family Celastraceae which comprises about 30-40 species of shrubs and vines. They have a wide distribution in East Asia, Australasia, Africa, and the Ameri ...

Celastrus
'' (Staff vine) * * '' Ceratostigma'' ( Hardy Plumbago) * ''
Cercocarpus ''Cercocarpus'', commonly known as mountain mahogany, is a small genus of at least nine species of Frankia, nitrogen-fixing flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae. They are native to the western United States and northern Mexico, where the ...
'' (Mountain-mahogany) * * ''
Chaenomeles ''Chaenomeles'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circ ...

Chaenomeles
'' (Japanese Quince) * ''
Chamaebatiaria ''Chamaebatiaria'' is a monotypic genus of aromatic shrub in the Rosaceae, rose family containing the single species ''Chamaebatiaria millefolium'', which is known by the common names fern bush and desert sweet. Its genus name comes from its physi ...

Chamaebatiaria
'' (Fernbush) * '' Chamaedaphne'' (Leatherleaf) * '' Chimonanthus'' (Wintersweet) * '' Chionanthus'' (Fringe-tree) * * '' Choisya'' (Mexican-orange Blossom) * * ''
Cistus ''Cistus'' (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is app ...

Cistus
'' (Rockrose) * '''' (Clerodendrum) * '''' (Summersweet, Pepperbush) * * ''
Clianthus ''Clianthus'', commonly known as kakabeak (''kōwhai ngutukākā'' in Māori language, Māori), is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family (biology), family Fabaceae, comprising two species of shrubs native plant, native to New Zealand. ...
'' (Glory Pea) * ''Colletia'' (Colletia) * ''Colutea'' (Bladder Senna) * ''Comptonia (plant), Comptonia'' (Sweetfern) * ''Dogwood, Cornus'' (Dogwood) * * ''Corylopsis'' (Winter-hazel) * * ''Cotinus'' (Smoketree) * * ''Cotoneaster'' (Cotoneaster) * * ''Cowania (plant), Cowania'' (Cliffrose) * ''Crataegus'' (Hawthorn) * * ''Crinodendron'' (Crinodendron) * * ''Cytisus'' and allied genera (Broom (shrub), Broom) * ;D * ''Daboecia'' (Heath) * ''Danae (plant), Danae'' (Alexandrian laurel) * ''Daphne (plant), Daphne'' (Daphne) * ''Decaisnea'' (Decaisnea) * ''Dasiphora'' (Shrubby Cinquefoil) * ''Dendromecon'' (Tree poppy) * ''Desfontainea'' (Desfontainea) * ''Deutzia'' (Deutzia) * ''Diervilla'' (Bush honeysuckle) * ''Dipelta'' (Dipelta) * ''Dirca'' (Leatherwood) * ''Dracaena (plant), Dracaena'' (Dragon tree) * * ''Drimys'' (Winter's Bark) * * ''Dryas (plant), Dryas'' (Mountain Avens) ;E * ''Edgeworthia'' (Paper Bush) * * ''Elaeagnus'' (Elaeagnus) * * ''Embothrium'' (Chilean Firebush) * * ''Empetrum'' (Crowberry) * ''Enkianthus'' (Pagoda Bush) * ''Ephedra (genus), Ephedra'' (Ephedra) * ''Epigaea'' (Trailing Arbutus) * ''Erica (plant), Erica'' (Heath) * ''Eriobotrya'' (Loquat) * * ''Escallonia'' (Escallonia) * ''Eucryphia'' (Eucryphia) * * ''Euonymus'' (Spindle) * * ''Exochorda'' (Pearl Bush) ;F * ''Fabiana (plant), Fabiana'' (Fabiana) * ''Fallugia'' (Apache Plume) * ''Fatsia'' (Fatsia) * ''Forsythia'' (Forsythia) * ''Fothergilla'' (Fothergilla) * ''Franklinia'' (Franklinia) * * ''Fremontodendron'' (Flannelbush) * ''Fuchsia'' (Fuchsia) * ;G * ''Garrya'' (Silk-tassel) * * ''Gaultheria'' (Salal) * ''Gaylussacia'' (Huckleberry) * ''Genista'' (Broom (shrub), Broom) * * ''Gordonia (plant), Gordonia'' (Loblolly-bay) * * ''Grevillea'' (Grevillea) * ''Griselinia'' (Griselinia) * ;H * ''Hakea'' (Hakea) * * ''Halesia'' (Silverbell) * * ''Halimium'' (Rockrose) * ''Hamamelis'' (Witch-hazel) * * ''Hebe (plant), Hebe'' (Hebe) * ''Hedera'' (Ivy) * ''Helianthemum'' (Rockrose) * ''Hibiscus'' (Hibiscus) * * ''Hippophae'' (Sea-buckthorn) * * ''Hoheria'' (Lacebark) * * ''Holodiscus'' (Creambush) * ''Hudsonia'' (Hudsonia) * ''Hydrangea'' (Hydrangea) * ''Hypericum'' (Hypericum calycinum, Rose of Sharon) * ''Hyssopus (plant), Hyssopus'' (Hyssop) ;I * ''Ilex'' (Holly) * * ''Illicium'' (Star Anise) * * ''Indigofera'' (Indigo) * ''Itea (plant), Itea'' (Sweetspire) ;J * ''Jamesia'' (Cliffbush) * ''Jasminum'' (Jasmine) * ''Juniperus'' (Juniper) * ;K * ''Kalmia'' (Mountain-laurel) * ''Kerria (plant), Kerria'' (Kerria) * ''Kolkwitzia'' (Beautybush, Beauty-bush) ;L * ''Lagerstroemia'' (Crape-myrtle) * * ''Lapageria'' (Copihue) * ''Lantana'' (Lantana) * ''Lavandula'' (Lavender) * ''Lavatera'' (Tree Mallow) * ''Ledum'' (Ledum) * ''Leitneria'' (Corkwood) * * ''Lespedeza'' (Bush Clover) * * ''Leptospermum'' (Manuka) * * ''Leucothoe (plant), Leucothoe'' (Doghobble) * ''Leycesteria'' (Leycesteria) * ''Ligustrum'' (Privet) * * ''Lindera'' (Spicebush) * * ''Linnaea'' (Twinflower) * ''Lonicera'' (Honeysuckle) * ''Lupinus'' (Tree Lupin) * ''Lycium'' (Boxthorn) ;M * ''Magnolia'' (Magnolia) * ''Mahonia'' (Mahonia) * ''Malpighia'' (Acerola) * ''Menispermum'' (Moonseed) * ''Menziesia'' (Menziesia) * ''Mespilus'' (Medlar) * * ''Microcachrys'' (Microcachrys) * ''Myrica'' (Bayberry) * * ''Myricaria'' (Myricaria) * ''Myrtus'' and allied genera (Myrtle) * ;N * ''Neillia'' (Neillia) * ''Nerium'' (Oleander) ;O * ''Olearia'' (Daisy bush) * * ''Osmanthus'' (Osmanthus) ;P * ''Pachysandra'' (Pachysandra) * ''Peony, Paeonia'' (Tree-peony) * ''Persoonia'' (Geebungs) * ''Philadelphus'' (Mock orange) * * ''Phlomis'' (Jerusalem Sage) * ''Photinia'' (Photinia) * * ''Physocarpus'' (Ninebark) * * ''Pieris (plant), Pieris'' (Pieris) * ''Pistacia'' (Pistachio, Pistacia lentiscus, Mastic) * * ''Pittosporum'' (Pittosporum) * * ''Plumbago'' (Leadwort) * ''Polygala'' (Milkwort) * ''Poncirus'' * * ''Prunus'' (Cherry) * * ''Purshia'' (Antelope Bush) * ''Pyracantha'' (Firethorn) ;Q * ''Quassia'' (Quassia) * * ''Oak, Quercus'' (Oak) * * ''Quillaja'' (Quillay) * ''Quintinia'' (Tawheowheo) * ;R * ''Buckthorn, Rhamnus'' (Buckthorn) * * ''Rhododendron'' (Rhododendron, Azalea) * * ''Rhus'' (Sumac) * * ''Ribes'' (Currant, Gooseberry) * ''Romneya'' (Tree poppy) * ''Rose, Rosa'' (Rose) * ''Rosmarinus'' (Rosemary) * ''Rubus'' (Bramble, Raspberry, Salmonberry, Rubus phoenicolasius, Wineberry) * ''Ruta'' (Rue) ;S * ''Sabia (plant), Sabia'' * * ''Salix'' (Willow) * * ''Salvia'' (Sage) ** ''Salvia'' subg. ''Salvia'' subg. Perovskia, Perovskia'' (Russian Sage) * ''Sambucus'' (Elder) * * ''Santolina'' (Lavender Cotton) * ''Sapindus'' (Soapberry) * * ''Senecio'' (Senecio) * ''Jojoba, Simmondsia'' (Jojoba) * ''Skimmia'' (Skimmia) * ''Smilax'' (Smilax) * ''Sophora'' (Kowhai) * * ''Sorbaria'' (Sorbaria) * ''Spartium'' (Spanish Broom) * ''Spiraea'' (Spiraea) * * ''Staphylea'' (Bladdernut) * * ''Stephanandra'' (Stephanandra) * ''Styrax'' * * ''Symphoricarpos'' (Snowberry) * ''Syringa'' (Lilac) * ;T * ''Tamarix'' (Tamarix) * * ''Taxus'' (Yew) * * ''Waratah, Telopea'' (Waratah) * * ''Thuja'' cvs. (Arborvitae) * * ''Thymelaea'' * ''Thyme, Thymus'' (Thyme) * ''Trochodendron'' * ;U * ''Ulex'' (Gorse) * ''Ulmus pumila celer'' (Turkestan elm – Wonder Hedge) * ''Ungnadia'' (Mexican Buckeye) ;V * ''Vaccinium'' (Bilberry, Blueberry, Cranberry) * ''Verbesina centroboyacana'' * ''Vervain, Verbena'' (Vervain) * ''Viburnum'' (Viburnum) * * ''Vinca'' (Periwinkle) * ''Viscum'' (Mistletoe) ;W * ''Weigela'' (Weigela) ;X * ''Xanthoceras'' * ''Xanthorhiza'' (Yellowroot) * ''Xylosma'' ;Y * ''Yucca'' (Yucca, Yucca brevifolia, Joshua tree) * ;Z * ''Zanthoxylum'' * * ''Zauschneria'' * ''Zenobia (plant), Zenobia'' * ''Ziziphus'' *


References

{{Authority control Plants Plant morphology Shrubs, Lists of plants Plant life-forms Plants by habit