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A shopping mall (or simply mall) is a North American term for a large indoor
shopping center A shopping center (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, America ...
, usually anchored by
department store A department store is a retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics) ...
s. The term "mall" originally meant a pedestrian promenade with shops along it (that is, the term was used to refer to the walkway itself which was merely bordered by such shops), but in the late 1960s, it began to be used as a generic term for the large enclosed shopping centers that were becoming commonplace at the time. In the U.K., such complexes are considered shopping centres (
Commonwealth English The use of the English language in most current and former Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British Empire, British colonisation. Mozambique, which joined the Commo ...
: shopping centre), though "shopping center" covers many more sizes and types of centers than the North American "mall". Other countries may follow U.S. usage (
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
,
U.A.E. The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...
, etc.) and others (Australia, etc.) follow U.K. usage. Many malls have declined considerably (especially in the United States and Canada), and some have closed and become so-called "
dead mall A dead mall (also known as a ghost mall, zombie mall, or abandoned mall) is a shopping mall with a high vacancy rate or a low consumer traffic level, or that is deteriorating in some manner. Many malls in North America are considered "dead" ...
s". Successful exceptions have added entertainment and experiential features, added
big-box store A big-box store (also hyperstore, supercenter, superstore, or megastore) is a physically large retail establishment, usually part of a chain A chain is a assembly of connected pieces, called links, typically made of metal, with an overa ...
s as anchors, or converted to other specialized shopping center formats such as power centers,
lifestyle centers A lifestyle center (American English), or lifestyle centre (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), is a shopping center or mixed-used commercial development that combines the traditional retail functions of a shopping mall ...
,
factory outlet An outlet store, factory outlet or factory shop is a brick and mortar Brick and mortar (also bricks and mortar or B&M) refers to a physical presence of an organization or business in a building or other structure. The term ''brick-and-mortar bus ...
centers, and
festival marketplaceA festival marketplace is a European-style shopping market in the United States. It is an effort to revitalize downtown areas in major US cities begun in the late 20th century. Festival marketplaces were a leading downtown ''Downtown'' is a ter ...
s.


Types of shopping malls

The
International Council of Shopping Centers Image:1251 Avenue of the Americas.JPG, Headquarters of the International Council of Shopping Centers at 1251 Avenue of the Americas (north skyscraper) in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, United States. The International Council of Shopping Centers ...
classifies two types of shopping centers as malls: regional malls and superregional malls.


Regional mall

A regional mall is as per the International Council of Shopping Centers, in the United States, a shopping mall with to
gross leasable area In architecture, construction, and real estate, floor area, floor space, or floorspace is the area (measured as square feet or square metres) taken up by a building or part of it. The ways of defining "floor area" depend on what factors of the build ...
with at least two
anchor store In retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and ...
s.


Super-regional mall

A super-regional mall is, per the
International Council of Shopping Centers Image:1251 Avenue of the Americas.JPG, Headquarters of the International Council of Shopping Centers at 1251 Avenue of the Americas (north skyscraper) in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, United States. The International Council of Shopping Centers ...
, in the US, a shopping mall with over of gross leasable area, three or more anchors, mass merchant, more variety, fashion apparel, and serves as the dominant shopping venue for the region () in which it is located.


Not malls

Not classified as malls are smaller formats such as
strip mall A strip mall or strip center or strip plaza is a type of shopping center A shopping center (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varie ...
s and
neighborhood shopping center A neighborhood shopping center (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventu ...
s, and specialized format such as power centers,
festival marketplaceA festival marketplace is a European-style shopping market in the United States. It is an effort to revitalize downtown areas in major US cities begun in the late 20th century. Festival marketplaces were a leading downtown ''Downtown'' is a ter ...
s, and outlet centers. On the other hand, in some countries, many shopping centres less than half or a quarter of the size of the U.S. minimum to be considered a mall, , have "mall" in their names – see List of shopping centres in Namibia or List of shopping centres in Zambia for examples. The world's largest malls with over of gross leasable area are in China, Thailand, and the Philippines – more than half again as large as previous contenders such as the
Dubai Mall The Dubai Mall ( ar, دبي مول "Dubai Mall") is a shopping mall in Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the capital of the Emirate of Dubai.The Government and Pol ...

Dubai Mall
.


List of types of shopping centers (including malls)

The
International Council of Shopping Centers Image:1251 Avenue of the Americas.JPG, Headquarters of the International Council of Shopping Centers at 1251 Avenue of the Americas (north skyscraper) in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, United States. The International Council of Shopping Centers ...
classifies Asia-Pacific, European, U.S., and Canadian shopping centers into the following types:"Asia Shopping-Centre Classification and Typical Characteristics", ICSC, accessed July 15, 2020
/ref> ''Abbreviations: SC=shopping center/centre, GLA = Gross Leasable Area, NLA = Net Leasable Area'', AP=Asia-Pacific, EU=Europe, Can=Canada, US=United States of America''
*does not apply to Europe


History


Forerunners to the American mall

Shopping centers in general, may have their origins in public markets and, in the Middle East, covered
bazaar A bazaar or souk, is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term bazaar originates from the Persian language, Persian word ''bāzār''. The term bazaar is sometimes also used to refer ...

bazaar
s. In 1798 the first covered shopping passage was built in Paris, the Passage du Caire . in
Providence, Rhode Island Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, prima ...

Providence, Rhode Island
claims to be the first shopping arcade in the United States in 1828. In the mid-20th century, with the rise of the
suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...
and
automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on Track (rail transport), rails (such as trains o ...

automobile
culture in the United States, a new style of shopping center was created away from
downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up t ...

downtown
s. Early shopping centers designed for the automobile include
Market Square The market square (or sometimes, the market place) is a square In Euclidean geometry, a square is a regular The term regular can mean normal or in accordance with rules. It may refer to: People * Moses Regular (born 1971), America football p ...
,
Lake Forest, Illinois Lake Forest is a city located in , . As of the , it had a population of 19,375. The city is along the shore of , and is a part of the and the . Lake Forest was founded with and was laid out as a town in 1857, a stop for travelers making their w ...
(1916), and
Country Club Plaza The Country Club Plaza (often called The Plaza) is a privately-owned regional shopping center in the Country Club District of Kansas City, Missouri Missouri is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the ...
,
Kansas City, Missouri Kansas City (abbreviated KC or KCMO) is the largest city in Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Stat ...
(1924). The suburban shopping center concept evolved further in the United States after World War II (see table above) with larger open-air shopping centers anchored by major department stores, such as the Broadway-Crenshaw Center in Los Angeles built in 1947, anchored by a five-story
Broadway Broadway may refer to: Theatre * Broadway Theatre (disambiguation) * Broadway theatre, theatrical productions in professional theatres near Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, U.S. ** Broadway (Manhattan), the street **Broadway Theatre (53rd Str ...
and a
May Company California May Company California was a chain of department stores operating in Southern California and Nevada, with headquarters in North Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, North Hollywood, California. It was a subsidiary of May Department Stores and merge ...
.


Downtown pedestrian malls and use of term ''mall''

In the late 1950s and into the 1960s, the term "shopping mall" was first used, but in the original sense of the word "mall", that is, a pedestrian promenade (in U.K. usage a "shopping precinct"). Early downtown pedestrianized malls included the
Kalamazoo MallThe Kalamazoo Mall, the first outdoor pedestrian shopping mall in the United States, is a section of Burdick Street in downtown Kalamazoo, Michigan Kalamazoo is a city in the southwest region of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is the county sea ...
(the first, in 1959), "Shoppers' See-Way" in
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
, Lincoln Road Mall in
Miami Beach Miami Beach is a coastal in , , . It was incorporated on March 26, 1915. The is located on natural and s between the and , the latter of which separates the Beach from the mainland city of . The of , comprising the southernmost of Miami ...

Miami Beach
, Santa Monica Mall (1965). Although
Bergen Mall Bergen Town Center is a shopping center A shopping center (American English) or shopping centre (Commonwealth English), also called a shopping complex, shopping arcade, shopping plaza or galleria, is a group of shops built together, sometimes ...
(opened 1957) led other suburban shopping centers in using "mall" in their names, these types of properties were still referred to as "shopping centers" until the late 1960s, when the term "shopping mall" started to be used generically for large suburban shopping centers.


Enclosed malls in the U.S.

The enclosed shopping center, which would eventually be known as the shopping mall, did not appear until the mid-1950s. One of the earliest examples was the Valley Fair Shopping Center in
Appleton, Wisconsin Appleton is a city in Outagamie, Calumet Calumet may refer to: Places United States *Calumet Region, in northern Illinois and Indiana **Calumet River **Calumet Trail, Indiana **Calumet (East Chicago) *Calumet, Colorado *Calumet, Iowa *Calumet ...
, which opened in March 1955. Valley Fair featured a number of modern features including central heating and cooling, a large outdoor parking area, semi-detached anchor stores, and restaurants. Later that year the world's first fully enclosed shopping mall was opened in
Luleå Luleå ( , , locally ; sv, label=Westrobothnian, Lul, , or , ;). smj, Luleju; fi, Luulaja) is a Cities in Sweden, city on the coast of northern Sweden, and the County Administrative Boards of Sweden, capital of Norrbotten County, the northe ...
, in northern
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
(architect: Ralph Erskine) and was named ''Shopping''; the region now claims the highest shopping center density in Europe. The idea of a regionally-sized, fully enclosed shopping complex was pioneered in 1956 by the Austrian-born architect and American immigrant
Victor Gruen Victor David Gruen, born Viktor David Grünbaum
retrieved 25 February 2012
(July 18, 1903 – February 14 ...
. This new generation of regional-size shopping centers began with the Gruen-designed
Southdale Center Southdale Center is a shopping mall located in Edina, Minnesota Edina ( ) is a city in Hennepin County, Minnesota Minnesota () is a U.S. state, state in the north central region of the United States. It is known as the "Land of 10,000 La ...
, which opened in the
Twin Cities 300px, A view of the town of Tornio (Finland), which forms a twin city with Haparanda">Finland.html" ;"title="Tornio (Finland">Tornio (Finland), which forms a twin city with Haparanda (Sweden). Twin cities are a special case of two neighborin ...
suburb of
Edina, Minnesota Edina ( ) is a city in Hennepin County Hennepin County ( ) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first pub ...
, United States in October 1956. For pioneering the soon-to-be enormously popular mall concept in this form, Gruen has been called the "most influential architect of the twentieth century" by
Malcolm Gladwell Malcolm Timothy Gladwell (born 3 September 1963) is an English-born Canadian journalist, author, and public speaker. He has been a staff writer for ''The New Yorker'' since 1996. He has published seven books: ''The Tipping Point: How Little Thi ...
. The first retail complex to be promoted as a "mall" was Paramus, New Jersey's
Bergen Mall Bergen Town Center is a shopping center A shopping center (American English) or shopping centre (Commonwealth English), also called a shopping complex, shopping arcade, shopping plaza or galleria, is a group of shops built together, sometimes ...
. The center, which opened with an open-air format in 1957, was enclosed in 1973. Aside from
Southdale Center Southdale Center is a shopping mall located in Edina, Minnesota Edina ( ) is a city in Hennepin County, Minnesota Minnesota () is a U.S. state, state in the north central region of the United States. It is known as the "Land of 10,000 La ...
, significant early enclosed shopping malls were
Harundale Mall Harundale Mall, in Glen Burnie, Maryland, Glen Burnie, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, United States at the intersection of Ritchie Highway and Aquahart Road, was the first enclosed, air-conditioned mall built east of the Mississippi River. Origin ...
(1958) in Glen Burnie, Maryland, Big Town Mall (1959) in Mesquite, Texas, Chris-Town Mall (1961) in Phoenix, Arizona, and Randhurst Center (1962) in Mount Prospect, Illinois. Other early malls moved retailing away from the dense, commercial downtowns into the largely residential suburbs. This formula (enclosed space with stores attached, away from downtown, and accessible only by automobile) became a popular way to build retail across the world. Gruen himself came to abhor this effect of his new design; he decried the creation of enormous "land wasting seas of parking" and the spread of suburban sprawl. In the United States, developers such as A. Alfred Taubman of
Taubman Centers Taubman Centers, Inc. is an American real estate investment trust A real estate investment trust (REIT) is a company that owns, and in most cases operates, income-producing real estate. REITs own many types of commercial real estate, including o ...
extended the concept further in 1980, with
terrazzo Terrazzo is a composite material, poured in place or precast, which is used for floor and wall treatments. It consists of chips of marble, quartz, granite, glass, or other suitable material, poured with a cementitious binder (for chemical bindi ...

terrazzo
tiles at the Mall at Short Hills in
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
, indoor fountains, and two levels allowing a shopper to make a circuit of all the stores. Taubman believed carpeting increased friction, slowing down customers, so it was removed. Fading daylight through glass panels was supplemented by gradually increased electric lighting, making it seem like the afternoon was lasting longer, which encouraged shoppers to linger.


Decline of shopping malls

In the United States, in the mid-1990s, malls were still being constructed at a rate of 140 a year. But in 2001, a
PricewaterhouseCoopers PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...

PricewaterhouseCoopers
study found that underperforming and vacant malls, known as "greyfield" and "dead mall" estates, were an emerging problem. In 2007, a year before the
Great Recession The Great Recession was a period of marked general decline (recession In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution ( ...
, no new malls were built in America, for the first time in 50 years. City Creek Center Mall in
Salt Lake City Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or c ...

Salt Lake City
, which opened in March 2012, was the first to be built since the recession. In recent years, the number of dead malls increased significantly in the early 21st century because the economic health of malls across the United States has been in decline, as identified by high vacancy rates. From 2006 to 2010, the percentage of malls that are considered to be "dying" by real estate experts (have a vacancy rate of at least 40%), unhealthy (20–40%), or in trouble (10–20%) all increased greatly, and these high vacancy rates only partially decreased from 2010 to 2014. In 2014, nearly 3% of all malls in the United States were considered to be "dying" (40% or higher vacancy rates) and nearly one-fifth of all malls had vacancy rates considered "troubling" (10% or higher). Some real estate experts say the "fundamental problem" is a glut of malls in many parts of the country creating a market that is "extremely over-retailed". Online shopping has also emerged as a competition to shopping malls. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, online shopping has accounted for an increasing share of total retail sales. In 2013, roughly 200 out of 1,300 malls across the United States were going out of business. To combat this trend, developers have converted malls into other uses including attractions such as parks, movie theaters, gyms, and even fishing lakes. In the United States, the 600,000 square foot
Highland Mall Highland Mall was a shopping mall located in north Austin, Texas Austin (, ) is the capital city of the U.S. state of Texas, as well as the county seat, seat and largest city of Travis County, Texas, Travis County, with portions extending in ...
will be a campus for
Austin Community College The Austin Community College District (ACC) is a public community college system serving the Austin Austin (, ) is the capital city of the U.S. state of Texas, as well as the county seat, seat and largest city of Travis County, Texas, Tr ...
. In
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, the So Ouest mall outside of
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
was designed to resemble elegant,
Louis XV Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (french: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached ...
-style apartments and includes of green space. The Australian mall company Westfield launched an online mall (and later a mobile app) with 150 stores, 3,000 brands and over 1 million products. The
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
also significantly impacted the retail industry. Government regulations temporarily closed malls, increased entrance controls, and imposed strict public sanitation requirements.


Mall design


Vertical malls

High land prices in populous cities have led to the concept of the "vertical mall", in which space allocated to retail is configured over a number of stories accessible by
elevator An elevator (North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and ...

elevator
s and/or
escalator An escalator is a moving staircase which carries people between floors of a building or structure. It consists of a motor An engine or motor is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control ...

escalator
s (usually both) linking the different levels of the mall. The challenge of this type of mall is to overcome the natural tendency of shoppers to move horizontally and encourage shoppers to move upwards and downwards. The concept of a vertical mall was originally conceived in the late 1960s by the Mafco Company, former shopping center development division of Marshall Field & Co. The
Water Tower Place in foreground Water Tower Place is a large urban, mixed-use development Traditional mixed-use development pattern in a city center: Bitola, North Macedonia Mixed-use development is a term used for two related concepts: * In the sense of mixe ...
skyscraper in
Chicago, Illinois (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago, Illinois
was built in 1975 by Urban Retail Properties. It contains a hotel, luxury condominiums, and office space and sits atop a block-long base containing an eight-level atrium-style retail mall that fronts on the
Magnificent Mile The Magnificent Mile, sometimes referred to as The Mag Mile, is an upscale section of Chicago, Chicago's Michigan Avenue (Chicago), Michigan Avenue, running from the Chicago River to Oak Street (Chicago), Oak Street in the Near North Side, Chi ...
. Vertical malls are common in densely populated conurbations in East and Southeast Asia. Hong Kong in particular has numerous examples such as
Times Square Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center, and in the section of , at the junction of and . Brightly lit by numerous billboards and advertisements, it stretches from West to West Streets, an ...

Times Square
, Apm, Langham Place, ISQUARE and The One. A vertical mall may also be built where the geography prevents building outward or there are other restrictions on construction, such as historical buildings or significant
archeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological ...

archeology
. The Darwin Shopping Centre and associated malls in
Shrewsbury Shrewsbury ( , ) is a market town and the county town of Shropshire, England. The town is situated on the River Severn, north-west of London, and the 2011 census recorded a population of 71,715. The town centre has a largely unspoilt mediev ...
, UK, are built on the side of a steep hill, around the former town walls; consequently the shopping center is split over seven floors vertically – two locations horizontally – connected by elevators, escalators and bridge walkways. Some establishments incorporate such designs into their layout, such as Shrewsbury's former
McDonald's McDonald's is an American fast food Fast food is a type of Mass production, mass-produced food designed for commercial resale and with a strong priority placed on "speed of service" versus other relevant factors involved in food scie ...

McDonald's
, split into four stories with multiple mezzanines which featured medieval castle vaults – complete with
arrowslit. This shows the inside - where the archer would have stood. An arrowslit (often also referred to as an arrow loop, loophole or loop hole, and sometimes a balistraria) is a narrow vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can lau ...
s – in the basement dining rooms.


Components


Food court

A common feature of shopping malls is a
food court A food court (in Asia-Pacific also called food hall or hawker centre) is generally an indoor plaza or common area within a facility that is contiguous with the counters of multiple food vendors and provides a common area for self-serve dinner. It ...

food court
: this typically consists of a number of
fast food Fast food is a type of Mass production, mass-produced food designed for commercial resale and with a strong priority placed on "speed of service" versus other relevant factors involved in food science, culinary science. Fast food was created a ...

fast food
vendors of various types, surrounding a shared seating area.


Department stores

When the shopping mall format was developed by
Victor Gruen Victor David Gruen, born Viktor David Grünbaum
retrieved 25 February 2012
(July 18, 1903 – February 14 ...
in the mid-1950s, signing larger department stores was necessary for the financial stability of the projects, and to draw retail traffic that would result in visits to the smaller stores in the mall as well. These larger stores are termed
anchor store In retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and ...
or draw tenant. In physical configuration, anchor stores are normally located as far from each other as possible to maximize the amount of traffic from one anchor to another.


Regional differences


"Mall" versus "shopping center/centre"

''Shopping mall'' is a term used predominantly in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
and some other countries that follow U.S. usage (
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
,
U.A.E. The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...
, etc.) and others (Australia, etc.) follow U.K. usage. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, and India, the term ''shopping mall'' is usually applied to enclosed retail structures (and is generally abbreviated to simply ''mall''), while ''shopping center/centre'' usually refers to open-air retail complexes; both types of facilities usually have large parking lots, face major traffic arterials, and have few pedestrian connections to surrounding neighbourhoods.''Urban Geography: A Global Perspective'' Michael Pacione, (Routledge, Informa UK Ltd. 2001) . Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping
arcade Arcade most often refers to: * Arcade (architecture) An arcade is a succession of contiguous arch An arch is a vertical curved structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or syst ...
" are also used. In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, "shopping centre" is often used officially (as in
Square One Shopping Centre Square One Shopping Centre, or simply Square One, is a shopping mall located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It is the largest shopping centre in Ontario and the second largest shopping centre in Canada, after the West Edmonton Mall. It has o ...
), but conversationally, "mall" is mostly used.


Europe

There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of US$12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year.


U.K. and Ireland

In the United Kingdom and Ireland, both open-air and enclosed centers are commonly referred to as ''shopping centres''. ''Mall'' primarily refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an exclusively pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. The majority of British enclosed shopping centres, the equivalent of a U.S. mall, are located in city centres, usually found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton; Manchester Arndale; Birmingham Bull Ring, Bullring Birmingham; Liverpool One; Trinity Leeds; Buchanan Galleries in Glasgow; and Eldon Square Shopping Centre, Eldon Square in Newcastle upon Tyne. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will also have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the MetroCentre (shopping centre), Metrocentre in Gateshead; Meadowhall Centre, Sheffield serving South Yorkshire; the Trafford Centre in Greater Manchester; White Rose Centre in Leeds; the Merry Hill Shopping Centre, Merry Hill Centre near Dudley; and Bluewater (shopping centre), Bluewater in Kent. These centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres, although with patchy success. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, London, Stratford (London), is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.


Russia

In Economy of Russia, Russia, on the other hand, a large number of new malls had been built near major cities, notably the MEGA Family Shopping Centre, MEGA malls such as Mega Belaya Dacha mall near Moscow. In large part they were financed by international investors and were popular with shoppers from the emerging middle class.


Management and legal issues


Shopping property management firms

A shopping property management firm is a company that specializes in owning and managing shopping malls. Most shopping property management firms own at least 20 malls. Some firms use a similar naming scheme for most of their malls; for example, Mills Corporation puts "Mills" in most of its mall names and SM Prime Holdings of the Philippines puts "SM" in all of its malls, as well as anchor stores such as The SM Store, SM Appliance Center, SM Hypermarket, SM Cinema, and SM Supermarket. In the UK, The Mall Fund changes the name of any center it buys to ''"The Mall (location)"'', using its pink-M logo; when it sells a mall the center reverts to its own name and branding, such as the Ashley Centre in Epsom. Similarly, following its rebranding from Capital Shopping Centres, intu Properties renamed many of its centres to ''"intu (name/location)"'' (such as intu Lakeside); again, malls removed from the network revert to their own brand (see for instance The Glades (Bromley), The Glades in Bromley).


Legal issues

One controversial aspect of malls has been their effective displacement of traditional main streets or high streets. Some consumers prefer malls, with their parking garages, controlled environments, and private security guards, over Central business district, CBDs or
downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up t ...

downtown
s, which frequently have limited parking, poor maintenance, outdoor weather, and limited police coverage. In response, a few jurisdictions, notably California, have expanded the right of freedom of speech to ensure that speakers will be able to reach consumers who prefer to shop, eat, and socialize within the boundaries of privately owned malls. The Supreme Court decision ''Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins'' was issued on 9 June 1980 which affirmed the decision of the California Supreme Court in a case that arose out of a free speech dispute between the Pruneyard Shopping Center in Campbell, California, and several local high school students.


World's largest malls by gross leasable area

This is an incomplete list of the world's largest shopping malls based on their
gross leasable area In architecture, construction, and real estate, floor area, floor space, or floorspace is the area (measured as square feet or square metres) taken up by a building or part of it. The ways of defining "floor area" depend on what factors of the build ...
(GLA), with a GLA of at least .


Combination retail and wholesale shopping malls

Some wholesale market complexes also function as shopping malls in that they contain retail space which operate as stores in normal malls do but also act as producer vendor outlets that can take large orders for export.


Gallery

File:Interior Shopping Abasto.jpg, Abasto de Buenos Aires
Argentina File:Buenos Aires - Galerías Pacífico - 200808a.jpg, Galerías Pacífico
Argentina File:Chadstone Shopping Centre interior pano 2017.jpg, Chadstone Shopping Centre
Australia File:Scs bürocenter.jpg, Shopping City Süd
Austria File:Jamuna Future Park exterior.jpg, Jamuna Future Park
Bangladesh File:Bashundhara city.JPG, Bashundhara City
Bangladesh File:Iguatemi 3.JPG, Iguatemi Fortaleza Shopping
Brazil File:Riomar Recife 2.jpg, Riomar Recife
Brazil File:Paradise Center.jpg, Paradise Center
Bulgaria File:Eatoncentrertorontohall.JPG, Toronto Eaton Centre
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
File:West Edmonton Mall, Edmonton, Alberta (22094236672).jpg, West Edmonton Mall
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
File:Mall de Costanera Center.JPG, Costanera Center
Chile File:NewSouthChinaMall-SPAR.jpg, South China Mall
China File:New Century Global Center.jpg, New Century Global Center
China File:Santafe Mall in north Bogota.jpg, Centro Comercial Santafé
Colombia File:07-06-21-tallinn-by-RalfR-114.jpg, Viru Keskus
Estonia File:Ideapark mall lempaala finland.jpg, Ideapark
Finland File:Inorbit Hyderabad.jpg, Inorbit Mall
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
File:Night view of Phoenix market city.jpg, Phoenix Marketcity (Bangalore), Phoenix Marketcity
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
File:Indonesia-Korea_Culture_Exchange_2010_Ceramic_Show.JPG, Gandaria City
Indonesia File:Mall_Taman_Anggrek_LED_Illuminated_Facade.jpg, Mal Taman Anggrek
Indonesia File:Tunjungan_Plaza_23_June_2019.jpg, Tunjungan Plaza
Indonesia File:Sunway Pyramid front.jpg, Sunway Pyramid
Malaysia File:Full aerial view of AEON Bukit Tinggi.jpg, ÆON Bukit Tinggi Shopping Centre, AEON Bukit Tinggi Shopping Centre
Malaysia File:Artz Pedegral2.jpg, Artz Pedregal
Mexico File:Centro Santa Fe.jpg, Centro Santa Fe
Mexico File:Le Morocco Mall ouvre ses portes à Casablanca (6555301965).jpg, Morocco Mall
Morocco File: File:Lucky One Mall.jpg, Lucky One Mall
Pakistan File:Emporium Mall.jpg, Emporium Mall
Pakistan File:MEGA3.jpg, MEGA Family Shopping Centre
Russia File:VivoCity 19.JPG, VivoCity
Singapore File:Northpoint City.jpg, Northpoint City
Singapore File:Canal-Walk-Food-Court.jpg, Canal Walk
South Africa File:Mall of Scandinavia November 2015 03.jpg, Mall of Scandinavia
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
File:統一夢時代購物中心.JPG, Dream Mall
Taiwan File:CentralWorld-Dec2006.jpg, CentralWorld
Thailand File:Siam Paragon New.jpg, Siam Paragon
Thailand File:Dubai Mall Under Construction on 27 November 2007.jpg,
Dubai Mall The Dubai Mall ( ar, دبي مول "Dubai Mall") is a shopping mall in Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the capital of the Emirate of Dubai.The Government and Pol ...

Dubai Mall

United Arab Emirates File:Mall of the Emirates (3679338750).jpg, Mall of the Emirates
United Arab Emirates File:Entrance to Barton Square, Trafford Centre.JPG, Trafford Centre
United Kingdom File:Leisure Terrace, Liverpool ONE.jpg, Liverpool One
United Kingdom File:Destiny USA.png, Destiny USA
United States File:GalleriaOne.jpg, The Galleria, Houston Galleria
United States File:SambilCCS.JPG, Sambil
Venezuela File:Iran Mall Mahan Garden and Hotel.jpg, Iran Mall
Iran


See also

* Arcade (architecture)#Shopping arcades, Arcade * Bazaar * Lists of shopping malls * Mall kiosk * Pedestrian zone * Retail#Types of retail outlets *


References


Further reading

* Hardwick, M. Jeffrey. ''Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream'' (2004
excerpt and text search
* Howard, Vicki. ''From Main Street to Mall: The Rise and Fall of the American Department Store'' (2015) * Ngo-Viet, Nam-Son
Google Docs
2002. The Integration of the Suburban Shopping Center with its Surroundings: Redmond Town Center (PhD Dissertation) University of Washington. * Scharoun, Lisa. ''America at the Mall: The Cultural Role of a Retail Utopia'' (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2012) *


External links


International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC)

American Institute of Architects Retail and Entertainment Committee Knowledge Community
{{Authority control Shopping malls, Planned commercial developments Retail buildings Urban studies and planning terminology Lists of shopping malls, Lists of largest buildings and structures, Shopping malls Economy-related lists of superlatives 1980s fads and trends 1990s fads and trends Architecture records Articles containing video clips