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A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a
system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
in which a
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
exists alongside a
prime minister#REDIRECT Prime minister#REDIRECT Prime minister {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
and a
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing c ...
, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, United States * ''Our Sta ...
. It differs from a
parliamentary republicThe Parliamentary Republic can refer to: * A republican form of government with a Parliamentary system and a ceremonial head of state or head of state elected by parliament - see Parliamentary republic * The History of Chile during the Parliamentary ...

parliamentary republic
in that it has a popularly elected
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a stateFoakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and legitim ...

head of state
who is more than a mostly ceremonial figurehead, and from the
presidential system A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government (president) leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of ...

presidential system
in that the
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing c ...

cabinet
, although named by the president, is
responsible
responsible
to the
legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with th ...

legislature
, which may force the cabinet to resign through a
motion of no confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, manager ...

motion of no confidence
. While the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933, as it existed as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich|link=no|label=none), and was also r ...

Weimar Republic
(1919–1933) and
Finland Finland ( fi|Suomi ; sv|Finland , ), officially the Republic of Finland (, ), is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gul ...

Finland
in 1919–2000 exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced in a 1959 article by journalist
Hubert Beuve-Méry Hubert Beuve-Méry (5 January 1902 in Paris – 6 August 1989 in Fontainebleau) was a French journalist and newspaper editor. Before the Second World War, he was associated with the Vichy regime until December 1942, when he joined the Resistance. ...

Hubert Beuve-Méry
and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist
Maurice Duverger Maurice Duverger (5 June 1917 – 16 December 2014) was a French jurist, sociologist, political scientist and politician born in Angoulême, Charente. Starting his career as a jurist at the University of Bordeaux, Duverger became more and more in ...

Maurice Duverger
, both of which intended to describe the
French Fifth Republic The Fifth Republic (french: Cinquième République) is France's current republican system of government. It was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.. The Fifth Republic emerged from th ...

French Fifth Republic
(established in 1958).


Definition

Maurice Duverger's original definition of semi-presidentialism required that the president be elected, possess significant powers, and serve for a fixed term. Modern definitions merely require that the head of state be elected and that a separate prime minister that is dependent on parliamentary confidence lead the executive.


Subtypes

There are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under the premier-presidential system, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to parliament. The president may choose the prime minister and cabinet, but only the parliament may approve them and remove them from office with a ''vote of no confidence''. This system is much closer to pure parliamentarism. This subtype is used in
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso (, ; ) is a landlocked country in West Africa that covers an area of around and is bordered by Mali to the northwest, Niger to the northeast, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and the Ivory Coast to the southwes ...

Burkina Faso
,
Cape Verde | national_anthem = () | official_languages = Portuguese | national_languages = Cape Verdean Creole | capital = Praia | coordinates = | largest_city = capital | demonym = Cape Verdean or Cabo Verdean | ethnic_groups_year = 2017 | government_ty ...

Cape Verde
,
East Timor East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet|Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste ( pt|República Democrática de Timor-Leste, tet|Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is an island country in Southeast Asia. It comp ...

East Timor
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no|République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...

France
,
Lithuania Lithuania ( ; lt|Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt|Lietuvos Respublika|links=no), is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. It is one of the Baltic states, and lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the southea ...

Lithuania
,
Madagascar Madagascar (; mg|Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar ( mg|Repoblikan'i Madagasikara|links=no, ; french: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, app ...

Madagascar
,
Mali Mali (; ), officially the Republic of Mali (french: République du Mali; bm|ߡߊߟߌ ߞߊ ߝߊߛߏߖߊߡߊߣߊ|Mali ka Fasojamana, ff|𞤈𞤫𞤲𞥆𞤣𞤢𞥄𞤲𞤣𞤭 𞤃𞤢𞥄𞤤𞤭|Renndaandi Maali), is a landlocked country in ...

Mali
,
Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian: , Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, which is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is situated be ...

Mongolia
,
Niger Niger or the Niger ( or ; ), officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in West Africa named after the Niger River. Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin and Burkina Faso ...

Niger
,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Kingdom of Georgia ...

Georgia
between 2013 and 2018,
Poland Poland ( pl|Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl|Rzeczpospolita Polska|links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely temperate seaso ...

Poland
,
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt|República Portuguesa|links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the wes ...

Portugal
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro|România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldov ...

Romania
,
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe (; ), (English: Saint Thomas and Prince) officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe ( pt|República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe), is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western ...

São Tomé and Príncipe
,
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si|ශ්‍රී ලංකා|Śrī Laṅkā|translit-std=ISO; ta|இலங்கை|Ilaṅkai|translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island countr ...

Sri Lanka
and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk|Україна|Ukraina, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest country in Europe, after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east; it also shares borders with Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia a ...

Ukraine
(since 2014; previously, between 2006 and 2010). Under the president-parliamentary system, the prime minister and cabinet are dually accountable to the president and the parliament. The president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet but must have the support of a parliamentary majority for his choice. In order to remove a prime minister or the whole cabinet from power, the president can dismiss them, or the parliament can remove them by a ''vote of no confidence''. This form of semi-presidentialism is much closer to pure presidentialism. It is used in
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau (; pt|Guiné-Bissau, ff| 𞤘𞤭𞤲𞤫 𞤄𞤭𞤧𞤢𞥄𞤱𞤮 Gine-Bisaawo, Mandinka: ߖߌߣߍ ߺ ߓߌߛߊߥߏ߫ ''Gine-Bisawo''), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau ( pt|República da Guiné-Bissau ), is a country ...

Guinea-Bissau
,
Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt|Moçambique or , ; ny|Mozambiki; sw|Msumbiji; ts|Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and ...

Mozambique
,
Namibia Namibia (, ), officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and eas ...

Namibia
,
Russia Russia (russian: link=no|Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering and encompassing more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited l ...

Russia
,
Senegal Senegal (; french: link=no|Sénégal; Wolof: ''Senegaal''), officially the Republic of Senegal (french: link=no|République du Sénégal; Wolof: ''Réewum Senegaal''), is a country in West Africa. Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north ...

Senegal
and
Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...

Taiwan
. It was also used in Ukraine, first between 1996 and 2005, and again from 2010 to 2014, Georgia between 2004 and 2013, and in
Germany ) | image_map = | map_caption = | map_width = 250px | capital = Berlin | coordinates = | largest_city = capital | languages_type = Official language | languages = German | demonym = German | government_type = Federal parliamentary republi ...

Germany
during the ''Weimarer Republik'' (
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933, as it existed as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich|link=no|label=none), and was also r ...

Weimar Republic
), as the constitutional regime between 1919 and 1933 is called unofficially.


Division of powers

The powers that are divided between president and prime minister can vary greatly between countries. In
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no|République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...

France
, for example, in case of
cohabitation Cohabitation is an arrangement where two people are not married but live together. They are often involved in a romantic or sexually intimate relationship on a long-term or permanent basis. Such arrangements have become increasingly common in W ...

cohabitation
, when the president and the prime minister come from opposing parties, the president oversees
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Polic ...

foreign policy
and
defence policy Military policy (also called defence policy or defense policy) is public policy dealing with multinational security and the military. It comprises the measures and initiatives that governments do or do not take in relation to decision-making and st ...

defence policy
(these are generally called ''les prérogatives présidentielles'', presidential prerogatives) and the prime minister
domestic policy Domestic policy are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a state's borders. It differs from foreign policy, which refers to the ways a government advances its interests in external politics. Domestic ...

domestic policy
and
economic policy The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions in ...

economic policy
. In this case, the division of responsibilities between the
prime minister#REDIRECT Prime minister#REDIRECT Prime minister {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

prime minister and the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...

president
is not explicitly stated in the constitution, but has evolved as a
political convention The terms party conference (UK English), political convention (US and Canadian English), and party congress usually refer to a general meeting of a political party. The conference is attended by certain delegates who represent the party membershi ...

political convention
based on the constitutional principle that the prime minister is appointed (with the subsequent approval of a parliament majority) and dismissed by the president.Le Petit Larousse 2013 p. 880 On the other hand, whenever the president is from the same party as the prime minister who leads the ''conseil de gouvernement'' (cabinet), they often (if not usually) exercise ''de facto'' control over ''all'' fields of policy via the prime minister. It is up to the president to decide how much "autonomy" is left to "their" prime minister to act on their own.


Cohabitation

Semi-presidential systems may sometimes experience periods in which the president and the prime minister are from differing political parties. This is called "
cohabitation Cohabitation is an arrangement where two people are not married but live together. They are often involved in a romantic or sexually intimate relationship on a long-term or permanent basis. Such arrangements have become increasingly common in W ...

cohabitation
", a term which originated in France when the situation first arose in the 1980s. Cohabitation can create an effective system of
checks and balances Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches. The typical ...

checks and balances
or a period of bitter and tense stonewalling, depending on the attitudes of the two
leaders Leadership is both a research area, and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual, group or organization to "lead", influence or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. Often viewed as a contested term, speciali ...

leaders
, the ideologies of themselves or their parties, or the demands of their supporters. In most cases, cohabitation results from a system in which the two executives are not elected at the same time or for the same term. For example, in 1981, France elected both a
Socialist Socialism is a political, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production.Arnold, N. Scott (1998). ''The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socia ...

Socialist
president and legislature, which yielded a Socialist premier. But whereas the president's term of office was for seven years, the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral legislature, the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or both houses of a bicameral legislature together. In the English language it generally means "an assembly composed of the repres ...

National Assembly
only served for five. When, in the , the French people elected a right-of-centre assembly, Socialist president
François Mitterrand François Marie Adrien Maurice Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office in the history of France. As First Secretary of the Socialist Pa ...

François Mitterrand
was forced into cohabitation with right wing premier [[Jacques Chirac. However, in 2000, amendments to the [[French constitution reduced the length of the French president's term from seven to five years. This has significantly lowered the chances of cohabitation occurring, as parliamentary and presidential elections may now be conducted within a shorter span of each other.


Advantages and disadvantages

The incorporation of elements from both presidential and parliamentary republics brings some advantageous elements along with them, however it also faces disadvantages related to the confusion from mixed authority patterns. Advantages * Ability to remove an unpopular prime minister and maintain stability from the president's [[Mandate (politics)|fixed term — the parliament has power to [[Vote of no confidence|remove an unpopular prime minister; * Additional [[Separation of powers#Checks and balances|checks and balances — while the president can dismiss the prime minister in many semi-presidential systems, in most of the semi-presidential systems important segments of bureaucracy are taken away from the president. Disadvantages * Providing [[Separation of powers|cover for the president — it can shield the president from criticism and the unpopular policies can be blamed on the prime minister as the latter runs the day-to-day operations of the government and carrying out the national policy set forth by the president, who is the head of state that is focusing on being the national leader of a state and in arbitrating the efficiency of government authorities, etc.; * Confusion about [[accountability — parliamentary systems give voters a relatively clear sense of who is responsible for policy successes and failures; presidential systems make this more difficult, particularly when there is divided government. Semi-presidential systems add another layer of complexity for voters; * Confusion and inefficiency in [[Legislature|legislative process — the capacity of [[Vote of no confidence|votes of confidence makes the prime minister responsible to the parliament.


Republics with a semi-presidential system of government

In semi-presidential systems, there is always both a president and a prime minister. In such systems, the president has genuine executive authority, unlike in a parliamentary republic, but the role of a head of government may be exercised by the
prime minister#REDIRECT Prime minister#REDIRECT Prime minister {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

prime minister. ''Italics'' indicate states with limited recognition.


Premier-presidential systems

The president chooses the prime minister and cabinet, but only the parliament may remove them from office with a ''vote of no confidence''. The president does not have the power to directly dismiss the prime minister or cabinet, but they can dissolve the parliament. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ' * * * * * * *


President-parliamentary systems

The president chooses the prime minister without the [[confidence vote from the parliament. In order to remove a prime minister or the whole cabinet from power, the president can dismiss them or the parliament can remove them by a ''vote of no confidence'', but the president can dissolve the parliament. * * * * * * * * * * '


Italian system

Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the [[Assessor (Italy)|giunta, and nominates or dismisses its members, called [[Assessor (Italy)|assessori. If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately. * ([[Regions of Italy|Italian Regions)


Former semi-presidential republics

* (1991-1998, 2013-2018) * (1990-2000) * (1919-2000) * (2004-2018) * (1919-1933) * (1990-2001) * (1999-2001) * (1981-1986) Known as the [[Fourth Philippine Republic.


See also

* [[List of countries by system of government; * [[Parliamentary system; * [[Presidential system; * [[Semi-parliamentary system.


References


Notes


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * [[Robert Elgie (academic)|Elgie, Robert (2011). ''Semi-Presidentialism: Sub-Types And Democratic Performance''. ''Comparative Politics''. (Oxford Scholarship Online Politics), Oxford University Press * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Governing Systems and Executive-Legislative Relations. (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems)
United Nations Development Programme (n.d.). *
The Semi-Presidential One
blog of [[Robert Elgie (academic)|Robert Elgie
Presidential Power
blog with posts written by several political scientists, including Robert Elgie. {{DEFAULTSORT:Semi-Presidential System [[Category:Political systems [[Category:Presidents|Semi-presidential [[Category:Republicanism [[Category:Separation of powers [[Category:1950s neologisms