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Academic freedom is a moral and legal concept expressing the conviction that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of
academia An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociol ...

academia
, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts (including those that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities) without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment. While the core of academic freedom covers scholars acting in an academic capacity - as teachers or researchers expressing strictly scholarly viewpoints -, an expansive interpretation extends these occupational safeguards to scholars' speech on matters outside their professional expertise. It is a type of
freedom of speech Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philoso ...

freedom of speech
. Academic freedom is a contested issue and, therefore, has limitations in practice. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, for example, according to the widely recognized "1940 Statement on Academic Freedom and Tenure" of the
American Association of University Professors The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language fi ...
, teachers should be careful to avoid controversial matters that are unrelated to the subject discussed. When they speak or write in public, they are free to express their opinions without fear from institutional censorship or discipline, but they should show restraint and clearly indicate that they are not speaking for their institution. Academic
tenure Tenure is a category of academic appointment existing in some countries. A tenured post is an indefinite academic appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency or program disco ...

tenure
protects academic freedom by ensuring that teachers can be fired only for causes such as gross professional incompetence or behavior that evokes condemnation from the academic community itself.


Historical background

Although the notion of academic freedom has a long implicit history (
Leiden University Leiden University (abbreviated as ''LEI''; nl, Universiteit Leiden) is a Public university, public research university in Leiden, Netherlands. Founded in 1575 by William the Silent, William, Prince of Orange as a reward to the city of Leiden for ...
, founded in 1575, birthplace of the modern concept), the idea was first clearly formulated in response to the encroachments of the totalitarian state on science and academia in general for the furtherance of its own goals. For instance, in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, scientific research was brought under strict political control in the 1930s. A number of research areas were declared "
bourgeois pseudoscienceBourgeois pseudoscience (russian: Буржуазная лженаука) was a term of condemnation in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in ...
" and forbidden, notably
genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, ...

genetics
(see "
Lysenkoism Lysenkoism ( rus , Лысе́нковщина , Lysenkovshchina) was a political campaign led by Trofim Lysenko against genetics Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms ...
") and sociology. The trend toward subjugating science to the interests of the state also had proponents in the West, including the influential
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
John Desmond Bernal John Desmond Bernal (; 10 May 1901 – 15 September 1971) was an Irish scientist who pioneered the use of X-ray crystallography X-ray crystallography (XRC) is the experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a cr ...
, who published ''The Social Function of Science'' in 1939. In contrast to this approach,
Michael Polanyi Michael Polanyi (; hu, Polányi Mihály; 11 March 1891 – 22 February 1976) was a Hungarian-British polymath, who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics Economics () is the social science that st ...

Michael Polanyi
argued that a structure of liberty is essential for the advancement of science – that the freedom to pursue science for its own sake is a prerequisite for the production of knowledge through peer review and the
scientific method The scientific method is an empirical Empirical evidence for a proposition is evidence, i.e. what supports or counters this proposition, that is constituted by or accessible to sense experience or experimental procedure. Empirical evidence ...

scientific method
. In 1936, as a consequence of an invitation to give lectures for the Ministry of Heavy Industry in the USSR, Polanyi met
Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (russian: Никола́й Ива́нович Буха́рин) ( – 15 March 1938) was a Bolsheviks, Bolshevik Russian Revolution, revolutionary, Soviet Union, Soviet politician, Marxist philosopher and economist ...
, who told him that in socialist societies all scientific research is directed to accord with the needs of the latest five-year plan. Demands in Britain for centrally planned scientific research led Polanyi, together with John Baker, to found the influential
Society for Freedom in Science Academic freedom is a moral and legal concept expressing the conviction that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of academia An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; ...
. The society promoted a liberal conception of science as free enquiry against the instrumental view that science should exist primarily to serve the needs of society. In a series of articles, re-published in ''The Contempt of Freedom'' (1940) and ''The Logic of Liberty'' (1951), Polanyi claimed that co-operation amongst scientists is analogous to the way in which agents co-ordinate themselves within a
free market In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of pl ...
. Just as consumers in a free market determine the value of products, science is a
spontaneous order Spontaneous order, also named self-organization Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered ...
that arises as a consequence of open debate amongst specialists. Science can therefore only flourish when scientists have the liberty to pursue truth as an end in itself:


Rationale

Proponents of academic freedom believe that the freedom of inquiry by students and faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy. They argue that academic communities are repeatedly targeted for repression due to their ability to shape and control the flow of information. When scholars attempt to teach or communicate ideas or facts that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities, they may find themselves targeted for public vilification, job loss, imprisonment, or even death. For example, in North Africa, a professor of public health discovered that his country's infant mortality rate was higher than government figures indicated. He lost his job and was imprisoned. The fate of
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
is also cited as a reason why society has an interest in protecting academic freedom. A Soviet biologist
Trofim Lysenko Trofím Denísovich Lysénko (russian: Трофи́м Дени́сович Лысе́нко, uk, Трохи́м Дени́сович Лисе́нко, Trokhym Denysovych Lysenko; 20 November 1976) was a Soviet agronomist and biologist France ...
rejected Western science – then focused primarily on making advances in theoretical genetics, based on research with the fruit fly (''
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
'') – and proposed a more socially relevant approach to farming that was based on the
collectivist Collectivism is a value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over the self. Individuals or groups that subscribe to a collectivist worldview tend to find common values and goals as pa ...

collectivist
principles of
dialectical materialism Dialectical materialism is a philosophy of science Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methodology, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern Demarcation pr ...
. (Lysenko called this " Michurinism", but it is more popularly known today as
Lysenkoism Lysenkoism ( rus , Лысе́нковщина , Lysenkovshchina) was a political campaign led by Trofim Lysenko against genetics Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms ...
.) Lysenko's ideas proved appealing to the Soviet leadership, in part because of their value as propaganda, and he was ultimately made director of the Soviet Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Subsequently, Lysenko directed a purge of scientists who professed "harmful ideas", resulting in the expulsion, imprisonment, or death of hundreds of Soviet scientists. Lysenko's ideas were then implemented on collectivised farms in the Soviet Union and China. Famines that resulted partly from Lysenko's influence are believed to have killed 30 million people in China alone. AFAF (
Academics For Academic Freedom An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociolin ...
) of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
is a campaign for lecturers, academic staff and researchers who want to make a public statement in favour of free enquiry and free expression. Their statement of Academic Freedom has two main principles: # that academics, both inside and outside the classroom, have unrestricted
liberty Broadly speaking, liberty is the ability to do as one pleases, or a right or immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant (i.e. privilege). It is a synonym for the word freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change withou ...

liberty
to question and test
received wisdom The conventional wisdom or received opinion is the body of ideas or explanations generally accepted by the public and/or by experts in a field. In religion, this is known as orthodoxy Orthodoxy (from Greek: ) is adherence to correct or accepted c ...
and to put forward controversial and unpopular opinions, whether or not these are deemed offensive, and # that academic institutions have no right to curb the exercise of this
freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and bein ...
by members of their staff, or to use it as grounds for disciplinary action or dismissal. AFAF and those who agree with its principles believe that it is important for academics to be able not only to express their opinions, but also to put them to scrutiny and to open further debate. They are against the idea of telling the public
Platonic Plato's influence on Western culture was so profound that several different concepts are linked by being called Platonic or Platonist, for accepting some assumptions of Platonism, but which do not imply acceptance of that philosophy as a whole. It m ...
"noble lies" and believe that people need not be protected from radical views.


For academic staff

The concept of academic freedom as a right of faculty members is an established part of most legal systems. While in the United States the constitutional protection of academic freedom derives from the guarantee of free speech under the
First Amendment First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, ...
, the constitutions of other countries (particularly in civil law systems) typically grant a separate right to free learning, teaching, and research. A survey of academics in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States found that a significant proportion of academics discriminate against conservatives in hiring, promotion, grants and publications. Although only one out of ten academics would support the dismissal of controversial colleagues, few would actively oppose it, particularly among younger faculty and doctoral students. Most conservative academics admit to
self-censorship Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse Discourse is a generalization of the notion of a conversation Conversation is interactive communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to s ...
in research and teaching. Finally, the great majority of conservative graduate students report feeling deterred from pursuing an academic career. Concerns have been raised of increased threats to academic freedom in recent years, including a chilling climate constraining discussions of sex and gender identity.


Canada

During the interwar years (cir. 1919–1939) Canadian academics were informally expected to be apolitical, lest they bring trouble to their respective universities which, at the time, were very much dependent upon provincial government grants. As well, many Canadian academics of the time considered their position to be remote from the world of politics and felt they had no place getting involved in political issues. However, with the increase of socialist activity in Canada during the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
, due to the rise of
social gospel The Social Gospel is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. ...
ideology, some left-wing academics began taking active part in contemporary political issues outside the university. Thus, individuals such as Frank H. Underhill at the
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organ ...

University of Toronto
and other members or affiliates with the
League for Social Reconstruction The League for Social Reconstruction (LSR) was a circle of Canadians, Canadian socialists officially formed in 1932. The group advocated for social and economic reformation as well as politcal education. The formation of the LSR was provoked by eve ...
or the socialist movement in Canada who held academic positions, began to find themselves in precarious positions with their university employers. Frank H. Underhill, for example, faced criticism from within and without academia and near expulsion from his university position for his public political comments and his involvement with the League for Social Reconstruction and the
Co-Operative Commonwealth Federation The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) (french: Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, from 1955 the ') was a social-democraticThese sources describe the CCF as a social-democratic political party: * * * * * and democratic socialistTh ...
. According to
Michiel Horn Michiel Steven Daniel Horn (born 1939) is a Canadian historian who serves as a professor emeritus at Glendon College, York University. Life and career Horn was born on September 3, 1939, in Baarn, Netherlands. His family migrated to Canada from t ...
this era marked,


United Kingdom

The Robbins Report on Higher Education, commissioned by the British government and published in 1963, devoted a full chapter, Chapter XVI, to Academic freedom and its scope. This gives a detailed discussion of the importance attached both to freedom of individual academics and of the institution itself. In a world, both then and now, where illiberal governments are all too ready to attack freedom of expression, the Robbins committee saw the (then) statutory protection given to academic freedom as giving some protection for society as a whole from any temptation to mount such attacks. When Margaret Thatcher's government sought to remove many of the statutory protections of academic freedom which Robbins had regarded as so important, she was partly frustrated by a hostile amendment to her bill in the House of Lords. This incorporated into what became the 1988 Education Reform Act, the legal right of academics in the UK 'to question and test received wisdom and to put forward new ideas and controversial or unpopular opinions without placing themselves in jeopardy of losing their jobs or the privileges they may have'. These principles of academic freedom are thus articulated in the statutes of most UK universities. Concerns have been raised regarding threats to academic freedom in the UK, including the harassment of feminist academics. In response to such concerns, the Equality and Human Rights Commission has issued guidance. In 2016 the Warden of Wadham College Oxford, a lawyer previously Director of Public Prosecutions, pointed out that the Conservative government's anti-terrorism "Prevent" strategy legislation has placed on universities 'a specific enforceable duty ... to prevent the expression of views that are otherwise entirely compatible with the criminal law'.


France

Professors at public
French
French
universities and researchers in public research laboratories are expected, as are all
civil servants The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadersh ...
, to behave in a neutral manner and to not favor any particular political or religious point of view during the course of their duties. However, the academic freedom of university
professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, hig ...

professor
s is a fundamental principle recognized by the laws of the Republic, as defined by the Constitutional Council; furthermore, statute law declares about
higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge ...
that "teachers-researchers (university professors and assistant professors), researchers and teachers are fully independent and enjoy full
freedom of speech Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philoso ...

freedom of speech
in the course of their
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

research
and
teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed ...

teaching
activities, provided they respect, following university traditions and the dispositions of this code, principles of tolerance and objectivity". The nomination and promotion of professors is largely done through a process of
peer review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may r ...
rather than through normal administrative procedures.


Germany

The
German Constitution The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a g ...
(german: Grundgesetz) specifically grants academic freedom: "Art and science, research and teaching are free. Freedom of teaching does not absolve from loyalty to the constitution" (Art. 5, para. 3). In a tradition reaching back to the 19th century, jurisdiction has understood this right as one to teach ('), study ('), and conduct research (') freely, although the last concept has sometimes been taken as a cover term for the first two. ' embraces the right of professors to determine the content of their lectures and to publish the results of their research without prior approval. Since professors through their ''Habilitation'' receive the right to teach ( la, venia docendi) in a particular academic field, academic freedom is deemed to cover at least the entirety of this field. ' means a student's right to determine an individual course of study. Finally, ' permits academic self-governance and grants the university control of its internal affairs.


Mauritius

In Mauritius the academic staff have the following rights, which are stated in the Chapter II Constitution of Mauritius: the protection of Freedom of Conscience, Protection of Freedom of Expression, Protection of Freedom of Assembly and Association, Protection of Freedom to Establish schools and the Protection from Discrimination. In a 2012 paper on the
University of Mauritius The University of Mauritius (UoM) (french: Université de Maurice) is the national university of Mauritius. It is the oldest and largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered. The public university's main ...
the author states that although there are no records of abuse of human rights or freedom of the state "subtle threats to freedom of expression do exist, especially with regard to criticisms of ruling political parties and their leaders as well as religious groups." The government of Mauritius endorses the practice of academic freedom in the tertiary institutions of the country. Academic freedom became a public issue in May 2009 when the
University of Mauritius The University of Mauritius (UoM) (french: Université de Maurice) is the national university of Mauritius. It is the oldest and largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered. The public university's main ...
spoke out against the previous vice chancellor Professor I. Fagoonee, who had forwarded a circular sent by the Ministry of Education to academics. This circular targeted public officers and required them to consult their superiors before speaking to the press. According to the paper, academics were annoyed by the fact that the vice chancellor had endorsed the circular by sending it to them when it was addressed to public officers. In an interview the vice- chancellor stated that while academics were free to speak to the press they should not compromise university policy or government policy. An academic spoke to the prime minister and the issue was eventually taken up to parliament. The vice chancellor was then required to step down. In return the government publicly endorsed the practice of academic freedom. The institutional bureaucracy and the dependence on the state for funds has restricted the freedom of academics to criticize government policy. An interview with Dr. Kasenally an educator at the
University of Mauritius The University of Mauritius (UoM) (french: Université de Maurice) is the national university of Mauritius. It is the oldest and largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered. The public university's main ...
expresses her views on academic freedom in the university. The professor states that in 1970s to 1980s the university was at the forefront of debates. But in the 1990s the university stepped away from controversial debates. In 1986, the rights of academics to engage in politics was removed to curtail academic freedom. Academics at the
University of Mauritius The University of Mauritius (UoM) (french: Université de Maurice) is the national university of Mauritius. It is the oldest and largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered. The public university's main ...
have thus been encouraged to not express their views or ideas especially if the views oppose those of the management or government. While there have been no cases of arrests or extreme detention of academics, there is a fear that it would hinder their career progress especially at the level of a promotion thus, the academics try to avoid participating in controversial debates.


Netherlands

In the Netherlands the academic freedom is limited. In November 1985 the Dutch Ministry of Education published a policy paper titled ''Higher Education: Autonomy and Quality''. This paper had a proposal that steered away from traditional education and informed that the future of higher education sector should not be regulated by the central government. In 1992 the Law of Higher Education and Research (Wet op het hoger onderwijs en wetenschappelijk onderzoek, article 1.6) was published and became effective in 1993. However, this law governs only certain institutions. Furthermore, the above provision is part of an ordinary statute and lacks constitutional status, so it can be changed anytime by a simple majority in Parliament.


Philippines

The 1987
Philippine Constitution The Constitution of the Philippines ( Filipino: ''Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas'' or ''Konstitusyon ng Pilipinas'', Spanish: ''Constitución de la República de Filipinas'') is the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental ...
states that, "Academic Freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning." Philippine jurisprudence and courts of law, including the
Philippine Supreme Court The Supreme Court ( fil, Kataas-taasang Hukuman; colloquially referred to as the ''Korte Suprema'') is the highest court in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ...
tend to reflexively defer to the institutional autonomy of higher institutions of learning in determining academic decisions with respect to the outcomes of individual cases filed in the courts regarding the abuse of Academic Freedom by professors, despite the individual merits or demerits of any cases. A closely watched case was the controversial case of University of the Philippines at Diliman Sociology Professor Sarah Raymundo who was not granted tenure due to an appeal by the minority dissenting vote within the faculty of the Sociology Department. This decision was sustained upon appeal by the dissenting faculty and Professor Raymundo to the University of the Philippines at Diliman Chancellor Sergio S. Cao; and though the case was elevated to
University of the Philippines System The University of the Philippines (UP; fil, Pamantasan ng Pilipinas Unibersidad ng Pilipinas) is a in the , and is the country's national university. Originally founded by the on June 18, 1908, it was established through the ratification o ...
President Emerlinda R. Roman, Roman denied the appeal which was elevated by Professor Raymundo to the university's board of regents for decision and the BOR granted her request for tenure. A major bone of contention among the supporters of Professor Raymundo was not to question the institutional Academic Freedom of the department in not granting her tenure, but in asking for transparency in how the Academic Freedom of the department was exercised, in keeping with traditions within the University of the Philippines in providing a basis that may be subject to peer review, for Academic decisions made under the mantle of Academic Freedom.


South Africa

The South African Constitution of 1996 offers protection of academic freedom and the freedom of scholarly research. Academic freedom became a main principle for higher education by 1997. Three main threats are believed to jeopardize academic freedom: government regulations, excessive influence of private sector sponsor on a university, and limitations of freedom of speech in universities. There have been an abundance of scandals over the restricted academic freedom at a number of universities in South Africa. The
University of KwaZulu-Natal The University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) is a university with five campuses in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. It was formed on 1 January 2004 after the merger between the University of Natal and the University of Durban-Westville. ...
received fame over its restricted academic freedom and the scandal that occurred in 2007. In this scandal a sociology lecturer, Fazel Khan was fired in April 2007 for "bringing the university into disrepute" after he released information to the news media. According to Khan he had been airbrushed from a photograph in a campus publication because of his participation in a staff strike last February. In light of this scandal the South African Council on Higher Education released a report stating that the state is influencing academic freedom. In particular, public universities are more susceptible to political pressure because they receive funds from the public.


New Zealand

Academic freedom pertains to forms of expression by academic staff engaged in scholarship and is defined by the Education Act 1989 (s161(2)) as: a) The freedom of academic staff and students, within the law, to question and test received wisdom, to put forward new ideas and to state controversial or unpopular opinions; b) The freedom of academic staff and students to engage in research; c) The freedom of the university and its staff to regulate the subject matter of courses taught at the university; d) The freedom of the university and its staff to teach and assess students in the manner they consider best promotes learning; and e) The freedom of the university through its council and vice-chancellor to appoint its own staff.


United States

In the United States, academic freedom is generally taken as the notion of academic freedom defined by the "1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure", jointly authored by the
American Association of University Professors The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language fi ...
(AAUP) and the Association of American Colleges (AAC, now the
Association of American Colleges and Universities The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) is a national association headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. It focuses on improving undergraduate education and advancing liberal education. Founded in 1915, AAC&U co ...
).1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure, AAUP , accessed March 23, 2007 These principles state that "Teachers are entitled to freedom in the classroom in discussing their subject." The statement also permits institutions to impose "limitations of academic freedom because of religious or other aims", so long as they are "clearly stated in writing at the time of the appointment". The Principles have only the character of private pronouncements, not that of binding law. Seven regional accreditors work with American colleges and universities, including private and religious institutions, to implement this standard. Additionally, the AAUP, which is not an accrediting body, works with these same institutions. The AAUP does not always agree with the regional accrediting bodies on the standards of protection of academic freedom and tenure. The AAUP lists (censures) those colleges and universities which it has found, after its own investigations, to violate these principles. There is some case law in the United States that holds that teachers are limited in their academic freedom.


Academic freedom for colleges and universities (institutional autonomy)

A prominent feature of the English university concept is the freedom to appoint faculty, set standards and admit students. This ideal may be better described as institutional autonomy and is distinct from whatever freedom is granted to students and faculty by the institution. The
Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Americ ...

Supreme Court of the United States
said that academic freedom means a university can "determine for itself on academic grounds: # who may teach, # what may be taught, # how it should be taught, and # who may be admitted to study."'' Sweezy v. New Hampshire'', 354 U.S. 234, 262–263 (1957) (
Felix Frankfurter Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882 – February 22, 1965) was an American lawyer, professor, and jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist lega ...
, Justice).
''Stronach v. Virginia State University'', civil action 3:07-CV-646-HEH (E. D. Va. Jan. 15, 2008). In a 2008 case, a federal court in
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
ruled that professors have no academic freedom; ''all'' academic freedom resides with the university or college. In that case, '' Stronach v. Virginia State University'', a district court judge held "that no constitutional right to academic freedom exists that would prohibit senior (university) officials from changing a grade given by (a professor) to one of his students." The court relied on mandatory
precedent A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be resolved by a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government inst ...
of the
U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a coun ...

U.S. Supreme Court
case of '' Sweezy v. New Hampshire'' and a case from the fourth circuit court of appeals. The ''Stronach'' court also relied on persuasive cases from several circuits of the courts of appeals, including the first, third, and seventh circuits. That court distinguished the situation when a university attempts to coerce a professor into changing a grade, which is clearly in violation of the First Amendment, from when university officials may, in their discretionary authority, change the grade upon appeal by a student. The ''Stronach'' case has gotten significant attention in the academic community as an important precedent.


Relationship to freedom of speech

Academic freedom and free speech rights are not coextensive, although this widely accepted view has been recently challenged by an "institutionalist" perspective on the First Amendment. Academic freedom involves more than speech rights; for example, it includes the right to determine what is taught in the classroom. The AAUP gives teachers a set of guidelines to follow when their ideas are considered threatening to religious, political, or social agendas. When teachers speak or write in public, whether via social media or in academic journals, they are able to articulate their own opinions without the fear from institutional restriction or punishment, but they are encouraged to show restraint and clearly specify that they are not speaking for their institution. In practice, academic freedom is protected by institutional rules and regulations, letters of appointment, faculty handbooks, collective bargaining agreements, and academic custom. In the U.S., the
freedom of speech Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philoso ...

freedom of speech
is guaranteed by the
First Amendment First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, ...
, which states that "Congress shall make no law... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press...." By extension, the First Amendment applies to all governmental institutions, including public universities. The U.S.
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
has consistently held that academic freedom is a First Amendment right at ''public'' institutions. However, the United States' First Amendment has generally been held to not apply to ''private'' institutions, including religious institutions. These private institutions may honor freedom of speech and academic freedom at their discretion.


Controversies


=Evolution debate

= Academic freedom is also associated with a movement to introduce
intelligent design Intelligent design (ID) is a pseudoscientific Pseudoscience consists of statements, belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In episte ...
as an alternative explanation to
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
in US public schools. Supporters claim that academic institutions need to fairly represent all possible explanations for the observed
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and Genetic variability, variability of life, life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the Genetics, genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near ...

biodiversity
on Earth, rather than implying no alternatives to evolutionary theory exist. Critics of the movement claim intelligent design is religiously motivated
pseudoscience Pseudoscience consists of statements, belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology include ...
and cannot be allowed into the curriculum of US public schools due to the
First Amendment to the United States Constitution The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the Supremacy Clause, supreme law of the United States, United States of America. This founding document, originally compr ...
, often citing '' Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District'' as legal
precedent A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be resolved by a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government inst ...
. They also reject the allegations of discrimination against proponents of intelligent design, of which investigation showed no evidence.Bill Analysis and Fiscal Impact Statement
, The Professional Staff of the Education Pre-K-12 Committee,
Florida Senate The Florida Senate is the upper house of the Florida Legislature The Florida Legislature is the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of societ ...

Florida Senate
, March 26, 2008
A number of "
academic freedom bills A number of anti-evolution bill (proposed law), bills have been introduced in the United States Congress and State legislature (United States), State legislatures since 2001. Purporting to support academic freedom, supporters have contended that t ...
" have been introduced in
state legislatures A state legislature is a Legislature, legislative branch or body of a State (country subdivision), political subdivision in a Federalism, federal system. Two federations literally use the term "state legislature": * The legislative branches of e ...
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
between 2004 and 2008. The bills were based largely upon language drafted by the
Discovery Institute The Discovery Institute (DI) is a conservatism in the United States, politically conservative Nonprofit organization, non-profit think tank based in Seattle, Washington (state), Washington, that advocates the pseudoscience, pseudoscientific c ...
,"Academic Freedom" Bill in South Carolina Now
Ed Brayton, Dispatches From the Culture Wars, May 18, 2008.
the hub of the
Intelligent Design movement The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign for broad social, academic and political change to promote and support the pseudoscientific Article available froUniversiteit Gent/ref> idea of intelligent design (ID), which ...
, and derive from language originally drafted for the
Santorum Amendment The Santorum Amendment was a failed proposed amendment to the 2001 education funding bill (which became known as the No Child Left Behind Act), proposed by United States Republican Party, Republican Rick Santorum (then a United States Senate, Unit ...
in the
United States Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, politi ...
. According to ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or sim ...

The Wall Street Journal
'', the common goal of these bills is to expose more students to articles and videos that undercut evolution, most of which are produced by advocates of intelligent design or biblical
creationism Creationism is the religious belief that nature, and aspects such as the universe, Earth, life, and humans, originated with supernatural acts of Creation myth, divine creation.#Gunn 2004, Gunn 2004, p. 9, "The ''Concise Oxford Dictionary'' say ...

creationism
.Evolution's Critics Shift Tactics With Schools
Stephanie Simon, ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or sim ...

The Wall Street Journal
'', May 2, 2008
The American Association of University Professors has reaffirmed its opposition to these bills, including any portrayal of creationism as a scientifically credible alternative and any misrepresentation of evolution as scientifically controversial.Academic Freedom and Teaching Evolution
Resolutions of the 94th Annual Meeting, American Association of University Professors. 2008
The Latest Face of Creationism in the Classroom
Glenn Branch Glenn Branch is the deputy director of the National Center for Science Education. He is a prominent critic of creationism and intelligent design and an activist against campaigns of suppressing teaching of evolution and climate change in school edu ...
and Eugenie C. Scott. ''
Scientific American ''Scientific American'' (informally abbreviated ''SciAm'' or sometimes ''SA'') is an American popular science Popular science (also called pop-science or popsci) is an interpretation of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', ...
'', December 2008.
, only the Louisiana bill has been successfully passed into law.


=Communism

= In the 20th century and particularly the 1950s during
McCarthyism McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion and treason, especially when related to communism and socialism. The term originally referred to the controversial practices and policies of U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy (Republica ...
, there was much public date in print on Communism's role in academic freedom, e.g.,
Sidney Hook Sidney Hook (December 20, 1902 – July 12, 1989) was an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, ex ...
's '' Heresy, Yes–Conspiracy, No'' and
Whittaker Chambers Whittaker Chambers (born Jay Vivian Chambers; April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer-editor, who, after early years as a Communist Party A communist party is a political party A political party is an organization t ...

Whittaker Chambers
' "Is Academic Freedom in Danger?" among many other books and articles.


=Democratic Party Platform

= Since 2014, many academics, including Harvard Medical School Dean Jeffrey Flier, and
American Mathematical Society The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematics, mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publicatio ...
Vice President
Abigail Thompson Abigail A. Thompson (born 1958 in Norwalk, Connecticut) is an American mathematician. She works as a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Davis, where she specializes in knot theory and low-dimensional topology. Education and ...

Abigail Thompson
have noted that academics are required to express support for specific political beliefs in the Democratic Party Platform, especially about "diversity", and are discouraged from voicing opposition through subtle self-censorship, as well as explicit promotion, hiring, and firing.


=China

= Academics have noted an incentive not to express 'incorrect' opinions about issues sensitive to the
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
. These efforts have been effective in causing academics to self-censor and shift academic discourse.


="Academic bill of rights"

= ''Students for Academic Freedom'' (SAF) was founded and is sponsored by the
David Horowitz Freedom Center The David Horowitz Freedom Center, formerly the Center for the Study of Popular Culture (CSPC), is a Conservatism in the United States, conservative anti-Muslim foundation founded in 1988 by political activist David Horowitz and his long-time co ...
to advocate against a perceived liberal bias in U.S. colleges and universities. The organization collected many statements from college students complaining that some of their professors were disregarding their responsibility to keep unrelated controversial material out of their classes and were instead teaching their subjects from an ideological point of view. SAF drafted model legislation, called the
Academic Bill of Rights The Academic Bill of Rights (ABOR) is a document created and distributed by Students for Academic Freedom (SAF), a public advocacy group spun off from the Center for the Study of Popular Culture, a think tank founded by the conservative writer Da ...
, which has been introduced in several state legislatures and the U.S. House of Representatives. The Academic Bill of Rights is based on the Declaration of Principles on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure as published by the American Association of University Professors in 1915, and modified in 1940 and 1970. According to Students for Academic Freedom, academic freedom is "the freedom to teach and to learn." They contend that academic freedom promotes "intellectual diversity" and helps achieve a university's primary goals, i.e., "the pursuit of truth, the discovery of new knowledge through scholarship and research, the study and reasoned criticism of intellectual and cultural traditions, the teaching and general development of students to help them become creative individuals and productive citizens of a pluralistic democracy, and the transmission of knowledge and learning to a society at large." They feel that, in the past forty years, the principles as defined in the AAUP Declaration have become something of a
dead letter The term dead letter has several usages, each deriving from the notion of mail The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcard A postcard or post card is a piece of thick paper or thin Card stock, cardboard, typically rect ...
, and that an entrenched class of tenured radical leftists is blocking all efforts to restore those principles. In an attempt to override such opposition, the Academic Bill of Rights calls for state and judicial regulation of colleges. Such regulation would ensure that: *students and faculty will not be favored or disfavored because of their political views or religious beliefs; *the humanities and social sciences, in particular, will expose their students to a variety of sources and viewpoints, and not present one viewpoint as certain and settled truth; *campus publications and invited speakers will not be harassed, abused, or otherwise obstructed; *academic institutions and professional societies will adopt a neutral attitude in matters of politics, ideology or religion. Opponents argue that such a bill would actually restrict academic freedom, by granting politically motivated legislators and judges the right to shape the nature and focus of scholarly concerns. According to the
American Association of University Professors The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language fi ...
, the Academic Bill of Rights is, despite its title, an attack on the very concept of academic freedom itself: "A fundamental premise of academic freedom is that decisions concerning the quality of scholarship and teaching are to be made by reference to the standards of the academic profession, as interpreted and applied by the community of scholars who are qualified by expertise and training to establish such standards." The Academic Bill of Rights directs universities to implement the principle of neutrality by requiring the appointment of faculty "with a view toward fostering a plurality of methodologies and perspectives," an approach they argue is problematic because "It invites diversity to be measured by political standards that diverge from the academic criteria of the scholarly profession." For example,"no department of political theory ought to be obligated to establish 'a plurality of methodologies and perspectives' by appointing a professor of Nazi political philosophy." Concurring, the president of Appalachian Bible College in West Virginia fears that the Academic Bill of Rights "would inhibit his college's efforts to provide a faith-based education and would put pressure on the college to hire professors... who espouse views contrary to those of the institution."


Pontifical universities

Pontifical universities A pontifical university is an ecclesiastical university established or approved directly by the Holy See, composed of three main ecclesiastical faculties (Theology, Philosophy and canon law (Catholic Church), Canon Law) and at least one other facul ...
around the world such as
The Catholic University of America The Catholic University of America (CUA) is a private university, private research university in Washington, D.C. It is a pontifical university of the Catholic Church in the United States and the only institution of higher education founded by U ...
, the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, ''Angelicum'' in Rome, the
Université catholique de Louvain The Université catholique de Louvain (also known as the Catholic University of Louvain, the English translation of its French name, and the University of Louvain, its official English name) is Belgium's largest French-speaking university. It is ...
in Belgium, and the
Pontifical Catholic University of Peru Pontifical Catholic University of Peru ( es, link=no, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, PUCP) is a private university Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax brea ...
depend for their status as pontifical universities and for the terms of academic freedom on the
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
through the
Congregation for Catholic Education The Congregation for Catholic Education (Institutes of Study) () is the pontifical congregation A congregation is a large gathering of people, often for the purpose of worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usu ...
. The terms of academic freedom at ecclesiastical institutions of education are outlined in the
apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolling, enacting, or promulgating Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a ...
''Sapientia Christiana''.https://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_15041979_sapientia-christiana_en.html Accessed June 24, 2011


Specific cases

While some controversies of academic freedom are reflected in proposed laws that would affect large numbers of students through entire regions, many cases involve individual academics that express unpopular opinions or share politically unfavorable information. These individual cases may receive widespread attention and periodically test the limits of, and support for, academic freedom. Several of these specific cases are also the foundations for later legislation.


The Lane Rebels

In the early 1830s, students at the
Lane Theological Seminary Lane Theological Seminary was a Presbyterian theological college that operated from 1829 to 1932 in Walnut Hills, Ohio, today a neighborhood in Cincinnati Cincinnati ( ) is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio Ohio is a U.S. stat ...
, in Cincinnati, sponsored a series of debates lasting 18 days. The topic was the
American Colonization Society American Colonization Society (ACS), originally known as the The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America, was founded in 1816 by Robert Finley Robert Finley (1772 – November 3, 1817) was an American clergyman C ...
's project of sending free blacks to (not "back to") Africa, specifically
Liberia Liberia (), officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape ...
, and opposing freeing slaves unless they agreed to leave the United States immediately. The Society, whose founders and officers were Southern slaveowners, provided funding for existing free blacks to relocate to Liberia, believing that free blacks caused unrest among the slaves, and that the United States was and should remain a white country. (Blacks were not citizens until the ratification of the 14th Amendment in 1868.) The winner of the debate was the rejection of the Society's plan, which at best only helped a few thousand, in favor of
abolitionism Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is t ...
: the immediate, complete, and uncompensated freeing of all slaves. The trustees of the Seminary, fearing a repeat of the anti-abolitionist
Cincinnati riots of 1829 The Cincinnati riots of 1829 were triggered by competition for jobs between Irish immigrants and native blacks and former slaves, in Cincinnati, Ohio Cincinnati ( ) is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the government county seat, seat ...
, prohibited any further "off-topic" discussions", overruling the faculty in the process. As a result, the vast majority of the student body left Lane (the "
Lane Rebels Lane Theological Seminary was a Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its ...
") to become the initial class of the new
Oberlin Collegiate Institute Oberlin College is a private liberal arts college and conservatory of music in Oberlin, Ohio. It is the oldest coeducational liberal arts college in the United States and the second oldest continuously operating List of coeducational colleges and ...
. They first obtained a written guarantee from the Oberlin trustees that there would be no limits on discourse, and that the faculty, not the trustees, would control the internal affairs of the school.


The Bassett Affair at Duke University

The Bassett Affair at
Duke University Duke University is a Private university, private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity, North Carolina, Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, t ...
in North Carolina in the early 20th century was an important event in the history of academic freedom. In October 1903, Professor John Spencer Bassett publicly praised and drew attention to the racism and white supremacist behavior of the Democratic party. Many media reports castigated Bassett, and several major newspapers published opinion pieces attacking him and demanding his termination. On December 1, 1903, the entire faculty of the college threatened to resign ''en masse'' if the board gave in to political pressures and asked Bassett to resign. He resigned after "parents were urged to withdraw their children from the college and churchmen were encouraged not to recommend the college to perspective students." President
Teddy Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or his initials T. R., was an American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president o ...

Teddy Roosevelt
later praised Bassett for his willingness to express the truth as he saw it.


Professor Mayer and DeGraff of The University of Missouri

In 1929,
Experimental Psychology Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply Experiment, experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it. Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great ma ...
Professor Max Friedrich Meyer and
Sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the scie ...
Assistant Professor Harmon O. DeGraff were dismissed from their positions at the
University of Missouri The University of Missouri (Mizzou, MU, or Missouri) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or ...

University of Missouri
for advising student
Orval Hobart Mowrer Orval Hobart Mowrer (January 23, 1907 – June 20, 1982) was an American psychologist and professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an Academy, academic rank at university, universities and other post-secondary education and ...
regarding distribution of a questionnaire which inquired about attitudes towards partners' sexual tendencies, modern views of marriage, divorce, extramarital sexual relations, and cohabitation. The university was subsequently censured by the
American Association of University Professors The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language fi ...
in an early case regarding academic freedom due a tenured professor.


Professor Rice of Rollins College

In a famous case investigated by the American Association of University Professors, President
Hamilton Holt Hamilton Holt (August 18, 1872 – April 26, 1951) was an American educator, Editing, editor, author and politician. Biography Holt was born on August 18, 1872 in Brooklyn, New York City to George Chandler Holt and his wife Mary Louisa Bowen Holt. ...
of
Rollins College Rollins College is a private liberal arts college A liberal arts college or liberal arts institution of higher education is a college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part o ...
in March 1933 fired John Andrew Rice, an atheist scholar and unorthodox teacher, whom Holt had hired, along with three other "golden personalities", in his push to put Rollins on the cutting edge of innovative education. Holt then required all professors to make a "loyalty pledge" to keep their jobs. The American Association of University Professors censured Rollins. Rice and the three other "golden personalities", who were all dismissed for refusing to make the loyalty pledge, founded
Black Mountain College Black Mountain College was an experimental college founded in 1933 by John Andrew Rice, Theodore Dreier, and several others. Based in Black Mountain, North Carolina Black Mountain is a town in Buncombe County, North Carolina North Carolin ...

Black Mountain College
.


William Shockley

In 1978, a
Nobel prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
-winning
physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at leas ...

physicist
,
electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than ...
inventor, and
electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical enginee ...

electrical engineering
professor,
William Shockley William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. He was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell ...
, was concerned about relatively high reproductive rates among people of African descent, because he believed that
genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, ...

genetics
doomed black people to be intellectually inferior to white people. He stated that he believed his work on
race Race, RACE or "The Race" may refer to: * Race (biology), an informal taxonomic classification within a species, generally within a sub-species * Race (human categorization), classification of humans into groups based on physical traits, and/or s ...
to be more important than his work leading to the Nobel prize. He was strongly criticized for this stance, which raised some concerns about whether criticism of unpopular views of racial differences suppressed academic freedom.


President Summers of Harvard

In 2006,
Lawrence Summers Lawrence Henry Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or ...
, while president of Harvard University, led a discussion that was intended to identify the reasons why fewer women chose to study science and mathematics at advanced levels. He suggested that the possibility of intrinsic gender differences in terms of talent for science and mathematics should be explored. He became the target of considerable public backlash. His critics were, in turn, accused of attempting to suppress academic freedom. Due to the adverse reception to his comments, he resigned after a five-year tenure. Another significant factor of his resignation was several votes of no-confidence placed by the deans of schools, notably multiple professors in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences.


Duke Lacrosse Scandal

The 2006 scandal in which several members of the Duke Lacrosse team were falsely accused of rape raised serious criticisms against exploitation of academic freedom by the university and its faculty to press judgement and deny due process to the three players accused.


Professor Khan of the University of KwaZulu-Natal

In 2006 trade union leader and sociologist Fazel Khan was fired from the
University of KwaZulu-Natal The University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) is a university with five campuses in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. It was formed on 1 January 2004 after the merger between the University of Natal and the University of Durban-Westville. ...
in
Durban Durban ( ) ( zu, eThekwini, from meaning 'the port'), nicknamed ''Durbs'',Ishani ChettyCity nicknames in SA and across the worldArticle on ''news24.com'' from 25 October 2017. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
after taking a leadership role in a strike. In 2008 international concern was also expressed at attempts to discipline two other academics at the same university – Nithiya Chetty and John van der Berg – for expressing concern about academic freedom at the university.


Author J Michael Bailey of Northwestern University

wrote a
popular science Popular science (also called pop-science or popsci) is an interpretation of science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predic ...

popular science
-style book, ''
The Man Who Would Be Queen ''The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism'' (2003) is a book by the American psychologist J. Michael Bailey, published by Joseph Henry Press.Bailey, J. Michael (2003). ''The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science ...
'', which promotes Ray Blanchard's theory that
trans women A trans woman is a woman A woman is an adult female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism that produces the large non-mobile ovum, ova (egg cells), the type of gamete (sex cell) that fuses with the Sperm, male gamete during ...
are motivated by sexuality, and dismisses the " woman trapped in a man's body" concept of transsexuality. In 2007 in an effort to discredit his book, some activists filed formal complaints with Northwestern University accusing Bailey of conducting regulated human research. They also filed a complaint with Illinois state regulators, requesting that they investigate Bailey for practicing psychology without a license. Regulators dismissed the complaint.Carey, Benedict. (21 August 2007
"Criticism of a Gender Theory, and a Scientist Under Siege."
''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
''.
Other academics have also accused him of sexual misconduct.


Professor Li-Ann of New York University School of Law

In 2009 Thio Li-ann withdrew from an appointment at
New York University School of Law New York University School of Law (NYU Law) is the professional graduate law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for be ...
after controversy erupted about some anti-gay remarks she had made, prompting a discussion of academic freedom within the law school. Subsequently, Li-ann was asked to step down from her position in the NYU Law School.


Professor Robinson of the University of California at Santa Barbara

In 2009 the University of California at Santa Barbara charged William I. Robinson with antisemitism after he circulated an email to his class containing photographs and paragraphs of the Holocaust juxtaposed to those of the Gaza Strip. Robinson was fired from the university, but after charges were dropped after a worldwide campaign against the management of the university.


The Diliman Affair of the University of the Philippines

The University of the Philippines at Diliman affair where controversy erupted after Professor Gerardo A. Agulto of the College of Business Administration was sued by MBA graduate student Chanda R. Shahani for a nominal amount in damages for failing him several times in the Strategic Management portion of the Comprehensive Examination. Agulto refused to give a detailed basis for his grades and instead invoked Academic Freedom while Shahani argued in court that Academic Freedom could not be invoked without a rational basis in grading a student.


Professor Salaita of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

In 2013 the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign offered Steven Salaita a faculty position in American Indian studies but then withdrew the offer in 2014, after reviewing some of his comments on Twitter about Israel.


Professor Guth of Kansas University

Professor David Guth of Kansas University was persecuted by the Kansas Board of Regents due to his tweet, from a personal account linked to the university, regarding the shootings which stated, "#NavyYardShooting The blood is on the hands of the #NRA. Next time, let it be YOUR sons and daughters. Shame on you. May God damn you." Following the controversial comments, Kansas University suspended, but ultimately allowed him to come back. Because of this incident and the moral qualms it raised, the Kansas Board of Regents passed a new policy regarding social media. This new legislature allowed universities to discipline or terminate employees who used social media in ways "contrary to the best interests of the university."


See also

* Anthony D. Smith * Freedom of education * Freedom of speech * Hans-Hermann Hoppe#Remarks about homosexuals and academic freedom, Hans-Hermann Hoppe – involved in an academic freedom controversy at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas * List of educational institutions closed in the 2016 Turkish purges * Network for Education and Academic Rights * Politicization of science * Pedagogy * Right to science and culture * Scholars at Risk * Society for Academic Freedom and Scholarship * Speech code * ''Urofsky v. Gilmore'' * Academic freedom in the Middle East * Chicago principles


References


Further reading

* Andreescu, Liviu.
Foundations of Academic Freedom: Making New Sense of Some Aging Arguments
. Studies in Philosophy and Education (2009) 28.6, 499–515. * Andreescu, Liviu.
Individual Academic Freedom and Aprofessional Acts
. Educational Theory (2009) 59.5, 559-572. *Chesterman, Simon.
Academic Freedom in New Haven and Singapore
. Straits Times, 30 March 2012, page A23. * Cross, Tom.
Academic Freedom and the Hacker Ethic
, Communications of the ACM, June 2006. * Ekstrand, Lasse and Wallmon, Monika
Dancing with the Devil? Notes on a Free University
. The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations (2008) 8.3, 171–174. * * * Richard Hofstadter, Hofstadter, Richard
''Academic Freedom in the Age of the College''
Columbia University Press, 1955, 1961. * Karran, Terence.

. Higher Education Policy (2007) 20, 289–313. * Karran, Terence. "Academic Freedom: A Research Bibliography" (2009) has over 1000 entries and is freely downloadable as a pdf from: http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/1763/. * Metzger, Walter
''Academic Freedom in the Age of the University''
Columbia University Press, 1955. * . * Cary Nelson, Nelson, Cary
''No University Is an Island: Saving Academic Freedom''
New York University Press, 2010. * Suissa, J and Sullivan, A.
The Gender Wars, Academic Freedom and Education
. Journal of Philosophy of Education (2021). * Conrad Russell, 5th Earl Russell, Russell, Conrad. "Academic Freedom", Routledge (1993) * Sandis, Constantine.
''"Free Speech Within Reason"''
Times Higher Education,21 January 2010. * Tierney, William G., and Lanford, Michael.
The Question of Academic Freedom: Universal Right or Relative Term
. Frontiers of Education in China (2014) 9.1, 4–23. *


External links


Network for Education and Academic Rights
International
Academic Freedom Watch
Australia
American Association of University Professors

Academic Freedom Week

Council for Academic Freedom and Academic Standards
United Kingdom
Scholars at Risk

Society for Academic Freedom and Scholarship
Canada ;Archives
Washington Committee for Academic Freedom records
1947-1949. .84 cubic feet (2 boxes).
Naomi Achenbach Benson papers
1895-1961. 19.5 cubic feet (40 boxes).
Garland O. Ethel papers
1913-1980. 13.00 cu. ft. (13 boxes).
Ralph H. Gundlach papers
1918-1974. 1.47 cubic feet (4 boxes).
University of Washington Office of the President records
1854-2011. 405.05 cubic feet (466 boxes, 2 packages, 2 volumes, and 5 vertical files). Including: 1 cassette audio tape, 11 audio tape reels, 5 film reels, 1 videocassette tape. {{Authority control Academic freedom, Academia, Freedom Education rights University governance