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Sandalwood is a class of
wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

wood
s from trees in the
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
''
Santalum ''Santalum'' is a genus of woody flowering plants, the best known and commercially valuable of which is the Indian sandalwood tree, ''Santalum album, S. album''. Members of the genus are trees or shrubs. Most are root Parasitic plant, parasi ...
''. The woods are heavy, yellow, and fine-grained, and, unlike many other aromatic woods, they retain their fragrance for decades.
Sandalwood oil Sandalwood oil is an essential oil An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical ...
is extracted from the woods for use. Sandalwood is often cited as one of the most expensive woods in the world. Both the wood and the oil produce a distinctive fragrance that has been highly valued for centuries. Consequently, some species of these slow-growing trees have suffered
over-harvesting Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns. Continued overexploitation can lead to the destruction of the resource. The term applies to natural resources such as: wil ...
in the past.


Nomenclature

The
nomenclature Nomenclature (, ) is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, a ...

nomenclature
and the taxonomy of the genus are derived from this species' historical and widespread use. Etymologically it is ultimately derived from Sanskrit चन्दनं ''Chandanam'' (''čandana-m''), the sandalwood tree, meaning "wood for burning incense" and related to ''candrah'', "shining, glowing" and the Latin ''candere'', to shine or glow. It arrived in English via
Late Greek Late Greek means writings in the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek ...
,
Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share ...
and
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
in the 14th or 15th century.


True sandalwoods

Sandalwoods are medium-sized
hemiparasitic A parasitic plant is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirement from another living plant. They make up about 1% of angiosperms and are found in almost every biome. All Parasite, parasitic plants have modified roots, called ha ...

hemiparasitic
trees, and part of the same botanical family as European
mistletoe Mistletoe is the common name for obligate{{wiktionary, obligate As an adjective, obligate means "by necessity" (antonym '' facultative'') and is used mainly in biology in phrases such as: * Obligate aerobe 300px, Aerobic and anaerobic bacte ...

mistletoe
. Notable members of this group are Indian sandalwood (''
Santalum album ''Santalum album'', or Indian sandalwood, is a small tropical tree, and the traditional source of sandalwood oil 200px, A glass vial containing pure Sandalwood Essential Oil Sandalwood oil is an essential oil An essential oil is a concent ...
'') and Australian sandalwood (''
Santalum spicatum ''Santalum spicatum'', the Australian sandalwood, also Waang and other names (Noongar The Noongar (, also spelt Noongah, Nyungar, Nyoongar, Nyoongah, Nyungah, Nyugah, Yunga) are Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the vari ...
''); others in the genus also have fragrant wood. These are found in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Australia, Indonesia, Hawaii, and other
Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

Pacific Islands
. * '' S. album'' is a threatened species indigenous to South India, and grows in the
Western Ghats The Western Ghats is a mountain range that covers an area of in a stretch of parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traversing the states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', ...

Western Ghats
and a few other mountain ranges such as the
Kalrayan The Kalvarayan Hills are a major range of hills situated in the Eastern Ghats of the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Along with the Pachaimalai Hills, Pachaimalai, Alavaimalai, Javadi Hills, Javadi, and Shevaroy Hills, Shevaroy hills, they sep ...
and
Shevaroy HillsThe Servarayan hills, with the anglicised name Shevaroy Hills, are a towering mountain range (1620 m) near the city of Salem, Tamil Nadu, Salem, in Tamil Nadu state, southern India. It is one of the major hill stations in Tamil Nadu and in the Easte ...
. Although sandalwood trees in India, Pakistan, and Nepal are government-owned and their harvest is controlled, many trees are illegally cut down. Sandalwood oil prices have risen to $3000 per liter recently.
Red sanders Henry Russell "Red" Sanders (May 7, 1905 – August 14, 1958) was an American football player and coach. He was head coach at Vanderbilt Commodores football, Vanderbilt University (1940–1942, 1946–1948) and the UCLA Bruins football, Universi ...
is endemic to Seshachalam, Veliganda, Lankamala, and Palakonda hill ranges, distributed in districts of
Kadapa Kadapa (alternatively spelled Cuddapah) is a city in the southern part of Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh (English: Telugu: ) is a States and union territories of India, state in the south-eastern Coastal India, coastal region of India. It ...

Kadapa
,
Chittoor Chittoor is a city and district headquarters in Chittoor district Chittoor district (), is one of the four districts in the Rayalaseema region of the States and union territories of India, Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The distric ...
, and
Kurnool Kurnool is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...

Kurnool
in
Rayalaseema Rayalaseema () is a geographic region in the Indian state India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by a ...

Rayalaseema
region and parts of
Nellore Nellore is a city located on the banks of Penna River Penna (also known as Pennar, Penner, Penneru, and Uttara Pinakini) is a river of southern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South As ...
and Prakasam in
Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh (English: Telugu: ) is a States and union territories of India, state in the south-eastern Coastal India, coastal region of India. It is the List of states and union territories of India by area, seventh-largest state by area c ...

Andhra Pradesh
, Mysore region of
Karnataka Karnataka (; ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in f ...

Karnataka
(formerly Mysore State), and Marayoor forest in
Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Kerala
,
Southern India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

Southern India
, is high in quality. New
plantation A plantation is an agricultural estate, generally centered on a plantation houseA plantation house is the main house of a plantation A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that spe ...

plantation
s were created with
international aid In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid, economic aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another. ...
in
Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...

Tamil Nadu
for economic exploitation. In Kununurra in Western Australia, Indian sandalwood is grown on a large scale. This species is the primary source of sandalwood used in commercial oil production and should not be confused with West Indian Sandalwood, ''Amyris balsamifera''. * '' S. ellipticum'', '' S. freycinetianum'', and '' S. paniculatum'', the
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
an sandalwood (''iliahi''), were also used and considered high quality. These three species were exploited between 1790 and 1825 before the supply of trees ran out (a fourth species, '' S. haleakalae'', occurs only in subalpine areas and was never exported). Although ''S. freycinetianum'' and ''S. paniculatum'' are relatively common today, they have not regained their former abundance or size, and ''S. ellipticum'' remains rare. * ''
S. yasi
S. yasi
'', a sandalwood from Fiji and Tonga. * '' S. spicatum'' is used by
aromatherapists
aromatherapists
and perfumers. The oil concentration differs considerably from other ''Santalum'' species. In the 1840s, sandalwood was Western Australia’s biggest export earner. Oil was distilled for the first time in 1875, and by the turn of the 20th century, production of Australian sandalwood oil was intermittent. However, in the late 1990s, Western Australian sandalwood oil enjoyed a revival and by 2009 had peaked at more than per year – much of which went to the fragrance industries in Europe. Although overall production has decreased, by 2011, a significant percentage of its production was heading to the chewing tobacco industry in India alongside Indian sandalwood – the chewing tobacco market being the largest market for both oils in 2012. * Other species: Commercially, various other species, not belonging to ''Santalum'' species, are also used as sandalwood.


Unrelated plants

Various unrelated plants with scented wood and also referred to as sandalwood, but not in the true sandalwood genus: *''
Adenanthera pavonina Image:Adenanthera pavonina seeds.jpg, Seeds ''Adenanthera pavonina'' is a Perennial plant, perennial and non-climbing species of leguminous tree. Its uses include food and drink, traditional medicine, and timber. Common names and synonyms ''Ad ...

Adenanthera pavonina
'' – sandalwood tree, red or false red sandalwood *''
Baphia nitida ''Baphia nitida'', also known as camwood, barwood, and African sandalwood (although not a true sandalwood), is a shrubby, leguminous, hard-wooded tree from central west Africa. It is a small understorey, evergreen tree, often planted in village ...
'' – camwood, also known as African sandalwood *''
Eremophila mitchellii ''Eremophila'' may refer to: * Eremophila (bird), ''Eremophila'' (bird), the horned larks * Eremophila (plant), ''Eremophila'' (plant), a plant genus of the family Scrophulariaceae {{Genus disambiguation (about 75%). It is used in
aromatherapy Aromatherapy is a pseudoscience Pseudoscience consists of statements, belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of ...

aromatherapy
and to prepare
soap Soap is a salt (chemistry), salt of a fatty acid used in a variety of cleansing and lubricating products. In a domestic setting, soaps are surfactants usually used for washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping. In industrial settings, ...

soap
s.


Technology

Due to its low
fluorescence Fluorescence is the emission of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as ha ...

fluorescence
and optimal
refractive index In optics Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or ...

refractive index
, sandalwood oil is often employed as an immersion oil within ultraviolet and
fluorescence microscopy A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope The optical microscope, also referred to as a light microscope, is a type of microscope A microscope (from the grc, μικρός, ''mikrós'', "small" and , ''skopeîn'', "to look" o ...

fluorescence microscopy
.


Food

Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific ...
eat the seed kernels, nuts, and fruit of local sandalwoods, such as the quandong ('' S. acuminatum''). Early Europeans in Australia used quandong in cooking
damper A damper is a device that deadens, restrains, or depresses. It may refer to: Music * Damper pedal, a device that mutes musical tones, particularly in stringed instruments * A Mute (music), mute for various brass instruments Structure * Damper (f ...

damper
by infusing it with its leaves, and in making jams, pies, and chutneys from the fruit. In
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
, pulverised bark from red sandalwood (''
Pterocarpus soyauxii ''Pterocarpus soyauxii'', the African padauk or African coralwood, is a species of ''Pterocarpus'' in the family Fabaceae, native to central and tropical west Africa, from Nigeria east to Congo-Kinshasa and south to Angola.International Legume D ...
'') is used - with other tropical spices - when marinating
anchovies An anchovy is a small, common forage fish Forage fish, also called prey fish or bait fish, are small pelagic fish which are preyed on by larger predators for food. Predators include other larger fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Typical oce ...
and some types of
pickled herring Pickled herring is a traditional way of preserving herring as food by pickling Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an ...
such as ''
matjes Soused herring is raw herring soaked in a mild Preservative, preserving liquid. It can be raw herring in a mild vinegar pickle or Dutch brining, brined herring. As well as vinegar, the marinade might contain cider, wine or tea, sugar, herbs (us ...
'',
sprat Sprat is the common name applied to a group of forage fish belonging to the genus ''Sprattus'' in the Family (biology), family Clupeidae. The term also is applied to a number of other small sprat-like forage fish (''Clupeoides'', ''Clupeonella ...
, and certain types of traditional ''spegesild'', inducing a reddish colour and slightly perfumed flavour. Present-day chefs have begun experimenting in using the nut as a substitute for
macadamia ''Macadamia'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circ ...

macadamia
nuts or a bush food substitute for almonds, hazelnuts, and others in Southeast Asian-styled cuisine. The oil is also used as a flavour component in different food items, including candy, ice cream, baked food, puddings, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, and gelatin. The flavouring is used at levels below 10 ppm, the highest possible level for use in food products being 90 ppm.


Distillation

Sandalwood must be distilled so that the oil can be extracted from within. Many different methods are used, including
steam distillation Steam distillation is a separation process A separation process is a method that converts a mixture or solution of chemical substances into two or more distinct product mixtures. At least one of results of the separation is enriched in one or mor ...

steam distillation
, water distillation, CO2 extraction, and solvent extractions. Steam distillation is the most common method used by sandalwood companies. It occurs in a four-step process, incorporating boiling, steaming, condensation, and separation. Water is heated to high temperatures () and is then passed through the wood. The oil is very tightly bound within the cellular structure of the wood, so the high heat of the steam causes the oil to be released. The mixture of steam and oil is then cooled and separated so that the essential oil can be collected. This process is much longer than any other essential oil's distillation, taking 14 to 36 hours to complete, but generally produces much higher quality oil. Water, or hydro, distillation is the more traditional method of sandalwood extraction which involves soaking the wood in water and then boiling it until the oil is released. This method is not used as much anymore because of the high costs and time associated with heating large quantities of water.


Religion


Hinduism

Indian sandalwood is very sacred in the Hindu
Ayurveda Ayurveda () is an alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systema ...

Ayurveda
and is known in Sanskrit as ''chandana.'' The wood is used for worshipping the god Shiva, and it is believed that goddess Lakshmi lives in the sandalwood tree. The wood of the tree is made into a paste using sandalwood powder, and this paste is integral to rituals and ceremonies, to make religious utensils, to decorate the icons of the deities, and to calm the mind during meditation and prayer. It is also distributed to devotees, who apply it to their foreheads or necks and chests. Preparation of the paste is a duty fit only for the pure, so is entrusted only to
priests A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particu ...

priests
when used in temples and during ceremonies. The paste is prepared by grinding wood by hand with granite slabs shaped for this purpose. With the gradual addition of water, a thick paste forms (called ''kalabham'' "കളഭം" in
Malayalam language Malayalam (; , ) is a spoken in the Indian state of and the union territories of and () by the people. It is one of 22 of India and is spoken by 2.88% of Indians. Malayalam has status in Kerala, Lakshadweep and Puducherry (), and is sp ...
and ''gandha'' ಗಂಧ in
Kannada Kannada (; ಕನ್ನಡ, ; less commonly known as Kanarese) is a Dravidian language Dravidian languages (or sometimes Dravidic languages) are a family of languages In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of peop ...

Kannada
) and is mixed with
saffron Saffron () is a spice derived from the flower of ''Crocus sativus ''Crocus sativus'', commonly known as saffron crocus, or autumn crocus, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classifica ...

saffron
or other such pigments to make ''chandanam''. ''Chandanam'', further mixed with herbs, perfumes, pigments, and some other compounds, results in ''javadhu''. ''Kalabham, chandanam,'' and ''javadhu'' are dried and used as ''kalabham'' powder, ''chandanam'' powder, and ''javadhu'' powder, respectively. ''Chandanam'' powder is very popular in India and is also used in Nepal. In Tirupati after religious tonsure, sandalwood paste is applied to protect the skin. In
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
and Ayurveda, sandalwood is thought to bring one closer to the divine. Thus, it is one of the most used holy elements in Hindu and Vedic societies.


Jainism

Sandalwood use is integral part of daily practices of Jainism. Sandalwood paste mixed with saffron is used to worship '' tirthankar'' Jain deities. Sandalwood powder is showered as blessings by Jain monks and nuns (''sadhus'' and ''sadhvis'') to their disciples and followers. Sandalwood garlands are used to dress the body during Jain cremation ceremonies. During the festival of
Mahamastakabhisheka The ''Mahamastakabhisheka'' ("Grand Consecration", "The Great Indian Festival") refers to the ''abhiṣeka ''Abhisheka'' () in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is ...
that is held once in every 12 years, the is then bathed and anointed with libations such as milk, sugarcane juice, and saffron paste, and sprinkled with powders of sandalwood,
turmeric Turmeric (pronounced , also ) is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: ...
, and
vermilion Vermilion (sometimes spelled vermillion) is both a brilliant red Red is the color at the long wavelength end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength Image:dominant wavelength ...

vermilion
.


Buddhism

Sandalwood is mentioned in various ''suttas'' of the
Pāli Canon The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred Sacred describes something ...
. In some Buddhist traditions, sandalwood is considered to be of the ''padma'' (
lotus Lotus may refer to: Plants *Lotus (plant) Lotus identifies various plant taxa: * ''Nelumbo'', a genus of aquatic plants with showy flowers ** ''Nelumbo nucifera'', the Sacred or Indian lotus ** ''Nelumbo lutea'', the American or Yellow lotus * ...

lotus
) group and attributed to . Sandalwood scent is believed by some to transform one's desires and maintain a person's alertness while in
meditation Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness Mindfulness is the practice of purposely bringing one's attention in the present moment without evaluation,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Interventio ...

meditation
. It is also one of the most popular scents used when offering
incense Incense is aromatic biotic material Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms. Most such materials contain carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a chemical element Image ...

incense
to the Buddha and the guru.


Sufism

In ''
sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ...
y particular Y, or y, is the twenty-fifth and penultimate letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, o ...
values, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ...

sufi
'' tradition, sandalwood paste is applied on the ''sufi''’s grave by the disciples as a mark of devotion. It is practiced particularly among the Indian Subcontinent disciples. In the Tamil culture irrespective of religious identity, sandalwood paste or powder is applied to the graves of sufis as a mark of devotion and respect.


East Asian religions

In
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
, sandalwood (檀木), along with
agarwood Agarwood, aloeswood, eaglewood or gharuwood is a fragrant dark resin In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a solid or highly Viscosity, viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into poly ...

agarwood
(沉香木), is the most commonly used incense material by the
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different count ...

Chinese
,
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name " ...

Korean
and
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...
in worship and various ceremonies. However, some sects of
Taoist Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of c ...
s, following the Ming Dynasty Taoist Manual, do not use sandalwood (as well as
benzoin resin Benzoin or benjamin (corrupted pronunciation) is a balsam Balsam is the resin In polymer chemistry Polymer chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that c ...
,
frankincense Frankincense (also known as olibanum) is an aromatic In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or ...
, foreign produced) incense and instead either use
agarwood Agarwood, aloeswood, eaglewood or gharuwood is a fragrant dark resin In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a solid or highly Viscosity, viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into poly ...

agarwood
, or better still ''
Acronychia pedunculata ''Acronychia pedunculata'' is a large shrub or small tree of the understory, gaps and fringes of low country and lower hill tropical forests of tropical Asia. Leaves: elliptic to subolong, often with tapered base. Twigs more or less angular, gl ...

Acronychia pedunculata
'', in worship.The Ming Dynasty Taoist manual 《天皇至道太清玉冊》 states: 「降真香,乃祀天帝之靈香也。除此之外,沉速次之。信靈香可以達天帝之靈。所忌者,安息香、乳香、檀香,外夷所合成之香,天律有禁,切宜慎之。」 Acronychia pedunculata is the spiritual incense of offering to the Heavenly Emperor. Apart from this type, agarwood/aloeswood (Aquilaria malaccensis) then Aquilaria sinensis are the next best. It is believed that this spiritual incense can ascend to reach the spirit of the Heavenly Emperor. Those that are to be avoided are benzoin resin, frankincense, sandalwood, foreign produced incense that violate the Heavenly Law and so one must be careful to observe this."] In Korean Shamanism, sandalwood is considered the holy tree, Tree of Life.


Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism, Zoroastrians offer sandalwood twigs to the ''afarganyu,'' the urn in which the fire is kept at the fire temple (called ''agiyari'' in Gujarati and ''dar-e mehr'' in Persian), to keep the fire burning during religious ceremonies. After the mobad, firekeeping priests complete the ceremony, attendees are allowed to come up to the ''afarganyu'' and place their own pieces of sandalwood into the fire. Fire has been a sacred symbol in the Zoroastrian religion since ancient times and it is considered very important to keep the fires in the temples constantly burning. Because of its high sensitivity to fire, sandalwood works very well for this. Also, the wood has been accepted by the Yasna and Yashts as an appropriate fuel for the fire. It is offered to all of the Fire temple#Classification, three grades of fire in the fire temple, including the Atash Dadgahs. Sandalwood is not offered to the ''divo'', a smaller lamp that is kept in the homes of Zoroastrians. Often, money is offered to the ''mobad'' (for religious expenditures) along with the sandalwood. Sandalwood is called ''sukhad'' in the Zoroastrianism, Zoroastrian community. The sandalwood in the fire temple is often more expensive to buy than at a Zoroastrian store. It is often a revenue, source of income for the fire temple.


See also

* Sandalore


References


Further reading

* Mandy Aftel, ''Essence and Alchemy: A Natural History of Perfume'', Gibbs Smith, 2001, * Dorothy Shineberg (1967), ''They came for sandalwood; a study of the sandalwood trade in the South-West Pacific 1830-1865'', Melbourne, Melbourne University Press.


External links


Plant Cultures: botany, history and use of sandalwood

IUCN Threatened Species: ''Santalum album''
{{Wood products Wood Incense material Perfume ingredients Endangered plants Santalum, *