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In
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
and
dendrology Dendrology ( grc, δένδρον, ''dendron'', "tree"; and grc, -λογία, '' -logia'', ''science of'' or ''study of'') or xylology ( grc, ξύλον, ''ksulon'', "wood") is the science and study of wooded plants (tree In botany, a tr ...
, a rhizome (, from grc, rhízōma, script=Latn (ῥίζωμα) – "mass of roots", from (ῥιζόω) "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean
plant stem '' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious rootsImportant structures in plant development are buds, shoots, root In vascular plants, the roots are the plant organ, organs of a plant that are modified to provide anchorage for the pl ...

plant stem
that sends out
root In vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group ...

root
s and
shoot In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancie ...

shoot
s from its
nodes In general, a node is a localized swelling (a "knot") or a point of intersection (a Vertex (graph theory), vertex). Node may refer to: In mathematics *Vertex (graph theory), a vertex in a mathematical graph *Node (autonomous system), behaviour fo ...
. Rhizomes are also called creeping rootstalks or just rootstalks. Rhizomes develop from
axillary bud The axillary bud (or lateral bud) is an Plant embryogenesis, embryonic or Organogenesis#Plant organogenesis, organogenic shoot located in the axil of a leaf. Each bud has the potential to form shoots, and may be specialized in producing either vege ...
s and grow horizontally. The rhizome also retains the ability to allow new shoots to grow upwards. A rhizome is the main stem of the plant that runs underground horizontally. A
stolon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms ...
is similar to a rhizome, but a stolon sprouts from an existing stem, has long internodes, and generates new shoots at the end, such as in the
strawberry The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown hybrid species Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation Speciation is the evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypi ...

strawberry
plant. In general, rhizomes have short internodes, send out roots from the bottom of the nodes, and generate new upward-growing shoots from the top of the nodes. A
stem tuber Tubers are enlarged structures used as storage organ A storage organ is a part of a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living t ...
is a thickened part of a rhizome or stolon that has been enlarged for use as a
storage organ A storage organ is a part of a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and included algae and fung ...
. In general, a tuber is high in
starch Starch or amylum is a consisting of numerous units joined by s. This is produced by most green s for energy storage. Worldwide, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets, and is contained in large amounts in s like , es, (corn), , ...
, e.g. the
potato The potato is a starch#Food, starchy tuber of the plant ''Solanum tuberosum'' and is a root vegetable native to the Americas. The plant is a perennial plant, perennial in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Wild potato species can be found thro ...

potato
, which is a modified stolon. The term "tuber" is often used imprecisely and is sometimes applied to plants with rhizomes. If a rhizome is separated each piece may be able to give rise to a new plant. The plant uses the rhizome to store
starch Starch or amylum is a consisting of numerous units joined by s. This is produced by most green s for energy storage. Worldwide, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets, and is contained in large amounts in s like , es, (corn), , ...
es,
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
s, and other nutrients. These nutrients become useful for the plant when new shoots must be formed or when the plant dies back for the winter. This is a process known as
vegetative reproduction File:Bryophyllum daigremontianum nahaufnahme1.jpg, ''Bryophyllum daigremontianum, Kalanchoe daigremontiana'' produces plantlets along the margins of its leaves. When they are mature enough, they drop off and root in any suitable soil beneath. ...
and is used by farmers and gardeners to propagate certain plants. This also allows for lateral spread of grasses like
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen perennial plant, perennial flowering plants in the subfamily (biology), subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family ''Poaceae''. The origin of the word "bamboo" is uncertain, but it probably comes from t ...

bamboo
and bunch grasses. Examples of plants that are propagated this way include
hops Hops are the flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plants with a similar ...

hops
,
asparagus Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name ''Asparagus officinalis'', is a perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom ...

asparagus
,
ginger Ginger (''Zingiber officinale'') is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anythi ...

ginger
, es,
lily of the valley Lily of the valley, ''Convallaria majalis'' (), sometimes written lily-of-the-valley, is a woodland flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plant ...

lily of the valley
, cannas, and
sympodial Sympodial growth is type of bifurcating branching pattern where one branch develops more strongly than the other, resulting in the stronger branches forming the primary shoot and the weaker branches appearing laterally. A sympodium, also referred ...
orchid Orchidaceae ( ), commonly called the orchid family, is a diverse and widespread family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social ...

orchid
s. Stored rhizomes are subject to bacterial and fungal infections, making them unsuitable for replanting and greatly diminishing stocks. However, rhizomes can also be produced artificially from tissue cultures. The ability to easily grow rhizomes from tissue cultures leads to better stocks for replanting and greater yields. The plant hormones
ethylene Ethylene (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Science C ...

ethylene
and
jasmonic acid Jasmonic acid (JA) is an organic compound found in several plants including jasmine. The molecule is a member of the jasmonate class of plant hormones. It is biosynthesized from linolenic acid by the octadecanoid pathway. It was first isolated ...

jasmonic acid
have been found to help induce and regulate the growth of rhizomes, specifically in
rhubarb Rhubarb is the fleshy, edible stalks ( petioles) of species and hybrids (culinary rhubarb) of '' Rheum'' in the family Polygonaceae The Polygonaceae are a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals ...

rhubarb
. Ethylene that was applied externally was found to affect internal ethylene levels, allowing easy manipulations of ethylene concentrations. Knowledge of how to use these hormones to induce rhizome growth could help farmers and biologists to produce plants grown from rhizomes, and more easily cultivate and grow better plants. Some plants have rhizomes that grow above ground or that lie at the soil surface, including some '''' species, and
fern A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia art ...

fern
s, whose spreading stems are rhizomes. Plants with underground rhizomes include
ginger Ginger (''Zingiber officinale'') is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anythi ...
s,
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen perennial plant, perennial flowering plants in the subfamily (biology), subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family ''Poaceae''. The origin of the word "bamboo" is uncertain, but it probably comes from t ...

bamboo
, snake plant, the
Venus flytrap The Venus flytrap (''Dionaea muscipula'') is a carnivorous plant native to subtropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographic and climate zones located to the north and south of the tropical zone. Geographically part of the ...

Venus flytrap
, ,
western poison-oak ''Toxicodendron diversilobum'' (syn. ''Rhus diversiloba''), commonly named Pacific poison oak or western poison oak, is a woody vine or shrub in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae The Anacardiaceae, commonly known as the cashew family or sumac ...
,
hops Hops are the flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plants with a similar ...

hops
, and , and the weeds Johnson grass,
Bermuda grass ''Cynodon dactylon'', known as Bermuda grass, ''Dhoob'', ''dūrvā'' grass, ''ethana grass'', ''dubo'', dog's tooth grass, Bahama grass, devil's grass, couch grass, Indian ''doab'', ''arugampul'', ''grama'', wiregrass and scutch grass, is a gras ...
, and . Rhizomes generally form a single layer, but in giant horsetails, can be multi-tiered. Many rhizomes have culinary value, and some, such as '' zhe'ergen'', are commonly consumed raw. Some rhizomes that are used directly in cooking include ginger,
turmeric Turmeric (pronounced , also ) is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: ...
,
galangal Galangal () is a common name for several tropical rhizomatous spices. Differentiation The word ''galangal'', or its variant ''galanga'', can refer in common usage to the aromatic rhizome Lotus rhizome peeled and sliced In botany B ...

galangal
, fingerroot, and
lotus Lotus may refer to: Plants *Lotus (plant), various botanical taxa commonly known as lotus **Lotus (genus), ''Lotus'' (genus), a genus of terrestrial plants in the family Fabaceae **Lotus flower, a symbolically important aquatic Asian plant also k ...

lotus
.


See also

*
Aspen Aspen is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section (botany), section Populus sect. Populus, ''Populus'', of the ''Populus'' genus. Species These species are called aspens: *''Populus ...

Aspen
*
Corm A corm, bulbo-tuber, or bulbotuber is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem '' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious rootsImportant structures in plant development are buds, shoots, root In vascular plants, the ro ...

Corm
*
Mycorrhiza A mycorrhiza (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mycorrhiza


References


External links

*
The Rhizome Collective
for sustainable living {{botany Plant anatomy Plant physiology
Plant reproduction {{Commons cat, Plant reproduction Plants, reproduction Horticultural techniques Reproduction, .Plant ...