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A regent (from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state ''
pro tempore ''Pro tempore'' (), abbreviated ''pro tem'' or ''p.t.'', is a Latin phrase which best translates to "for the time being" in English. This phrase is often used to describe a person who acts as a '' locum tenens'' (placeholder) in the absence of a ...
'' (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...
: 'for the time being') because the regnant monarch is a minor, is absent, abdicated the throne, is incapacitated or dead, or unable to discharge the powers and duties of the monarchy.''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal of the , published by (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as desc ...
''
The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ''ad hoc'' or in accordance with a constitutional rule. ''Regent'' is sometimes a formal title granted to a monarch's most trusted advisor or
personal assistant A personal assistant, also referred to as personal aide (PA) or personal secretary (PS), is a job title describing a person who assists a specific person with their daily business or personal tasks. Duties, responsibilities and functions An ...
. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the
line of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae ...
, the compound term ''
prince regent A prince regent, or princess regent, is a prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. ''Prince'' is also a title of nobility (often ...
'' is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as ''
queen regent A regent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
'' or ''
empress dowager Empress dowager (also dowager empress or empress mother) () is the translation of the title given to the or of an East Asian (, , , and ) emperor. The title was also given occasionally to another of the same generation, while a woman from t ...
''. If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the
interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next (coming from Latin ''i ...

interregnum
when the royal line has died out. This was the case in the
Kingdom of FinlandThe nation of Finland has never been an independent sovereign monarchy: no attempt to establish a fully-fledged Finnish monarchy has been successful. When it finally became established as a modern independent nation-state, it was – despite King ...
and the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
, where the royal line was considered extinct in the
aftermath of World War I The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across , Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved. Four empires collapsed due to the war, old countries were abolished, new ones ...
. In
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#No ...

Iceland
, the regent represented the
King of Denmark The monarchy of Denmark is a constitutional political system, institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark. The Kingdom includes Denmark proper, as well as the autonomous administrative division, autonomous territories of th ...
as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944. In the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is ...
(1569–1795), kings were
elective Elective may refer to: *Choice, the mental process of judging the merits of multiple options and selecting one of them *Course (education)#Elective and required courses, Elective course in education **Elective (medical), a period of study forming p ...
, which often led to a fairly long interregnum. In the interim, it was the Roman Catholic primate (the
archbishop of Gniezno Image:Henryk Muszyński.JPG, Henryk Muszyński This is a list of Archbishops of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gniezno, Archdiocese of Gniezno, who are simultaneously primate (bishop), Primates of Poland since 1418.
) who served as the regent, termed the (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
: ruler 'between kings' as in ancient Rome). In the small republic of
San Marino San Marino (, ), officially the Republic of San Marino ( it, Repubblica di San Marino; ), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino ( it, Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino, links=no), is a small country (and a European microstate) ...

San Marino
, the two
captains regent The captains regent (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional ...
, or , are elected semi-annually (they serve a six-month term) as joint heads of state and of government. Famous regency periods include that of the Prince Regent, later
George IV George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of ...
of the United Kingdom, giving rise to many terms such as
Regency era The Regency era in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state that existed between 1801 and 1922. It was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the Ki ...
and
Regency architecture Regency architecture encompasses classical buildings built in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
. Strictly this period lasted from 1811 to 1820, when his father
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III
was insane, though when used as a period label it generally covers a wider period.
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans (Philippe Charles; 2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723), was a French royal, soldier, and statesman who served as Regent of the Kingdom of France from 1715 to 1723. He is also referred to as ''le Régent''. He was th ...
was Regent of France from the death of
Louis XIV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Louis XIII, Louis XIII of France , mother = Anne of Austria , birth_date = , birth_place = Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Kingdom of France, F ...

Louis XIV
in 1715 until
Louis XV Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (french: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France ruled from the establishment of the West Francia, Kingdom of the West Franks in 843 ...
came of age in 1723; this is also used as a period label for many aspects of French history, as in French, again tending to cover a rather wider period than the actual regency. For a period of a month and a half, the
Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire, ), was the 18-year regime of from 14 January 1852 to 4 September 1870, between the and the , in France. Historians in the 1930s and 1940s often disparaged the Second Empire as a p ...

Second French Empire
was a regency. The
Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...

Emperor
departed with his army, giving his political powers to his wife who essentially carried out all his roles and even sent him orders. He would never be able to return to France, and the empire ended as a regency 2 days after his defeat and imprisonment at the
Battle of Sedan The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War,, german: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empir ...
. The equivalent Greek term is (), meaning overseer.
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein ( ; ), officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (german: link=no, Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europ ...

Liechtenstein
(under
Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein Alois, Hereditary Prince and Regent of Liechtenstein, Count of Rietberg (Alois Philipp Maria; born 11 June 1968), is the eldest son of Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein, and Countess Marie Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau. Alois has been regen ...
) is the only country with an active regency.


Other uses

The term regent may refer to positions lower than the ruler of a country. The term may be used in the governance of organisations, typically as an equivalent of "director", and held by all members of a governing board rather than just the equivalent of the chief executive. In the Society of Jesus, a regent is an individual training to be a Jesuit and who has completed his novitiate and philosophy studies but has not yet progressed to theology studies. A regent in the Jesuits is often assigned to teach in a school or some other academic institution. Some
university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...

university
managers in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
are called regents, and a management board for a
college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary education, tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate un ...

college
or
university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...

university
may be titled the "
Board of Regents In the United States, a board often governs institutions of higher education, including private universities, state universities and community colleges. In each US state, such boards may govern either the state university system, individual coll ...
" . In
New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Colu ...
, all activities related to public and private education ( P-12 and
postsecondary Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, moral ...
) and professional licensure are administered by the
Board of Regents of the University of the State of New YorkThe Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York is responsible for the general supervision of all educational activities within New York State, presiding over University of the State of New York and the New York State Education Depart ...
, the appointed members of which are called regents.


Europe

The term "regent" is also used for members of governing bodies of institutions such as the national banks of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
and
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
. In the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
, the members of the ruling class, not formally hereditary but forming a
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe), the governing elites of cities in parts of medieval a ...
class, were informally known collectively as ''
regenten '' at Haarlem by Frans Hals Frans Hals the Elder (, , ; – 26 August 1666) was a Dutch Golden Age painter, normally of portraits, who lived and worked in Haarlem. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17th-century group portraitu ...
'' (the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
plural for ''regent'') because they typically held positions as "regent" on the boards of town councils, as well as charitable and civic institutions. The
regents group portrait A regents group portrait (''regentenstuk'' or ''regentessenstuk'' in Dutch, literally "regents' piece"), is a group portrait of the board of trustees, called regents or regentesses, of a charitable organization A charitable organization or char ...
, ''regentenstuk'' or ''regentessenstuk'' for female boards in
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
, literally "regents' piece", is a
group portrait A group is a number of people or things that are located, gathered, or classed together. Groups of people * Cultural group, a group whose members share the same cultural identity * Ethnic group, a group whose members share the same ethnic identi ...

group portrait
of the board of trustees, called regents or regentesses, of a
charitable organization A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the Wor ...
or
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functiona ...
. This type of group portrait was popular in
Dutch Golden Age painting Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 (the Ram ...
during the 17th and 18th centuries. Again in Belgium and France (''régent'' in French, or in Dutch), "regent" is the official title of a teacher in a lower secondary school (
junior high school A middle school (also known as intermediate school, junior high school, or lower secondary school) is an educational stage Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning Formal learning is education normally delivered by trained teac ...
), who does not require a
college degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-sec ...
but is trained in a specialized ''école normale'' (
normal school A normal school is an institution created to train high school graduates to be teachers by educating them in the norms of pedagogy Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and h ...
).


Southeast Asia

In the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
, a regent was a native prince allowed to rule de facto colonized 'state' as a ''regentschap''. Consequently, in the successor state of
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
, the term regent is used in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
to mean a ''bupati'', the head of a ''
kabupaten A regency ( Indonesian: ''kabupaten'') is a second-level administrative division of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the I ...
'' (second level local government). In
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, a regent or "pemangku raja" in Malay is the interim ruler of a Malay state if the king is elected as the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Literal translation, lit. "He Who is Made Lord"), Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), also known as the Supreme Head of the Federation, Paramount Ruler or King of Malaysia, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Mal ...
, or is unable to assume the role as head of state. For example, the regent of
Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, ...

Pahang
,
Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah ibni Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah (Jawi alphabet, Jawi: تڠكو حسن الإبراهيم عالم شاه ابن السلطان عبدالله رعاية الدين المصطفى ب ...
held the post after his father,
Abdullah of Pahang Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta'in Billah ( ms, السلطان عبدالله رعاية الدين المصطفى بالله شاه الحاج ابن المرحوم س ...
was elected as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong in 2019. In the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
specifically, the
University of Santo Tomas The University of Santo Tomas (also known as UST, and officially as Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, Manila) is a Private university, private, Catholic research university in Manila, Philippines. Founded on April 28, 1611, by Span ...

University of Santo Tomas
the Father Regent, who must be a
Dominican priest The Order of Preachers, whose members are known as Dominicans, ( la, Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), is a mendicant order of the Catholic Church founded in Toulouse, France, by the Spanish priest Saint Dominic. It was approv ...
and is often also a teacher, serves as the institution's spiritual head. They also form the Council of Regents that serves as the highest administrative council of the university.


See also

*
Queen mother A queen mother is a former queen, often a queen dowager A queen dowager, dowager queen or queen mother (compare: princess dowager, dowager princess or princess mother) is a title or status generally held by the widow of a king. In the case of t ...
*
Empress dowager Empress dowager (also dowager empress or empress mother) () is the translation of the title given to the or of an East Asian (, , , and ) emperor. The title was also given occasionally to another of the same generation, while a woman from t ...
*
Queen dowager#REDIRECT Queen dowager A queen dowager, dowager queen or queen mother (compare: princess dowager, dowager princess or princess mother) is a title or status generally held by the widow of a king. In the case of the widow of an emperor An emp ...
*
List of regents 200px, Gallen-Kallela,_Ensign_List_of_Finnish_noble_families.html" ;"title="Jorma_Gallen-Kallela.html" ;"title="Lilius.html" ;"title="Gustaf Mannerheim as regent of Finland (sitting) and his adjutants (from the left) Lt. Col. Lilius">Gustaf Mann ...
*
Regency Acts The Regency Acts are Act of Parliament, Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed at various times, to provide a regent in the event of the reigning British monarch, monarch being incapacitated or a minor (under the age of 18). Prior to 1 ...
*
Viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A ...

Viceroy
, an individual who, in a colony or province, exercised the power of a monarch on his behalf * Governor-General


References

{{Authority control Heads of state Titles Monarchy