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A quarry is a type of
open-pit mine File:Ende Gelände 2017 CHB 23 (cropped).jpg, The giant bucket-wheel excavators in the German Rhineland coal mines are among the world's biggest land vehicles. Open-pit mining, also known as open-cast or open cut mining, is a surface mining techni ...
in which
dimension stone Dimension stone is natural stone or Rock (geology), rock that has been selected and finished (e.g., trimmed, cut, drilled, ground, or other) to specific sizes or shapes. Color, Texture (geology), texture and pattern, and surface finish of the st ...
,
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
,
construction aggregate Construction aggregate, or simply , is a broad category of coarse- to medium-grained particulate material used in , including , , , , recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world. Agg ...
,
riprap Riprap (in North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures, ...

riprap
,
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock (geology), rock and mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer ...

sand
,
gravel Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel occurs naturally throughout the world as a result of sedimentary and erosive geologic processes; it is also produced in large quantities commercially as crushed stone. Gravel is classifie ...

gravel
, or
slate Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism uprigh ...

slate
is excavated from the ground. The operation of quarries is regulated in some jurisdictions to reduce their environmental impact. The word ''quarry'' can also include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone.


Types of rock

Types of rock extracted from quarries include: *
Chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the (i.e. "empty") spaces in a , and is a of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a between 0% and 100%. Strictly speaking, some tests measure the "acce ...

Chalk
*
China clay Kaolinite ( ) is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of in ...
*
Cinder A cinder is a pyroclastic material. Cinders are extrusive igneous rocks; they are fragments of solidified lava. Cinders are typically brown, black, or red depending on chemical composition and weathering Weathering is the breaking down o ...
*
Clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic m ...

Clay
*
Coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other Chemical element, elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen ...

Coal
*
Construction aggregate Construction aggregate, or simply , is a broad category of coarse- to medium-grained particulate material used in , including , , , , recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world. Agg ...
(
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock (geology), rock and mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer ...

sand
and
gravel Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel occurs naturally throughout the world as a result of sedimentary and erosive geologic processes; it is also produced in large quantities commercially as crushed stone. Gravel is classifie ...

gravel
) *
Coquina Coquina () is a sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation ...
*
Diabase Diabase (), also called dolerite () or microgabbro, is a mafic, holocrystalline, subvolcanic rock equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro. Diabase Dike (geology), dikes and Sill (geology), sills are typically shallow intrusive bodies and ...

Diabase
*
Gabbro Gabbro () is a phaneritic A phanerite is an igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally ...

Gabbro
*
Granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phaneritic A phanerite is an igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Lat ...

Granite
*
Gritstone The Salt Cellar, a gritstone tor on Derwent Edge in the Peak District, England">Peak_District.html" ;"title="Derwent Edge in the Peak District">Derwent Edge in the Peak District, England Gritstone or grit is a hard, coarse-grained, siliceous san ...
*
Gypsum Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineralThe sulfate minerals are a class of mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the ...

Gypsum
*
Limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

Limestone
*
Marble Marble is a metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism upright=1.35, Schematic representation of ...

Marble
*
Ore ore – psilomelane Psilomelane is a group name for hard black manganese oxides including hollandite and romanechite. Psilomelane consists of hydrous manganese Manganese is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart- ...

Ore
s *
Phosphate rock Phosphorite, phosphate rock or rock phosphate is a non-detrital sedimentary rock that contains high amounts of phosphate minerals. The phosphate content of phosphorite (or grade of phosphate rock) varies greatly, from 4% to 20% phosphorus pentoxide ...
*
Quartz Quartz is a hard, crystalline mineral composed of silica (silicon dioxide). The atoms are linked in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon-oxygen Tetrahedral molecular geometry, tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, ...

Quartz
*
Sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...

Sandstone
*
Slate Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism uprigh ...

Slate
*
Travertine Travertine ( ) is a form of terrestrial limestone deposited around mineral springs, especially hot springs. Travertine often has a fibrous or concentric appearance and exists in white, tan, cream-colored, and even rusty varieties. It is formed by ...

Travertine


Stone quarry

Stone quarry is an outdated term for mining construction rocks (limestone, marble, granite, sandstone, etc.). There are open types (called quarries, or open-pit mines) and closed types (
mines Mine, mines, miners or mining may refer to: Extraction or digging *Miner, a person engaged in mining or digging *Mining, extraction of mineral resources from the ground through a mine Grammar *Mine, a first-person English possessive pronoun Mil ...

mines
and caves). For thousands of years, only hand tools have been used in quarries. In the 18th century, the use of drilling and blasting operations was mastered.


Methods of quarrying

The method of removal of stones from their natural bed by using different operations is called quarrying. Methods of quarrying include: *a)
Digging Digging, also referred to as excavation, is the process of using some implement such as claws, hands, manual tools or heavy equipment, to remove material from a solid surface, usually soil or sand on the surface of Earth. Digging is actually the c ...

Digging
– This method is used when the quarry consists of small & soft pieces of stones. *b) Heating – This method is used when the natural rock bed is horizontal and small in thickness. *c) Wedging –This method is used when the hard rock consists of natural fissure. When natural fissures are absent then artificial fissures are prepared by drilling holes. *d) Blasting – It is the process of removal of stones with the help of controlled explosives is filled in the holes of the stones. Line of least resistance plays very important role in the blasting process. Following steps are used in the blasting process; *1)
Drilling Drilling is a cutting Cutting is the separation or opening of a physical object, into two or more portions, through the application of an acutely directed force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), p ...

Drilling
holes – Blast holes are drilled by using drilling machines. *2) Charging – Explosive powders are fed into the cleaned & dried blast holes. *3)
Tamping A tamping machine or ballast tamper is a machine used to pack (or tamp) the track ballast under railway tracks to make the tracks more durable. Prior to the introduction of mechanical tampers, this task was done by manual labour with the help ...
– The remaining portion of the blast holes are filled by clay, ash, fuse & wirings. *4) Firing –The fuses of blasting holes are fired by using electrical power supply or match sticks.


Slabs

Many quarry stones. such as
marble Marble is a metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism upright=1.35, Schematic representation of ...

marble
,
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phaneritic A phanerite is an igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Lat ...

granite
,
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
, and
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...

sandstone
are cut into larger slabs and removed from the quarry. The surfaces are polished and finished with varying degrees of sheen or
luster Lustre or Luster may refer to: Places * Luster, Norway, a municipality in Vestlandet, Norway ** Luster (village), a village in the municipality of Luster * Lustre, Montana, an unincorporated community in the United States Entertainment * Luste ...
. Polished slabs are often cut into
tile Tiles are usually thin, square or rectangular coverings manufactured from hard-wearing material such as ceramic, Rock (geology), stone, metal, baked clay, or even glass. They are generally fixed in place in an array to cover roofs, floors, wall ...

tile
s or
countertop A countertop, also counter top, counter, benchtop, worktop (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone ...
s and installed in many kinds of residential and commercial properties. Natural stone quarried from the earth is often considered a luxury and tends to be a highly durable surface, thus highly desirable.


Problems

Quarries in level areas with shallow
groundwater Groundwater is the water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known form ...

groundwater
or which are located close to surface water often have
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specializ ...

engineering
problems with
drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agr ...

drainage
. Generally the water is removed by pumping while the quarry is operational, but for high inflows more complex approaches may be required. For example, the Coquina quarry is excavated to more than below sea level. To reduce surface leakage, a
moat A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that is dug and surrounds a castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the scope of the word ''castl ...

moat
lined with
clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic m ...

clay
was constructed around the entire quarry.
Groundwater Groundwater is the water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known form ...

Groundwater
entering the pit is pumped up into the moat. As a quarry becomes deeper, water inflows generally increase and it also becomes more expensive to lift the water higher during removal; this can become the limiting factor in quarry depth. Some water-filled quarries are worked from beneath the water, by dredging. Many people and municipalities consider quarries to be eyesores and require various abatement methods to address problems with noise, dust, and appearance. One of the more effective and famous examples of successful quarry restoration is
Butchart Gardens The Butchart Gardens is a group of floral display gardens in Brentwood Bay, British Columbia, Brentwood Bay, British Columbia, Canada, located near Victoria, British Columbia, Victoria on Vancouver Island. The gardens receive over a million visito ...

Butchart Gardens
in Victoria, BC, Canada. A further problem is pollution of roads from trucks leaving the quarries. To control and restrain the pollution of public roads,
wheel washing system A wheel washing system is a device for cleaning the tires of trucks when they are leaving a site, to control and eliminate the pollution of public roads. The installation can be made in or above the ground for either temporary or permanent applic ...
s are becoming more common.


Quarry lakes

Many quarries naturally fill with water after abandonment and become
lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable ove ...

lake
s. Others are made into
landfill A landfill site, also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump, or dumping ground, is a site for the disposal of waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primar ...

landfill
s. Water-filled quarries can be very deep, often or more, and surprisingly cold, so swimming in quarry lakes is generally not recommended. Unexpectedly cold water can cause a swimmer's muscles to suddenly weaken; it can also cause shock and even
hypothermia Hypothermia is defined as a body core temperature Core or cores may refer to: Science and technology * Core (anatomy), everything except the appendages * Core (manufacturing), used in casting and molding * Core (optical fiber), the signal- ...
. Though quarry water is often very clear, submerged quarry stones, abandoned equipment, dead animals and strong currents make diving into these quarries extremely dangerous. Several people drown in quarries each year. However, many inactive quarries are converted into safe swimming sites. Such lakes, even lakes within active quarries, can provide important habitat for animals.


See also

* List of quarries *
List of quarries in the United StatesThis is a list of notable quarries Stone quarry in Soignies, Hainaut (province), Belgium">Hainaut_(province).html" ;"title="Soignies, Hainaut (province)">Soignies, Hainaut (province), Belgium A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which ...
*
Clay pit A clay pit is a quarry Stone quarry in Soignies, Hainaut (province), Belgium">Hainaut_(province).html" ;"title="Soignies, Hainaut (province)">Soignies, Hainaut (province), Belgium A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which dimensio ...
*
Coal mining Coal mining is the process of extracting coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other Chemical element, ele ...

Coal mining
* Collecting fossils * Fair Stone standard *
Gravel pit A gravel pit is an open-pit mine for the extraction of gravel. Gravel pits often lie in river valleys where the water table is high, so they may naturally fill with water to form ponds or excavation lake, lakes. Old, abandoned gravel pits are nor ...

Gravel pit
*
List of minerals This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia. Mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific ...
*
List of rock types The following is a list of rock types recognized by geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geol ...
*
List of stone This is a geographical list of natural stone This is a geographical list of natural stone used for decorative purposes in construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, ...
s *
Miner A miner is a person who extracts ore ore – psilomelane Psilomelane is a group name for hard black manganese oxides including hollandite and romanechite. Psilomelane consists of hydrous manganese Manganese is a chemical elem ...

Miner
*
Mountaintop removal mining Mountaintop removal mining (MTR), also known as mountaintop mining (MTM), is a form of surface mining at the summit or summit ridge of a mountain. Coal seams are extracted from a mountain by removing the land, or overburden, above the seams. T ...
*
Opencast mining Open-pit mining, also known as open-cast or open-cut mining and in larger contexts mega-mining, is a surface mining technique of extracting rock (geology), rock or minerals from the earth from an open-air pit, sometimes known as a Borrow pit, b ...
*
Quarry lake
Quarry lake
*
Quarries (biblical) Zedekiah's Cave—also called Solomon's Quarries—is a underground meleke limestone quarry that runs the length of five city blocks under the Muslim Quarter (Jerusalem), Muslim Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. It was carved over a period of ...


References

S.K Duggal "Building Materials" (2003) 3rd revised edition https://www.atlasobscura.com/categories/quarries


External links

{{Authority control Environmental impact of mining Surface mining