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Psychographics is a qualitative methodology used to describe
trait Trait may refer to: * Phenotypic trait in biology, which involve genes and characteristics of organisms * Trait (computer programming), a model for structuring object-oriented programs (a template class in the C++ programming language) * Trait the ...
s of humans on psychological attributes. Psychographics have been applied to the study of
personality Personality is the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. While there is no generally agreed upon definition of personality, most theories focus on motivation a ...
, values,
opinions An opinion is a judgement Judgement (or US spelling judgment) is also known as ''adjudication'' which means the evaluation of evidence to make a decision. Judgement is also the ability to make considered decisions. The term has four disti ...
, attitudes, interests, and
lifestyles Lifestyle often refers to: * Lifestyle (sociology) Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture. The term was introduced by Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (; ...
. Because this area of research focuses on activities, interests, and opinions, psychographic factors are sometimes abbreviated to 'AIO variables'. Psychographics are applied to the study of cognitive attributes such as attitudes, interests, opinions, and
belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconsci ...

belief
, as well as the study of overt
behavior Behavior (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Cur ...
(e.g., activities). Psychographic studies of individuals or communities can be valuable in the fields of
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
,
demographics Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek δῆμος (''dēmos'') meaning 'the people', and ''-graphy'' from γράφω (''graphō'') meaning 'writing, description or measurement') is the statistics, statistical study of populat ...

demographics
, opinion research, prediction, and
social research Social research is a research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue ...
in general. Psychographic attributes can be contrasted with demographic variables (such as age and gender), behavioral variables (such as purchase data or usage rate), and organizational descriptors (sometimes called firmographic variables), such as industry, number of employees, and functional area. Psychographic methods gained prominence in the
2016 US presidential election The 2016 United States presidential election was the 58th quadrennial presidential election A presidential election is the election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or mul ...
and the opposing campaigns of
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state The United States secretary of state is an of ...

Hillary Clinton
and
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
, with the latter using them extensively in
microtargeting Microtargeting, often used by political party, political parties and election campaigns, includes direct marketing datamining techniques that involve predictive market segmentation (aka cluster analysis). It is used by the United States Republican ...
advertisements to narrow constituencies.


Psychographic profiling

When a relatively complete profile of a person or group's psychographic make-up is constructed, this is called a "psychographic profile". Psychographic profiles are used in
market segmentation In marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; ...
as well as in
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...

advertising
. Some categories of psychographic factors used in market segmentation include: * activity, interest, opinion (AIOs) * attitudes *
values In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philoso ...

values
* behavior * expressions * gesture Psychographic can also be seen as an equivalent of the concept of "culture" when it is used for segmentation at a national level.


Comparison to demographics

Psychographics is often confused with
demographics Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek δῆμος (''dēmos'') meaning 'the people', and ''-graphy'' from γράφω (''graphō'') meaning 'writing, description or measurement') is the statistics, statistical study of populat ...

demographics
, where historical generations may be defined both by demographics, such as the years in which a particular generation is born or even the fertility rates of that generation's parents, but also by psychographic variables like attitudes, personality formation, and cultural touchstones. For example, the traditional approaches to defining the
Baby Boom Generation Baby boomers (often shortened to boomers) are the demographic Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly d ...
or
Generation X Generation X (or Gen X for short) is the demographic cohort Cohort or cohortes may refer to: * Cohort (educational group), a group of students working together through the same academic curriculum * Cohort (floating point), a set of different ...

Generation X
or
Millennials Millennials, also known as Generation Y or Gen Y, are the demographic Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ...
have relied on both demographic variables (classifying individuals based on birth years) and psychographic variables (such as beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviors).
Infusionsoft Keap (formerly Infusionsoft) is a private company A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a corporation not owned by the government, non-governmental organizations and by a relatively small number of shareholders or com ...
published an article arguing that customer psychographic segmentation is more useful than demographic information.


See also

* Attitudinal targeting *
Behavior modification Behavior modification is a treatment approach that replaces undesirable behaviors with more desirable ones by using the principles of operant conditioning. Based on methodological behaviorism, overt behavior is modified with consequences, including ...
*
Behavioral targeting Targeted advertising is a form of advertising, including online advertising, that is directed towards an audience with certain traits, based on the product or person the advertiser is promoting. These traits can either be demographic with a focus ...
*
Black propaganda Black propaganda is a form of propaganda Propaganda is communication that is primarily used to Social influence, influence an audience and further an Political agenda, agenda, which may not be Objectivity (journalism), objective and may be sel ...
*
Brainwashing Brainwashing (also known as mind control, menticide, coercive persuasion, thought control, thought reform, and re-education) is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques. Brainwashing is sa ...
* Consumer analytics * Consumer intelligence *
Demographic targeting Demographic targeting is a form of behavioral advertising in which advertisers target online advertisement Online advertising, also known as online marketing, Internet advertising, digital advertising or web advertising, is a form of mar ...
*
Disinformation Disinformation is a subset of propaganda Propaganda is communication that is primarily used to Social influence, influence an audience and further an Political agenda, agenda, which may not be Objectivity (journalism), objective and may be s ...
*
Freedom of choice Freedom of choice describes an individual's opportunity Opportunity may refer to: Places * Opportunity, Montana, an unincorporated community, United States * Opportunity, Nebraska, an unincorporated community, United States * Opportunity, Washing ...

Freedom of choice
* Geo-targeting *
Geodemographic segmentation In marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; op ...
*
Market analysis Market is a term used to describe concepts such as: *Market (economics) A market is a composition of system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one a ...
*
Market research Market research is an organized effort to gather information about target markets A target market is a group of customers within a business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling ...

Market research
*
Market segmentation In marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; ...
*
Marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

Marketing
*
Microsegment In marketing, a microsegment is a more advanced form of market segmentation that groups a number of customers of the business into specific segments based on various factors including behavioral predictions. Once identified, microsegments can become ...
*
Misinformation Misinformation is incorrect or misleading information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is ve ...
*
Political warfare Political warfare is the use of political means to compel an opponent to do one's will, based on hostile intent. The term political describes the calculated interaction between a government and a target audience, including another state's govern ...
*
Project MKUltra Project MKUltra (or MK-Ultra) was the code name of an illegal human experimentation Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involve ...
*
Propaganda Propaganda is communication that is primarily used to Social influence, influence an audience and further an Political agenda, agenda, which may not be Objectivity (journalism), objective and may be selectively presenting facts to encourage a pa ...
*
Psychometrics Psychometrics is a field of study within psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, s ...
*
Psychological warfare Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PsyOp), have been known by many other names or terms, including Military Information Support Operations (MISO is a traditional Japanese seasoning ...
*
Positioning (marketing) Positioning refers to the place that a brand occupies in the minds of the customers and how it is distinguished from the products of the competitors and different from the concept of brand awareness. In order to position products or brands, compan ...
*
Product differentiation In economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behavio ...
* Segmenting and positioning *
Serviceable available market Serviceable addressable market (SAM; also served available market) is the part of the total addressable market (TAM) that can actually be reached. Overview The serviceable available market or served addressable market is more clearly defined as t ...
*
Subliminal advertising Subliminal stimuli (; the prefix ' literally means "below" or "less than") are any sensory stimuli A stimulus is something that causes a physiological response. It may refer to: *Stimulation Stimulation is the encouragement of development or ...
*
Targeted advertising Targeted advertising is a form of advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; sel ...
*
Target audience A target audience is the intended audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creation of aesthetic Aesthet ...
*
Total addressable market Total addressable market (TAM), also called total available market, is a term that is typically used to reference the revenue In accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantificatio ...
* Values Modes


References

{{reflist, 30em


External links


www.netmba.com/marketing/market/segmentation

www.strategicbusinessinsights.com/vals/ustypes.shtml


appendix to ''Lee the American'' by Gamaliel Bradford
How to Use Psychographic Data in Online Marketing
by Susan Gilbert
What are Psychographics and how to form a buyer persona?
by Zia ul Hassan Market research Market segmentation Marketing research Political campaign techniques