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Protoplasm (/prəʊtə(ʊ)ˌplaz(ə)m/, plural protoplasms) is the living part of a cell that is surrounded by a
plasma membrane The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane A biological membrane, biomembrane or cell membrane is a selectively permeable membra ...
. In some definitions, it is a general term for the
cytoplasm In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
(e.g., Mohl, 1846), but for others, it also includes the
nucleoplasmImage:Diagram human cell nucleus.svg, 300px, The protoplasmic material of the nucleus including the nucleolus labelled as nucleoplasm. Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell (biology), cell, the cell nucleus, nucleus contains nucleoplasm, also known as k ...
(e.g., Strasburger, 1882). For Sharp (1921), "According to the older usage the extra-nuclear portion of the
protoplast Protoplasts of the moss '' Physcomitrella patens'' Protoplast, from ancient Greek (''prōtóplastos'', "first-formed"), is a biology, biological term coined by Johannes von Hanstein, Hanstein in 1880 to refer to the entire cell, excluding the ce ...
'the entire cell, excluding the cell wall''was called "protoplasm," but the nucleus also is composed of protoplasm, or living substance in its broader sense. The current consensus is to avoid this ambiguity by employing
Strasburger Strasburger is a German language, German locational surname, which originally meant a person from Strasbourg, France or from several places called Strasburg (disambiguation), Strasburg in Germany.''Dictionary of American Family Names''"Strassburger ...
's '(1882)''terms cytoplasm Kölliker_(1863),_originally_as_synonym_for_protoplasm''.html" ;"title="Albert_von_Kölliker.html" ;"title="'coined by Kölliker_(1863),_originally_as_synonym_for_protoplasm''">Albert_von_Kölliker.html"_;"title="'coined_by_Albert_von_Kölliker">Kölliker_(1863),_originally_as_synonym_for_protoplasm''and_nucleoplasmImage:Diagram_human_cell_nucleus.svg,_300px,_The_protoplasmic_material_of_the_nucleus_including_the_nucleolus_labelled_as_nucleoplasm. Similar_to_the_cytoplasm_of_a_cell_(biology),_cell,_the_cell_nucleus,_nucleus_contains_nucleoplasm,_also_known_as_k_...
_([''term_coined_by_Edouard_Van_Beneden.html" ;"title="Albert von Kölliker">Kölliker (1863), originally as synonym for protoplasm''">Albert_von_Kölliker.html" ;"title="'coined by Albert von Kölliker">Kölliker (1863), originally as synonym for protoplasm''and
nucleoplasmImage:Diagram human cell nucleus.svg, 300px, The protoplasmic material of the nucleus including the nucleolus labelled as nucleoplasm. Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell (biology), cell, the cell nucleus, nucleus contains nucleoplasm, also known as k ...
([''term coined by Edouard Van Beneden">van Beneden (1875), or''] karyoplasm, [''used by''] Walther Flemming, Flemming [''(1878)''])". The cytoplasm definition of Strasburger excluded the plastids (''Chromatoplasm''). Like the nucleus, whether to include the
vacuole A vacuole () is a membrane-bound organelle In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell (biology), cell, that has a specific function. The name ''organelle'' comes from the idea that these structures are parts ...
in the protoplasm concept is controversial.


Terminology

Besides "protoplasm", many other related terms and distinctions were used for the cell contents over time. These were as follows:Battaglia, E. (1985)
Meiosis and mitosis: a terminological criticism
''Annali di Botanica'' (Rome) 43: 101–140. (Table 3, "-plasma derivatives", p. 118).
* '' Urschleim'' (
Oken
Oken
, 1802, 1809), * ''Protoplasma'' (Purkinje, 1840, von Mohl, 1846), * ''Primordialschlauch'' (primordial utricle, von Mohl, 1846), * '' sarcode'' (
Dujardin Dujardin is a French surname, meaning "from the garden", and may refer to: * Charlotte Dujardin, British dressage rider * Édouard Dujardin, French writer * Félix Dujardin (1801–1860), French biologist * Jean Dujardin, French actor and comedian ...
, 1835, 1841), * ''
Cytoplasm In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
a'' ( Kölliker, 1863), * ''Hautschicht/Körnerschicht'' ( ectoplasm/
endoplasm Endoplasm generally refers to the inner (often granulated), dense part of a cell's cytoplasm In cell biology, the cytoplasm is all of the material within a Cell (biology), cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus. The ma ...
, Pringsheim, 1854; Hofmeister, 1867),Wayne (2009), p. 134. * ''Grundsubstanz'' (
ground substance Ground substance is an amorphous gel-like substance in the extracellular space that contains all components of the extracellular matrix In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatom ...
, Cienkowski, 1863), *
metaplasm A metaplasm is generic term for almost any kind of alteration, whether intentional or unintentional, in the pronunciation or the orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication ...
/protoplasm (Hanstein, 1868), *
deutoplasm The deutoplasm comprises the food particles stored in the cytoplasm In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including ...
/protoplasm (van Beneden, 1870), * bioplasm (Beale, 1872), * paraplasm/protoplasm (Kupffer, 1875), * inter-filar substance theory (Velten, 1876) * ''
Hyaloplasm The cytosol, also known as cytoplasmic matrix or groundplasm, is one of the liquids found inside cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a s ...
a'' (Pfeffer, 1877), * ''
Protoplast Protoplast, from ancient Greek (''prōtóplastos'', "first-formed"), is a biology, biological term coined by Johannes von Hanstein, Hanstein in 1880 to refer to the entire cell, excluding the cell wall. Protoplasts can be generated by strippin ...
'' (Hanstein, 1880), * ''Enchylema/Hyaloplasma'' (Hanstein, 1880), * ''Kleinkörperchen'' or ''Mikrosomen'' (small bodies or
microsomesIn cell biology, microsomes are heterogenous vesicle (biology), vesicle-like artifacts (~20-200 nm diameter) re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in ...
, Hanstein, 1882), * paramitome (Flemming, 1882), * '' Idioplasma'' (Nageli, 1884), * ''Zwischensubstanz'' (inter-alveolar substance, , 1892), * ''Grundplasma'' (ground plasma, Schütt, 1895), * '' ergastoplasme'' (Garnier, 1897), * phaneroplasm/cryptoplasm (Seifriz, 1931), * cytoplasmic matrix (Munson, 1899; ''zytoplasmatische Matrix'', Bergmann, 1956), * ''Protoplasma- oder Zelleinschlüsse'' (protoplasmic or cellular inclusions, Szymonowicz, 1901), * kinoplasm/trophoplasm (Strasburger et at., 1912), *
cytosol The cytosol, also known as cytoplasmic matrix or groundplasm, is one of the liquids found inside cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a s ...
(Lardy, 1965).


History

The word "protoplasm" comes from the Greek ''protos'' for ''first'', and ''plasma'' for ''thing formed'', and was originally used in religious contexts. It was used in 1839 by J. E. Purkinje for the material of the animal embryo.Purkinje J.E. 1840
Über die Analogien in den Strukturelementen des thierischen und pflanzichen Organismus
In: ''Übersicht der Arbeiten und Veränderungen der schlesischen Gesellschaft für vaterländische Kultur'', Jahre 1839: 81.
Later, in 1846
Hugo von Mohl Hugo von Mohl FFRS HFRSE Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland's national academy of science and Literature, letters, judged to be "eminently distin ...

Hugo von Mohl
redefined the term (also named as ''Primordialschlauch'', "primordial utricle") to refer to the "tough, slimy, granular, semi-fluid" substance within plant cells, to distinguish this from the
cell wall A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane cell membrane vs. Prokaryotes The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to a ...
and the cell sap (''Zellsaft'') within the
vacuole A vacuole () is a membrane-bound organelle In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell (biology), cell, that has a specific function. The name ''organelle'' comes from the idea that these structures are parts ...
.von Mohl, H. 1846
Ueber die Saftbewegung im Inneren der Zellen
''Bot. Ztg.'' 4: 73-78, 89-94.
Max Schultze Max Johann Sigismund Schultze (25 March 1825 – 16 January 1874) was a Germany, German microscopic anatomist noted for his work on cell theory. Biography Schultze was born in Freiburg im Breisgau (Baden). He studied medicine at University of Grei ...
in 1861 proposed the "Protoplasm Doctrine" which states that ''all living cells are made of a living substance called Protoplasm''.
Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist and anthropologist specialising in comparative anatomy. He has become known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. The stori ...

Thomas Huxley
(1869) later referred to it as the "physical basis of life" and considered that the property of life resulted from the distribution of molecules within this substance. The protoplasm became an " epistemic thing". Its composition, however, was mysterious and there was much controversy over what sort of substance it was. In 1872, created the
vitalist Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things". Where vitalism explicitly invoke ...
term "bioplasm", to contrast with the
materialism Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimate ...
of Huxley.Beale, L. S. (1872).
Bioplasm
'. London: J. & A. Churchill.
In 1880, term
protoplast Protoplasts of the moss '' Physcomitrella patens'' Protoplast, from ancient Greek (''prōtóplastos'', "first-formed"), is a biology, biological term coined by Johannes von Hanstein, Hanstein in 1880 to refer to the entire cell, excluding the ce ...
was proposed by Hanstein (1880) for the entire cell, excluding the cell wall, and some authors like Julius von Sachs (1882) preferred that name instead of cell.Wayne (2009), p. 15. In 1965, Lardy introduced the term "
cytosol The cytosol, also known as cytoplasmic matrix or groundplasm, is one of the liquids found inside cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a s ...
", later redefined to refer to the liquid inside cells.Lardy, H. A. 1965. On the direction of pyridine nucleotide oxidation-reduction reactions in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. In: ''Control of energy metabolism'', edited by B. Chance, R. Estabrook, and J. R. Williamson. New York: Academic, 1965, p. 245

By the time Huxley wrote, a long-standing debate was largely settled over the fundamental unit of life: was it the cell or was it protoplasm? By the late 1860s, the debate was largely settled in favor of protoplasm. The cell was a container for protoplasm, the fundamental and universal material substance of life. Huxley's principal contribution was to establish protoplasm as incompatible with a vitalism, vitalistic theory of life. Attempts to investigate the
origin of life In evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molec ...
through the creation of synthetic "protoplasm" in the laboratory were not successful. The idea that protoplasm of eukaryotes is simply divisible into a ground substance called "cytoplasm" and a structural body called the
cell nucleus In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. ''nuclei''; from Latin or , meaning ''kernel'' or ''seed'') is a biological membrane#Function, membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryote, eukaryotic cell (biology), cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single n ...

cell nucleus
reflects the more primitive knowledge of cell structure that preceded the development of
electron microscopy An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a hig ...

electron microscopy
, when it seemed that cytoplasm was a homogeneous fluid and the existence of most sub-cellular compartments, or how cells maintain their shape, was unknown. Today, it is known that the cell contents are structurally very complex and contain multiple
organelle In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, ...
s, the cytoskeleton and
biomolecular condensate Biomolecular condensates are a class of non-membrane A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or other small particles. Biological membranes include cell mem ...
s.


Description


Physical Nature

Protoplasm is physically
translucent In the field of optics Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order ...
,
granular Granularity (also called graininess), the condition of existing in granules or grains A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the pro ...
slimy, semifluid or
viscous The viscosity of a fluid In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, ...

viscous
. In it, granules of different shapes and sizes are suspended in solution. It may exist in two interchangeable states which are more liquid-like sol state and more solid-like gel state which is like jelly. The constituent molecules are free to move in sol state, while in gel state, the constituent molecules are compactly arranged. Protoplasm becomes
opaque Opacity or opaque may refer to: * Impediments to (especially, visible) light: ** Opacities, absorption coefficient:''For "attenuation coefficient" as it applies to electromagnetic theory and telecommunications see Attenuation constant The propaga ...
when it is heated. It also coagulates on heating. It occurs everywhere in the cell. In
eukaryote Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ...

eukaryote
s, the portion of protoplasm surrounding the
cell nucleus In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. ''nuclei''; from Latin or , meaning ''kernel'' or ''seed'') is a biological membrane#Function, membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryote, eukaryotic cell (biology), cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single n ...

cell nucleus
is known as the
cytoplasm In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
and the portion inside the nucleus as the
nucleoplasmImage:Diagram human cell nucleus.svg, 300px, The protoplasmic material of the nucleus including the nucleolus labelled as nucleoplasm. Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell (biology), cell, the cell nucleus, nucleus contains nucleoplasm, also known as k ...
. In
prokaryote A prokaryote () is a single-celled organism A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual conti ...
s the material inside the plasma membrane is the bacterial cytoplasm, while in
Gram-negative bacteria Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), do ...
the region outside the plasma membrane but inside the outer membrane is the
periplasm 400px, cell_wall.html"_;"title="Gram-negative_cell_wall">Gram-negative_cell_wall_ The_periplasm_is_a_concentrated_gel-like_matrix_(biology).html" ;"title="cell_wall_.html" ;"title="cell_wall.html" ;"title="Gram-negative cell wall">Gram-negative ce ...
.


Chemical Composition

There are about 35 elements, like
carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ...

carbon
,
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

hydrogen
,
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
,
phosphorus Phosphorus is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical el ...

phosphorus
,
sulphur Sulfur (in nontechnical British English: sulphur) is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: th ...

sulphur
,
calcium Calcium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

calcium
and many others which are identified in protoplasm of different cells. They form compounds, like
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
(75-95%),
carbohydrates A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
,
ions An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are u ...
,
proteins Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

proteins
,
lipids In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...
,
nucleic acids Nucleic acids are biopolymer Biopolymers are natural polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much", may refer to: Businesses * China Poly Group Corporation, a Chinese busin ...

nucleic acids
(
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical ...

DNA
and
RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many Re ...

RNA
),
fatty acids In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in ...
,
glycerol Glycerol (; also called glycerine in British English and glycerin in American English) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. The glycerol backbone is found in lipids known ...
,
nucleotides Nucleotides are organic molecules , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, ...

nucleotides
,
nucleosides Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group. A nucleoside consists simply of a nucleobase (also termed a nitrogenous base) and a five-carbon sugar (ribose or 2'-deoxyribose) whereas a nucleotide ...

nucleosides
and
minerals In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers ...

minerals
. They are living as long as they are part of protoplasm. They are not able to perform functions of life independently. The composition of protoplasm is inconsistent and continuous changes take place in it.


Functions

Some functions of protoplasm are:- # It provides place where all life functions occur. # The cells respond to various stimuli like temperature, light, chemicals, gravitation, pricking, electric shocks and others because of properties of protoplasm. # Cyclosis (the streaming movement of protoplasm is known as Cyclosis. It helps in even distribution of various materials in the cells.)


See also

* Chemical evolution *
Membrane A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecule A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A m ...

Membrane
*
Symplast The symplast of a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can ...


References


External links

* {{Authority control Cell biology