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In
structural geology Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by th ...
and
diagenesis upright=1.35, Permineralization in vertebra from ''Valgipes bucklandi'' Diagenesis () is the process that describes physical and chemical changes in sediments first caused by water-rock interactions, microbial activity, and compaction after the ...
, pressure solution or pressure dissolution is a
deformation mechanism Deformation mechanism refers to the various processes occurring at micro-scale that are responsible for changes in a material A material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or o ...

deformation mechanism
that involves the
dissolution Dissolution may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books * Dissolution (Forgotten Realms novel), ''Dissolution'' (''Forgotten Realms'' novel), a 2002 fantasy novel by Richard Lee Byers * Dissolution (Sansom novel), ''Dissolution'' (Sansom novel), a 2 ...

dissolution
of minerals at grain-to-grain contacts into an
aqueous An aqueous solution is a solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water. The salt is the solute and the water the solvent. In chemistry, a solution ...
pore Pore may refer to: Biology Animal biology and microbiology * Sweat pore Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue ...
fluid in areas of relatively high stress and either deposition in regions of relatively low stress within the same rock or their complete removal from the rock within the fluid. It is an example of diffusive
mass transfer Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning stream, phase, fraction or component, to another. Mass transfer occurs in many processes, such as absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorptio ...
. The detailed kinetics of the process was reviewed by Rutter (1976), and since then such kinetics has been used in many applications in earth sciences.


Occurrence

Evidence for pressure solution has been described from sedimentary rocks that have only been affected by
compaction Compaction may refer to: * Soil compaction In geotechnical engineering#REDIRECT geotechnical engineering {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ..., soil compaction is the process in which stress applied to a soil causes ...
. The most common example of this is
bedding plane upright=1, Tilted sedimentary bedding in Salto_del_Fraile_Formation,_Peru..html" ;"title="Cretaceous">shales of the Cretaceous Morro Solar Group">Salto del Fraile Formation, Peru.">Cretaceous">shales of the Cretaceous Morro Solar Group">Salto del ...
parallel
stylolite Stylolites (Greek: ''stylos'', pillar; ''lithos'', stone) are serrated surfaces within a rock mass at which mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse") ...
s developed in
carbonates In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its natural form as a crystallinity, crystalline min ...
. In a tectonic manner, deformed rocks also show evidence of pressure solution including stylolites at a high angle to bedding. The process is also thought to be an important part of the development of
cleavage Cleavage may refer to: Science * Cleavage (crystal), in mineralogy and materials science, a process of splitting a crystal * Cleavage (geology), the foliation perpendicular to stress as a result of ductile deformation * Cleavage (embryo), in embr ...
.


Theoretical models

A theoretical model was formulated by Rutter, and a recent mathematical analysis was carried out, leading to the so-called Fowler–Yang equations, which can explain the transition behaviour of pressure solution.


See also

*
Fick's laws of diffusion Fick's laws of diffusion describe diffusion File:DiffusionMicroMacro.gif, 250px, Diffusion from a microscopic and macroscopic point of view. Initially, there are solute molecules on the left side of a barrier (purple line) and none on the rig ...
*
Fold (geology) In structural geology Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of Rock (geology), rock units with respect to their Deformation (geology), deformational histories. The primary goal of structural geology is to use meas ...
*
Rock microstructure Rock microstructure includes the texture of a rock and the small scale rock structures. The words "texture" and "microstructure" are interchangeable, with the latter preferred in modern geological literature. However, texture is still acceptable b ...
*
Stylolite Stylolites (Greek: ''stylos'', pillar; ''lithos'', stone) are serrated surfaces within a rock mass at which mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse") ...
*
Terzaghi's principle Terzaghi's Principle states that when stress is applied to a porous material, it is opposed by the fluid pressure filling the pores in the material. Karl von Terzaghi's introduced the idea in a series of papers in the 1920's based on his examinatio ...


References

Limestone Petrology Sedimentary rocks Structural geology {{geology-stub