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The president of Egypt is the executive
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the northeast, the , which is the northern arm of the R ...

Egypt
. Under the various iterations of the
Constitution of Egypt The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt. The Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was passed in a Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2014, referendum in January 2014. The constitution took effect after the resul ...
following the
Egyptian Revolution of 1952 The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 ( ar, ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the 23 July Revolution, was a period of profound political, economic, and societal change in Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic ...
, the president is also the
supreme commander of the Armed Forces A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme command and control Command and control is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ... hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men' ...

supreme commander of the Armed Forces
, and head of the executive branch of the
Egyptian government The politics of Egypt are based on republicanism Republicanism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world ...
. The current president is
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi; (born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the List of presidents of Egypt, sixth and current President of Egypt, former Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance (Egypt), Mi ...

Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
, in office since 8 June 2014.


History

The first president of Egypt was
Mohamed Naguib Major General Mohamed Bey Naguib Youssef Qutb El-Qashlan ( ar, الرئيس اللواء محمد بك نجيب يوسف قطب القشلان, ; 19 February 1901 – 28 August 1984) was an Egyptian politician and military figure who briefl ...
, who along with
Gamal Abdel Nasser Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein, ( ɡəˈmɑːl æbdɛl ˈnɑːsər; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East Th ...

Gamal Abdel Nasser
, led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 that overthrew
King Farouk Farouk I (; ar, فاروق الأول ''Fārūq al-Awwal''; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to th ...
and marked the end of the British colonial rule. Though Farouk's infant son was formally declared by the revolutionaries as King
Fuad II Fuad II (), (full name: ''Ahmed Fuad The Second''; born 16 January 1952 as Prince Ahmad Fuad) is a member of the Egyptian Muhammad Ali dynasty#REDIRECT Muhammad Ali dynasty The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan f ...

Fuad II
, all effective executive power was vested in Naguib and the Revolutionary Command Council. On 18 June 1953, just under a year after the coup d'état, the Council abolished the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan, and declared Egypt a
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
, with Mohamed Naguib as president. At this point, the Muhammad Ali Dynasty was over in all but name, having effectively lost power when the British assumed colonial rule over Egypt in the late 19th century. Hence, Naguib's presidency marked the beginning of Egypt's independence as a state after a recent history of consistent occupying forces. Naguib resigned as president in November 1954, following a severe rift with the younger military officers who had participated with him in the revolution. Thereafter, the office of president remained vacant until January 1956, when Gamal Abdel Nasser was elected as president via a
plebiscite A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct and universal vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal and can have nationwide or local forms. This may result in the adoption of a ...
. Nasser would remain as president of Egypt, and as well as president of the
United Arab Republic The United Arab Republic (UAR; ar, الجمهورية العربية المتحدة, al-Jumhūrīyah al-'Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah) was a sovereign state in the Middle East from 1958 until 1971. It was initially a political union between Re ...

United Arab Republic
which lasted from 1958 to 1971, until his sudden death in September 1970 at the age of 52. Nasser was succeeded by his vice president,
Anwar Sadat Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat, (25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was an Egyptian politician who served as the third President of Egypt, from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat ...

Anwar Sadat
, who was elected by plebiscite in October 1970. Sadat served as president until his assassination in October 1981, and shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Israeli prime minister Menachim Begin in 1978 for beginning peace talks. He was succeeded by his vice president,
Hosni Mubarak Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the ...
, who was elected president by plebiscite and would remain so for nearly 30 years. In the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, Mubarak, who held office from 14 October 1981 until 11 February 2011, was forced to resign following mass nationwide protests demanding his removal from office. On 10 February 2011 Mubarak transferred presidential powers to his recently appointed vice president,
Omar Suleiman Omar Mahmoud Suleiman ( ar, عمر محمود سليمان, ; 2 July 1936 – 19 July 2012) was an Egyptian army general, politician, diplomat, and intelligence officer. A leading figure in Egypt's intelligence system beginning in 1986, Sul ...
. Suleiman's wielding of presidential powers was a momentary formality, as the position of president of Egypt was then officially vacated, and the
Supreme Council of the Armed Forces The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF; ar, المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة, ', also Higher Council of the Armed Forces and National Defence Council) is a statutory body of between 20 and 25 senior Egyptian military ...
, led by
Field Marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space force ...

Field Marshal
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Mohamed Hussein Tantawy Soliman ( ar, محمد حسين طنطاوي سليمان, ; born 31 October 1935) is an Egyptian field marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior t ...
, assumed executive control of the state. On 30 June 2012, the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
-affiliated
Mohamed Morsi Mohamed Mohamed Morsi Eissa Al-AyyatThe spellings of his first and last names vary. survey of 14 news organizations plus Wikipedia in July 2012
was sworn in as President of Egypt, having won the
2012 Egyptian presidential election A presidential election was held in Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corner of Africa and Western Asia, southwest corner of Asia by a ...
on 24 June; he was the first president to gain power solely through an election via popular vote. However, Morsi's presidency was short-lived, and slightly more than a year later on 3 July 2013 he was removed from office following mass protests against his rule.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi; (born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the List of presidents of Egypt, sixth and current President of Egypt, former Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance (Egypt), Mi ...

Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
, who served as Defence Minister under Morsi's presidency and retained his post after Morsi's removal from office, permanently retired from the Egyptian Armed Forces in 2014 and then went on to win the 2014 presidential election, being sworn in as president on 8 June 2014. He was later re-elected to a second term in 2018 after winning the 2018 presidential election.


Old electoral system

The
Egyptian Constitution The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt. The Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was passed in a Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2014, referendum in January 2014. The constitution took effect after the result ...
has had various forms since the establishment of the republic in 1953. In all iterations of the republican constitution until 2005, the method of electing the president was based on that of the
French Fifth Republic The Fifth Republic (french: Cinquième République) is France's current republic, republican system of government. It was established 4 October 1958 by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of France, Constitution of the Fifth Republic.. The ...
. Both the pre-revolution
Egyptian Civil Code The Egyptian Civil Code is the primary source of civil law for Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corner of Africa and Western Asia, sou ...
, and the
semi-presidential A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of the state. It differs from a parliam ...
system of government adopted after the revolution were strongly influenced by the legal and political tradition of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. In this two-stage system, the Egyptian legislature, the National Assembly (a name also inspired by its French counterpart), would nominate one of a number of candidates for the presidency. A candidate needed at least a two-thirds majority in the Assembly in order to win the nomination. In the second stage, the candidate was confirmed in office by popular plebiscite of all eligible voters in the country. Egypt maintained this system even after it was abandoned by France in 1962 in favour of direct presidential elections, eliminating the role of the legislature in the election of the French president. In the Egyptian Constitution of 1971, the name of the National Assembly was changed to the People's Assembly.


2005/2007 constitutional amendments

In 2005 and 2007, constitutional amendments were made. Principles in the amended constitution include: * election of the president of the republic by direct
secret ballot The secret ballot, also known as the Australian ballot, is a voting method in which a voter Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, electorate, in order to make a collective decision making, decision or expres ...
by citizens who have the right to vote * ensuring that multiple candidates be put forward for the people to choose from * ensuring the credibility of the nomination process * providing the opportunity for
political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
to put forward one of their leaders to contest the first presidential elections to be held in light of the amendment * the establishment of a presidential election commission that would enjoy complete independence to supervise the election process * carrying out the election in a single day * ensuring judicial supervision over the voting process The following provisions regarding the election process are stipulated in Article 76 as amended: * A successful candidate must be elected by the majority of the votes. If no candidate attains such a majority, elections will be repeated after at least seven days between the two candidates having the highest votes. In case of a tie between the candidate who attained the second highest votes and a third candidate, the third candidate shall participate in the second round. The candidate who receives the highest votes in the second round shall be declared president. * The amendment also provides that a law will be passed to regulate the relevant election procedures. This law is expected to regulate the various aspects of the election process itself, including campaign funding, equal access to the media, and guarantees of fair competition. * As required by the amendment, the law will be submitted to the Supreme Constitutional Court to opine on its constitutionality. This establishes an important precedent in Egypt's legal tradition, by which the Supreme Constitutional Court shall have the right of prior review of national legislation to decide on its compatibility with the Constitution. This differs from the practice thus far by which the review process undertaken by the Court on national legislation was done by
judicial review Judicial review is a process under which executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, ...
subsequent to the passage of legislation.


Presidential powers

Under the system created by the 1980, 2003 and 2007 constitutional amendments to the 1971 Constitution, the President is the pre-eminent executive figure, who names the
Prime Minister of Egypt The Prime Minister of Egypt () is the head of the Egyptian government. A direct translation of the Arabic-language title is "Minister-President of Egypt" and "President of the Government". The Arabic title can also be translated as "President of ...
as well as appoints the Cabinet per the latter's recommendation, while in reality, was the head of both the state and of the government, aside from being the top foreign policy maker and holding supreme command over the military. During
martial law Martial law is the temporary imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an military occ ...
, the President also anoints deans of faculties and majors, and can also enlist or oust people in the private sector. The President then also has the power to issue regulations for the enforcement of laws, ensuring proper public services, etc., which have been transferred to the Prime Minister under the 2012 and 2014 Constitutions. Egypt had been under martial law since 1981. After the Egyptian revolution in 2011 that ousted the 30-year regime of then President
Hosni Mubarak Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the ...
, the martial law was temporarily suspended. The 2012 Constitution provided for a semi-presidential form of government in which the president shares executive powers with the prime minister, until it was suspended following Morsi's removal from office. This structure was retained by the 2014 Constitution, which was drafted following Morsi's ousting and came into effect after a referendum in 2014. Under the present 2014 Constitution, the president is the head of state as well as that of the executive. The president lays down, along with the prime minister and the cabinet, the state's general policy and oversees its implementation. The president represents Egypt in foreign relations and has the power to ratify treaties, can issue decrees having the force of law when the House of Representatives is in recess and such decrees are subject for approval by the House after resuming its sessions at the end of the recess, and acts as the supreme commander of the armed forces. The president has also the power of pardon, and can exercise necessary powers in times of emergencies.


Requirements to hold office

Article 141 of the
Egyptian Constitution The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt. The Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was passed in a Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2014, referendum in January 2014. The constitution took effect after the result ...
establishes the requirements one must meet in order to become president. The president of the republic should: be an Egyptian citizen, be born to Egyptian parents (never having dual nationality), have participated in the military or be exempted from it, and cannot be less than 40 years old.


Election

Election procedures are taken before the end of the incumbent president's term by 60 days.


Last election


Candidacy

Additional requirements were provisioned in Article 142 of the Egyptian constitution concerning candidates for the president's office. * Candidates must have the recommendation of 20 members of the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
or the endorsement of 25,000 people across 15 governorates, with at least 1,000 signatures from each.


Presidential campaign


Presidential Election Commission

The amendment to Article 76 of the constitution provides for the establishment of a "Presidential Election Commission" that would have complete independence, and would be charged with the supervision of the presidential election process. The commission will be composed of 10 members, presided by the chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court and four other ex officio members of the judiciary who are the most senior serving deputy president of each of the Supreme Constitutional, the Court of Cassation, and the High Administrative Court, and the president of the Cairo Court of Appeal. The rest of the commission will be made up from five independent and neutral public figures: three to be selected by the People's Assembly and two to be selected by the Shoura Council. Decisions of this Committee shall be passed by a majority of seven votes. This commission will have a term of five years and will be exclusively competent to supervise the presidential election process, including accepting nominations, announcing the names of accepted candidates, supervision of election procedures, vote counting and announcement of the results. It will also have final judicial competence to rule on any contesting or challenge submitted in relation to the presidential elections, and its decision will be final and subject to no appeal. The committee will issue its own regulations and shall be competent to establish general sub-committees from among members of the judiciary, to monitor the various phases of the election process, under its supervision. The election process will be completed in one day.


Inauguration and oath of office

In accordance with Article 79 of the constitution, the president must take the following oath or affirmation before exercising his functions: "I swear by Allah the Almighty to sincerely maintain the Republican system, to respect the Constitution and law, to fully care about the interests of the people, and to maintain the independence and territorial integrity of the Homeland."


Term(s) of office

Under the Constitution, the president serves for a term of four years. The president is limited to two terms, whether successive or separated. For example, if incumbent President Sisi had been unsuccessful in his bid for reelection in 2018, he would have been eligible to run again in 2022, and if successful would have had to leave office for good in 2026. The Egyptian parliament voted overwhelmingly on 14 February 2019 to approve draft amendments to the country's 2014 constitution; among other things, these amendments extend the duration of presidential terms from four years to six years, and allow incumbent president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi to serve a third and final term, exempting him from the two-term limit that otherwise applies to the office of president. These amendments were subsequently ratified in the
2019 Egyptian constitutional referendum A constitutional referendum was held in Egypt from 20–22 April 2019, with overseas voting taking place between 19 and 21 April. The proposed changes allow President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi to remain in power until 2030; under the previous versio ...
. During their tenure in office, the president is not allowed to be a formal member of a political party. If the president-elect is announced before the end of the incumbent president's term, the incumbent president continues in office until the end of their term.


Succession

In the case of temporary incapacitation of the president, the constitution provides the president to relinquish his powers to the
vice president A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationsh ...
or the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
. However the person who takes office is limited in power as the new president can not dissolve the parliament, propose constitutional amendments or remove the cabinet from office. In case of the vacancy of the presidential office or the permanent incapacitation of the President, the Speaker of the People's Assembly shall temporarily assume the presidency. In case the People's Assembly is dissolved at such a time, the President of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall take over the presidency on condition that neither shall nominate themself for the presidency. Both are also limited in power as in they can not dissolve the parliament, remove the cabinet, or propose constitutional amendments. The People's Assembly shall then proclaim the vacancy of the office of president, and a new president shall be chosen within a maximum period of sixty days from the date of the vacancy of the office. Although, the constitution does not directly stipulate any role for the vice president in the process of presidential succession, it had become a tradition for the People's Assembly to nominate a vice president for the vacant office of the president. Both and
Mubarak Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the List of Presidents of Egypt, fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak ...

Mubarak
served as vice-presidents at the time the presidential office became vacant; however, on Mubarak's succession in 1981 as president, he did not appoint a vice-president until 29 January 2011, when during substantial protests demanding reforms he appointed
Omar Suleiman Omar Mahmoud Suleiman ( ar, عمر محمود سليمان, ; 2 July 1936 – 19 July 2012) was an Egyptian army general, politician, diplomat, and intelligence officer. A leading figure in Egypt's intelligence system beginning in 1986, Sul ...
to the role.


Resignation

President
Gamal Abdel Nasser Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein, ( ɡəˈmɑːl æbdɛl ˈnɑːsər; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East Th ...

Gamal Abdel Nasser
submitted his resignation after the overwhelming Egyptian defeat in 1967 war with Israel, before returning to office after mass demonstrations by the Egyptian public. President Mubarak also resigned on 11 February 2011 after eighteen days of protest against his regime. The president may resign by delivering their resignation to the People's Assembly under the 2012 and 2014 Constitutions.


Official residences

The presidency in
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the northeast, the , which is the northern arm of the R ...

Egypt
controls 8 presidential residences in addition to other presidential guest houses. Egypt's official residence and office of the president is
Heliopolis Palace The Heliopolis Palace is one of the three Egyptian presidential palaceA presidential palace is the official residence of the President (government title), president in some countries. However, some countries do not call the official residence of t ...
in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
. Other presidential palaces include: *
Abdeen Palace Abdeen Palace ( ar, قصر عابدين) is a historic Cairo palace, it was built as one of the official residences for the former ruling monarchy and Muhammad Ali dynasty#:~:text=The Muhammad Ali dynasty was,-ʾUsra al-ʿAlawiyya)., royal family o ...

Abdeen Palace
, in
Old Cairo __NOTOC__ Old Cairo (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countr ...

Old Cairo
,
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
. *
Koubbeh Palace Koubbeh Palace, (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael ...
, in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
. *
Ras Al-Teen Palace Ras El Tin Palace ( ar, قصر رأس التين , literally, "Cape Fig Palace") is a palace on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in Alexandria, Egypt. It is one of the official residences for a serving President of Egypt. Under the Muhammad A ...
, in
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
*
Montaza Palace Montaza Palace ( ar, قصر المنتزه) is a palace , the official residence of Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state ...

Montaza Palace
, in
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
* Al-Tahra Palace, in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
* Al-Oroba Palace, in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo


See also

* List of heads of state of Egypt, for a comprehensive list of Egyptian heads of state since 1805 *
List of presidents of Egypt The office of President of Egypt The president of Egypt is the executive head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head ...
* List of presidents of Egypt by time in office *
Lists of rulers of Egypt Lists of rulers of Egypt: * List of pharaohs (c. 3100 BC – 30 BC) * List of governors of Roman Egypt (30 BC – 639 AD) * List of rulers of Islamic Egypt (640–1517) **List of rulers of Islamic Egypt#The Rashidun Caliphs era (640–658), List ...


References


External links


The Egyptian President Egypt’s Second Republic
{{Heads of state and government of Asia Government of Egypt