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A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making progress within a specific group. In
democracies Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polit ...

democracies
, political campaigns often refer to
electoral An election is a formal group decision-makingGroup decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making or collective decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives before them. ...

electoral
campaigns, by which representatives are chosen or
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...

referendum
s are decided. In modern politics, the most high-profile political campaigns are focused on
general elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
and candidates for
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
or
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administrat ...
, often a
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
or
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
.


Campaign message

The message of the campaign contains the ideas that the candidate wants to share with the voters. It is to get those who agree with their ideas to support them when running for a political position. The message often consists of several
talking points A talking point, often used in the plural, is a pre-established message or formula used in the field of political communication, sales and commercial or advertising communication. The message is coordinated ''a priori'' to remain more or less inv ...
about policy issues. The points summarize the main ideas of the campaign and are repeated frequently in order to create a lasting impression with the voters. In many elections, the opposition party will try to get the candidate "off message" by bringing up policy or personal questions that are not related to the talking points. Most campaigns prefer to keep the message broad in order to attract the most potential voters. A message that is too narrow can alienate voters or slow the candidate down with explaining details. For example, in the
2008 American presidential election The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial United States presidential election, presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic Party (United States), Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the ...
John McCain John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician, statesman, and United States Navy officer who served as a United States Senator for Arizona from 1987 until his death in 2018. He previously served ...

John McCain
originally used a message that focused on his patriotism and political experience: "Country First"; later the message was changed to shift attention to his role as "The Original Maverick" within the political establishment.
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
ran on a consistent, simple message of "change" throughout his campaign.


Campaign finance

Fundraising techniques include having the candidate call or meet with large donors, sending direct mail pleas to small donors, and courting interest groups who could end up spending millions on the race if it is significant to their interests.


Organization

In a modern political campaign, the campaign organization (or "machine") will have a coherent structure of personnel in the same manner as any business of similar size.


Campaign manager

Successful campaigns usually require a campaign manager to coordinate the campaign's operations. Apart from a candidate, they are often a campaign's most visible leader. Modern campaign managers may be concerned with executing strategy rather than setting it - particularly if the senior strategists are typically outside
political consultants Political consulting is a form of consulting that consists primarily of advising and assisting political campaigns. Although the most important role of political consultants is arguably the development and production of mass media (largely televi ...
such as primarily pollsters and media consultants.


Political consultants

Political consultants advise campaigns on virtually all of their activities, from research to field strategy. Consultants conduct candidate research, voter research, and
opposition research In politics, opposition research (also called oppo research) is the practice of collecting information on a political opponent or other adversary that can be used to discredit or otherwise weaken them. The information can include biographical, lega ...
for their clients.


Activists

Activists are the "foot soldiers" loyal to the cause, the true believers who will carry the run by volunteer
activists Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or intervene in social, political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of P ...
. Such volunteers and interns may take part in activities such as
canvassing Canvassing is the systematic initiation of direct contact with individuals, commonly used during political campaigns. Canvassing can be done for many reasons: political campaigning, grassroots fundraising, community awareness, membership drives, ...

canvassing
door-to-door and making phone calls on behalf of the campaigns.


Techniques

A campaign team (which may be as small as one inspired individual, or a heavily resourced group of professionals) must consider how to
communicate Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing meaning among entities or groups through the use of sufficiently mutually understood sign A sign is an object, quality, event, or entity whose pre ...
the message of the campaign, recruit volunteers, and raise money. Campaign advertising draws on techniques from commercial
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...

advertising
and
propaganda Propaganda is communication that is primarily used to Social influence, influence an audience and further an Political agenda, agenda, which may not be Objectivity (journalism), objective and may be selectively presenting facts to encourage a pa ...
, also entertainment and public relations, a mixture dubbed
politainment Politainment, a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "Portmanteau (luggage), portmanteau") is a Blend word, blend of words
. The avenues available to political campaigns when distributing their messages is limited by the law, available resources, and the imagination of the campaigns' participants. These techniques are often combined into a formal strategy known as the
campaign planCampaign plan is a plan to achieve an objective, usually of a large-scale over an extended period of time. It usually coordinates many activities and uses of resources involving multiple organizations. A campaign plan could also have subordinate ob ...
. The plan takes account of a campaign's goal, message, target audience, and resources available. The campaign will typically seek to identify supporters at the same time as getting its message across. The modern, open campaign method was pioneered by
Aaron Burr Aaron Burr Jr. (February 6, 1756 – September 14, 1836) was an American politician and lawyer. He served as the third vice president of the United States during President Thomas Jefferson's first term from 1801 to 1805. Burr's legacy is defin ...

Aaron Burr
during the American presidential election of 1800. Another modern campaign method by political scientis
Joel Bradshaw
points out four key propositions for developing a successful campaign strategy. “First, in any election the electorate can be divided into three groups: the candidate's base, the opponent's base, and the undecided. Second, past election results, data from registered voter lists, and survey research make it possible to determine which people fall into each of these three groups. Third, it is neither possible nor necessary to get the support of all people. Fourth, and last, once a campaign has identified how to win, it can act to create the circumstances to bring about this victory. In order to succeed, campaigns should direct campaign resources— money, time, and message— to key groups of potential voters and nowhere else.”


Campaign communication

Election campaign communication refers to party-controlled communication, e.g.
campaign advertising In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social s ...
, and party-uncontrolled communication, e.g. media coverage of elections.


Campaign advertising

Campaign advertising is the use of paid media (newspapers, radio, television, etc.) to influence the decisions made for and by groups. These ads are designed by
political consultants Political consulting is a form of consulting that consists primarily of advising and assisting political campaigns. Although the most important role of political consultants is arguably the development and production of mass media (largely televi ...
and the campaign's staff.


Media management

Media management refers to the ability of a political campaign to control the message that it broadcasts to the public. The forms of media used in political campaigns can be classified into two distinct categories: "paid media" or "earned media". Paid media refers to any media attention that is directly generated from spending. This form of media is commonly found through political advertisements and organized events. An advantage of paid media is that it allows political campaigns to tailor the messages they show the public and control when the public sees them. Campaigns often prioritize spending in contested regions and increase their paid media expenses as an election approaches. Electoral campaigns often conclude with a “closing argument ad”, an advertisement that summarizes the campaign’s core themes and explains the candidate’s vision for the future. In the 2020 election, Joe Biden's "Rising" ad starts with him saying "we're in a battle for the soul of this nation" and a worker in Donald Trump's Pennsylvania ad stated "that will be the end of my job and thousands of others" if Trump lost. Earned media describes free media coverage, often from news stories or social media posts. Unlike paid media, earned media does not incur an expense to the campaign. Earned media does not imply that the political campaign is mentioned in a positive manner. Political campaigns may often receive earned media from gaffes or scandals. In the 2016 United States Presidential Election, a majority of the media coverage surrounding Hillary Clinton was focused on her scandals, with the most prevalent topics being topics related to her emails. Experts say that effective media management is an essential component of a successful political campaign. Studies show that candidates with higher media attention tend to have greater success in elections. It is also important to note that each form of media can influence the other. Paid media may raise the newsworthiness of an event which could lead to an increase in earned media. Campaigns may also spend money to emphasize stories circulating through media networks. Research suggests that neither form of media is inherently superior. A 2009 study found that media coverage was not significantly more effective than paid advertisements.


Demonstrations


Modern technology and the internet

The internet is now a core element of modern political campaigns. Communication technologies such as e-mail, websites, and podcasts for various forms of activism enable faster communications by citizen movements and deliver a message to a large audience. These
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
technologies are used for cause-related fundraising, lobbying, volunteering, community building, and organizing. Individual political candidates are also using the internet to promote their election campaign. In a study of Norwegian election campaigns, politicians reported they used social media for marketing and for dialogue with voters. Facebook was the primary platform for marketing and Twitter was used for more continuous dialogue. Signifying the importance of internet political campaigning, Barack Obama's presidential campaign relied heavily on
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
, Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) and
new media New media are forms of media that are computational and rely on computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can p ...
channels to engage voters, recruit campaign volunteers, and raise campaign funds. The campaign brought the spotlight on the importance of using internet in new-age political campaigning by utilizing various forms of
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
and
new media New media are forms of media that are computational and rely on computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can p ...
(including Facebook, YouTube and a custom generated social engine) to reach new target populations. The campaign's social website, my.BarackObama.com, utilized a low cost and efficient method of mobilizing voters and increasing participation among various voter populations. This new media was incredibly successful at reaching the younger population while helping all populations organize and promote action. Now Online Election campaign has got a new dimension, the campaign information can be shared as in Rich Info format through campaign landing pages, integrating Google's rich snippets, structured data,
Social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

Social media
open graphs, and
husting A hustings originally referred to a native Germanic governing assembly, the thing. By metonymy Metonymy () is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept. ...
support file formats for YouTube like .sbv (SubRip), .srt (subtitle resource track), .vtt (Video text trace), high proficiency and effective algorithmic integration will be the core factor in the frame-work. This technology integration helps campaign information to reach a wide audience in split seconds. This has successfully been tested and implemented in 2015 Aruvikkara Election, 2020 Kerala Panchayat Election. Marcus Giavanni, social media consultant and blockchain developer and second place opponent in the 2015 election, was first to file for the 2019 election. Marcus Giavanni Uses Advanced Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, and Voice Indexing Predictions to box in campaigns.


Husting

A husting, or the hustings, was originally a physical platform from which representatives presented their views or cast votes before a parliamentary or other election body. By metonymy, the term may now refer to any event, such as debates or speeches, during an election campaign where one or more of the representative candidates are present.


Other techniques

*Writing directly to members of the public (either via a professional marketing firm or, particularly on a small scale, by volunteers) *By distributing leaflets or selling newspapers *Through websites, online communities, and solicited or unsolicited bulk email *Through a new technique known as
microtargeting Microtargeting, often used by political party, political parties and election campaigns, includes direct marketing datamining techniques that involve predictive market segmentation (aka cluster analysis). It is used by the United States Republican P ...
that helps identify and target small demographic slices of voters *Through a
whistlestop tour A whistle stop or whistle-stop tour is a style of political campaigning where the politician makes a series of brief appearances or speeches at a number of small towns over a short period of time. Originally, whistle-stop appearances were made from ...
- a series of brief appearances in several small towns *Hampering the ability of political competitors to campaign, by such techniques as counter-rallies, picketing of rival parties’ meetings, or overwhelming rival candidates' offices with mischievous phone calls (most political parties in representative democracies publicly distance themselves from such disruptive and morale-affecting tactics, with the exception of those parties self-identifying as
activist Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or intervene in Social change, social, Political campaign, political, Economics, economic, or Natural environment, environmental reform with the desire to make Social change, changes in s ...

activist
* Organizing political house parties * Using endorsements of other celebrated party members to boost support (see coattail effect) * Using a campaign surrogate - a celebrity or person of influence, campaigning on a candidate's behalf. * Remaining close to or at home to make speeches to supporters who come to visit as part of a
front porch campaign Clifford Berryman's cartoon depiction of Eugene V. Debs' campaign from prison satirizes Warren G. Harding, Harding's front porch campaign in the 1920 United States presidential election, Election of 1920. A front porch campaign is a low-key politi ...
* Vote-by-mail, previously known as "absentee ballots" have grown significantly in importance as an election tool. Campaigns in most states must have a strategy in place to impact early voting * Sale of official campaign merchandise (colloquially known as
swag Swag, SWAG, or Swagg may refer to: Terms and slang * Swag (motif) or festoon, a wreath or garland or a carving depicting foliage and ribbons ** Swag, fabric dressing for a window valance * Swag, stolen goods, in 1800s thieves cant ** Swag bag, o ...
, in reference to the baiting technique) as a way of commuting a competitor's popularity into campaign donations, volunteer recruitment, and free advertising


Campaign types


Informational campaign

An informational campaign is a political campaign designed to raise public awareness and support for the positions of a candidate (or her/his party). It is more intense than a paper campaign, which consists of little more than filing the necessary papers to get on the ballot, but is less intense than a competitive campaign, which aims to actually win election to the office. An informational campaign typically focuses on low-cost outreach such as news releases, getting interviewed in the paper, making a brochure for door to door distribution, organizing poll workers, etc.


Paper campaign

A paper campaign is a political campaign in which the candidate only files the necessary paperwork to appear on the
ballot A ballot is a device used to cast votes in an election and may be found as a piece of paper or a small ball used in secret voting Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate Electorate may refer to: * The people who ...

ballot
. The purpose of such a token effort may be simply to increase name awareness of a minor political party, to give voters of a certain ideology an opportunity to vote accordingly, or to ensure that the party has candidates in every constituency. It can be a cost-effective means of attracting media coverage. An informational campaign, by contrast, may involve news releases, newspaper interviews, door-to-door campaigning, and organizing polls. As the level of seriousness rises, the marginal cost of reaching more people rises accordingly, due to the high cost of TV commercials, paid staff, etc. which are used by competitive campaigns. Paper candidates do not expect to be elected and usually run simply as a way of helping the more general campaign. However, an unexpected surge in support for the party may result in many paper candidates being unexpectedly elected, as for example happened to the
New Democratic Party The New Democratic Party (NDP; french: Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in ...

New Democratic Party
in Quebec during the 2011 federal election.


Effects

A forthcoming study in the American Political Science Review found that campaigns have "an average effect of zero in general elections". The study found two instances where campaigning was effective: "First, when candidates take unusually unpopular positions and campaigns invest unusually heavily in identifying persuadable voters. Second, when campaigns contact voters long before election day and measure effects immediately — although this early persuasion decays." One reason why it is hard to judge the effectiveness of an election campaign is because many people know who they want to vote for long before the campaigns are started. Voters are more likely to vote for a nominee based on whose values align closest with theirs. Studies suggest that party flips come from the analysis of how a voter sees their parties performance in the years before a campaign even begins. Another study suggests that at the 2017 Austrian legislative election, 31% of voters admitted to either developing of changing their party preferences during the election campaign. The study provides data that shows how the main parties within Austria had differing levels of voters flipping toward them, thus proving that an election campaign has some level of effectiveness that differs between parties, depending on factors such as media presence.


Presidential campaigns

A large body of political science research emphasizes how "fundamentals" – the state of the economy, whether the country is at war, how long the president's party has held the office, and which candidate is more ideologically moderate – predict presidential election outcomes. However, campaigns may be necessary to enlighten otherwise uninformed voters about the fundamentals, which thus become increasingly predictive of preferences as the campaign progresses. Research suggests that "the 2012 presidential campaigns increased turnout in highly targeted states by 7–8 percentage points, on average, indicating that modern campaigns can significantly alter the size and composition of the voting population".


National conventions

A consensus in the political science literature holds that national conventions usually have a measurable effect on presidential elections that is relatively resistant to decay.


Presidential and vice-presidential debates

Research is mixed on the precise impact of debates. Rather than encourage viewers to update their political views in accordance with the most persuasive arguments, viewers instead update their views to merely reflect what their favored candidate is saying.


Presidential primaries

The fundamentals matter less in the outcome of presidential primaries. One prominent theory holds that the outcome of presidential primaries is largely determined by the preferences of party elites. Presidential primaries are therefore less predictive, as various types of events may impact elites' perception of the viability of candidates. Gaffes, debates and media narratives play a greater role in primaries than in presidential elections.


Strategies

Traditional ground campaigning and voter contacts remain the most effective strategies. Some research suggests that knocking on doors can increase turnout by as much as 10% and phone calls by as much as 4%. One study suggests that lawn signs increase vote share by 1.7 percentage points. A review of more than 200 get-out-the-vote experiments finds that the most effective tactics are personal: Door-to-door canvassing increases turnout by an average of about 2.5 percentage points; volunteer phone calls raise it by about 1.9 points, compared to 1.0 points for calls from commercial phone banks; automated phone messages are ineffective. Each field office that the Obama campaign opened in 2012 gave him approximately a 0.3% greater vote share. The Obama 2008 campaign's use of field most offices has been credited as crucial in winning Indiana and North Carolina. According to one study, the cost per vote by having a field office is $49.40. Using out-of-state volunteers for canvassing is less effective in increasing turnout than using local and trained volunteers. Political science research generally finds negative advertisement (which has increased over time) to be ineffective both at reducing the support and turnout for the opponent. A 2021 study in the ''American Political Science Review'' found that television campaign ads do affect election outcomes, in particular in down-ballot races. According to political scientists Stephen Ansolabehere and Shanto Iyengar, negative ads do succeed at driving down overall turnout though. A 2019 study of
online In computer technology and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over a dista ...
political advertising conducted by a party in the
2016 Berlin state election The 2016 Berlin state election was held on 18 September 2016 to elect the members to the 18th Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin The Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin (House of Representatives) () is the States of Germany, state parliament (''Landtag'') of Berlin ...
campaign found that the online-ad campaign "increased the party's vote share by 0.7 percentage points" and that factual ads were more effective than emotional ads. According to political scientists
Donald Green Donald Philip Green (born June 23, 1961) is a political scientist and quantitative methodologist at Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Privat ...
and Alan Gerber, it costs $31 to produce a vote going door to door, $91-$137 to produce a vote by sending out direct mailers, $47 per vote from leafletting, $58-$125 per vote from commercial phone banking, and $20-$35 per vote from voluntary phone banking. A 2018 study in the ''
American Economic Review ''The American Economic Review'' is a monthly peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified me ...
'' found that door-to-door canvassing on behalf of the Francois Hollande campaign in the 2012 French presidential election "did not affect turnout, but increased Hollande's vote share in the first round and accounted for one fourth of his victory margin in the second. Visits' impact persisted in later elections, suggesting a lasting persuasion effect." According to a 2018 study, repeated get-out-the-vote phone calls had diminishing effects but each additional phone call increased the probability to vote by 0.6-1.0 percentage points. Another 2018 study found that "party leaflets boost turnout by 4.3 percentage points while canvassing has a small additional effect (0.6 percentage points)" in a United Kingdom election. A 2016 study found that visits by candidate visits to states have modest effects: "visits are most effective in influencing press coverage at the national level and within battleground states. Visits’ effects on voters themselves, however, are much more modest than consultants often claim, and visits appear to have no effects outside the market that hosts a visit." The authors of the study argue that it would be more effective for campaigns to go to the pockets of the country where wealthy donors are (for fundraising) and hold rallies in the populous states both to attract national press and raise funds. A 2005 study found that campaign visits had no statistically significant effect, after controlling for other factors, on voter turnout in the 1992, 1996, and 2000 elections. On the other hand, a 2017 paper of the 1948 presidential election provides "strong evidence that candidate visits can influence electoral returns". Other research also provides evidence that campaign visits increase vote share. According to a 2020 study, campaign spending on messaging to voters affects voter support for candidates. Another 2020 study found that political advertising had small effects regardless of context, message, sender, and receiver.


History

Political campaigns have existed as long as there have been informed citizens to campaign amongst. Democratic societies have regular election campaigns, but political campaigning can occur on particular issues even in non-democracies so long as freedom of expression is allowed. Often mass campaigns are started by the less privileged or anti-establishment viewpoints (as against more powerful interests whose first resort is
lobbying In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of socia ...

lobbying
). The phenomenon of political campaigns are tightly tied to
lobby group Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy Advocacy is an activity by an individual or group that aims to influence decisions within political, economic, and social institutions. Advocacy include ...
s and
political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
. The first modern campaign is often described as
William Ewart Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone (; 29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an ...

William Ewart Gladstone
's
Midlothian campaign 300px, Photograph taken at Catherine_and_daughter_ Dalmeny_House_of_the_campaign's_organizers_in_1879._Included_in_the_photograph_are_William_Ewart_Gladstone_and_his_wife_Catherine_Gladstone">Catherine_and_daughter_Mary_Gladstone">Mary,_as_well_as ...
in 1878–80, although there may be earlier recognizably modern examples from the 19th century. The 1896 William McKinley presidential campaign laid the groundwork for modern campaigns. In the 1790-1820s, the
Federalist Party The Federalist Party was the first political party in the United States American electoral politics has been dominated by two major political parties since shortly after the founding of the republic. Since the 1850s, they have been the Histo ...
and the
Democratic-Republican Party The Democratic-Republican Party, also referred to as the Jeffersonian Republican Party and known at the time under various other names, was an American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – J ...
battled it out in the so-called "
First Party System First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, ...

First Party System
". American election campaigns in the 19th century created the first mass-base political parties and invented many of the techniques of mass campaigning.


History of election campaigns in America

Political campaigns are forever changing and evolving with the growth of technology. In the nineteenth-century candidates were not traveling the country in search of votes. That is until the American presidential race of 1896 when William McKinley recruited the help of Marcus A. Hanna. Hanna devised a plan to have voters come to McKinley. McKinley won the race with 51% of the votes. The development of new technologies has completely changed the way political campaigns are run. In the late twentieth-century campaigns shifted into television and radio broadcasts. The early 00s brought interactive websites. By 2008 the world of campaigns was available to millions of people through the internet and social media programs. 2008 marks a new era of digital elections because of the fast-paced movement of information.


See also

;Techniques and traditions *
Canvassing Canvassing is the systematic initiation of direct contact with individuals, commonly used during political campaigns. Canvassing can be done for many reasons: political campaigning, grassroots fundraising, community awareness, membership drives, ...

Canvassing
* Election litter *
Election promise An election promise or campaign promise is a promise A promise is a commitment by someone to do or not do something. As a noun A noun (from Latin ''nōmen'', literally ''name'') is a word that functions as the name of a specific object or set ...
*
Husting A hustings originally referred to a native Germanic governing assembly, the thing. By metonymy Metonymy () is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept. ...
*
Lawn sign Election placards placed near a polling location in Apex, North Carolina, July 2004. Lawn signs (also known as yard signs, bandit signs, placards, and road signs, among other names) are small advertising signs that can be placed on a street-facin ...
**
Sign war A sign war is a competition between two or more organizations to gain the best visibility, or simply to engage in friendly "one-upmanship". The goal may be to put up more signs than one's competitors, or it may be to put up wittier signs. Busines ...
*
Microtargeting Microtargeting, often used by political party, political parties and election campaigns, includes direct marketing datamining techniques that involve predictive market segmentation (aka cluster analysis). It is used by the United States Republican P ...
* Permanent campaign *
Political campaign staff Political campaign staff are the group of people who formulate and implement the strategy Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία ''stratēgia'', "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a general plan to achieve one ...
*
Research strategies of election campaign communication research Research strategies in the field of election campaign communication research are the decisions made concerning the objective, the scope, the sampling and the methodology used within a study of election campaign A political campaign is an organ ...
*
Robocalls A robocall is a phone call that uses a computerized autodialer to deliver a pre-recorded message, as if from a robot A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to ...
&
Personalized audio messaging Personalized audio messaging is the compiled, personalized voice messages that individually address recipients by name. These voice messages can be delivered through a myriad of channels, the most popular of which include phone transmission, email ...
*
Votebank Votebank (also spelled vote-bank or vote bank), in the political discourse of India, is a term referring to a loyal bloc of voters Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate Electorate may refer to: * The people who a ...
* Assumed Incumbency ;General topics *
Activism Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or intervene in Social change, social, Political campaign, political, Economics, economic, or Natural environment, environmental reform with the desire to make Social change, changes in so ...

Activism
*
Civics Civics is the study of the rights and obligations of citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditi ...
*
Lobbying In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of socia ...

Lobbying
*
Media manipulation Media manipulation is a series of related techniques in which partisans create an image or argument that favours their particular interests. Such tactics may include the use of logical fallacies, psychological manipulations, outright deception ( d ...
* Minimal effects hypothesis * Portal:Politics


References


Sources


World

* *Barnes, S. H., and M. Kaase ''Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies''. Sage, 1979. *Blewett, Neal. ''The Peers, the Parties and the People: The General Elections of 1910''. London: Macmillan, 1972. *Hix, S. ''The Political System of the European Union''. St. Martin's Press, 1999. *Katz, Richard S., and Peter Mair (eds.), ''How Parties Organize: Change and Adaptation in Party Organizations in Western Democracies''. Sage Publications, 1994. * *LaPalombara, Joseph and Myron Wiener (eds.), ''Political Parties and Political Development''. Princeton University Press, 1966. *Panebianco, A. ''Political Parties: Organization and Power''. Cambridge University Press, 1988. *Paquette, Laure. ''Campaign Strategy''. New York: Nova, 2006. *Poguntke, Thomas, and Paul Webb, eds. ''The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies''
Oxford University Press. 2005 online
*Ware, Alan. ''Citizens, Parties and the State: A Reappraisal''. Princeton University Press, 1987. *Webb, Paul, David Farrell, and Ian Holliday
''Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies''
Oxford University Press, 2002


United States

* Bike, William S. ''Winning Political Campaigns: A Comprehensive Guide to Electoral Success''. Chicago: Central Park Communications, 2012. * Cunningham, Sean P. ''Cowboy Conservatism: Texas and the Rise of the Modern Right''. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010. * Robert J. Dinkin. ''Campaigning in America: A History of Election Practice''. Westport: Greenwood, 1989. * John Gerring, ''Party Ideologies in America, 1828–1996''. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. * Lewis L. Gould, ''Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans''. New York: Random House, 2003. * Gary C. Jacobson. ''The Politics of Congressional Elections''. (5th Edition) New York: Longman, 2000. * Richard Jensen, ''The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–1896''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971. * L. Sandy Meisel, ed. ''Political Parties and Elections in the United States: An Encyclopedia''. New York: Garland, 1991. * Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., ed. ''History of American Presidential Elections''. 4 vols. New York: Chelsea House, 1971. * James A. Thurber, ''Campaigns and Elections American Style''. New York: Westview Press; 2nd edition, 2004. * Kirsten A. Foot and Steven M. Schneider
"Web Campaigning"
The MIT Press, 2006. * Bruce A. Bimber and Richard Davis, ''Campaigning Online: the Internet in U.S. Elections''. Oxford University Press, 2003. * Justin A. Gravely. " Campaigning on American soil and the rules of the American Government". Cambridge University Press, 2014


Further reading


Gary C. Jacobson. 2015. How Do Campaigns Matter? ''The Annual Review of Political Science''.


External links

{{DEFAULTSORT:Political Campaign * Activism by type