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In
geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can ...

geology
and
physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...
, a plateau (, , or ; ; plural plateaus or plateaux), also called a high plain or a tableland, is an area of a
highland Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Generally speaking, upland (or uplands) refers to ranges of hills, typically up to . Highland (or highlands) is usually reserved for ranges of low mountains. Highlan ...

highland
consisting of flat
terrain Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrain or relief (also topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface forms and features themselves, or a desc ...

terrain
that is raised sharply above the surrounding area on at least one side. Often one or more sides have deep hills. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including
upwelling Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. Winds are commonly classified by their scale (spatial), spatial ...

upwelling
of
volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet ar ...

volcanic
magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all s are formed. Magma is found beneath the surface of the , and evidence of has also been discovered on other and some s. Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended ...

magma
,
extrusion allow bars to be joined with special connectors. Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross section (geometry), cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a Die (manufacturing), die of the desired cross-section. Th ...

extrusion
of
lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural satellite, moon onto its surface. Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a Fissure vent, fracture in the Crust (geology), crust, ...

lava
, and
erosion In , erosion is the action of surface processes (such as or ) that removes , , or dissolved material from one location on the , and then it to another location. Erosion is distinct from which involves no movement. Removal of rock or soil as ...

erosion
by water and
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice Ice is into a state. Depending on the presence of such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less bluish-white color. In the , ice is abunda ...

glacier
s. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment as intermontane, piedmont, or continental. A few plateaus may have a small flat top while others have wide ones.


Formation

Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of
volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet ar ...

volcanic
magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all s are formed. Magma is found beneath the surface of the , and evidence of has also been discovered on other and some s. Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended ...

magma
, extrusion of
lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural satellite, moon onto its surface. Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a Fissure vent, fracture in the Crust (geology), crust, ...

lava
, and
erosion In , erosion is the action of surface processes (such as or ) that removes , , or dissolved material from one location on the , and then it to another location. Erosion is distinct from which involves no movement. Removal of rock or soil as ...

erosion
by water and glaciers.


Volcanic

Volcanic plateau A volcanic plateau is a plateau produced by volcanic activity. There are two main types: lava plateaus and pyroclastic plateaus. Lava plateau Lava plateaus are formed by highly fluid basaltic lava during numerous successive eruptions through nu ...
s are produced by
volcanic activity A volcano is a rupture in the Crust (geology), crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and Volcanic gas, gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. On Earth, volcanoes are most often fo ...
. The
Columbia Plateau The Columbia Plateau is a geologic Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often r ...
in the north-western United States is an example. They may be formed by
upwelling Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. Winds are commonly classified by their scale (spatial), spatial ...

upwelling
of
volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet ar ...

volcanic
magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all s are formed. Magma is found beneath the surface of the , and evidence of has also been discovered on other and some s. Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended ...

magma
or
extrusion allow bars to be joined with special connectors. Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross section (geometry), cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a Die (manufacturing), die of the desired cross-section. Th ...

extrusion
of
lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural satellite, moon onto its surface. Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a Fissure vent, fracture in the Crust (geology), crust, ...

lava
. The underlining mechanism in forming plateaus from upwelling starts when magma rises from the mantle, causing the ground to swell upward. In this way, large, flat areas of rock are uplifted to form a plateau. For plateaus formed by extrusion, the rock is built up from lava spreading outward from cracks and weak areas in the crust.


Erosion

Plateaus can also be formed by the erosional processes of
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice Ice is into a state. Depending on the presence of such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less bluish-white color. In the , ice is abunda ...

glacier
s on mountain ranges, leaving them sitting between the mountain ranges. Water can also erode mountains and other landforms down into plateaus.
Dissected plateau A dissected plateau is a plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of ...
s are highly eroded plateaus cut by rivers and broken by deep narrow valleys. Computer modeling studies suggest that high plateaus may also be partially a result from the feedback between
tectonic Tectonics (; ) are the processes that control the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time. These include the processes of mountain building A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, gene ...
deformation and dry climatic conditions created at the lee side of growing orogens.


Classification

Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment. * Intermontane plateaus are the highest in the world, bordered by mountains. The
Tibetan Plateau The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λ ...
is one such plateau. *Lava or volcanic plateaus are the plateau that occur in areas of widespread volcanic eruptions. The magma that comes out through narrow cracks or fissures in the crust spread over large area and solidifies. These layers of lava sheets form lava or volcanic plateaus. The
Antrim plateau County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim, , ) is one of six counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Lt ...
in
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
, The Deccan Plateau in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
and the
Columbia Plateau The Columbia Plateau is a geologic Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often r ...
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
are examples of lava plateaus. * Piedmont plateaus are bordered on one side by mountains and on the other by a plain or a sea. The
Piedmont Plateau The Piedmont is a plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of wh ...
of the Eastern
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
between the
Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a mountain range, system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician, Ordovician Period. They once reache ...

Appalachian Mountains
and the
Atlantic Coastal Plain Wheat field near Centreville on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, with flat terrain typical of the Atlantic coastal plain The Atlantic coastal plain is a physiographic region Physiographic regions of the world are a means of defining Earth ...

Atlantic Coastal Plain
is an example. * Continental plateaus are bordered on all sides by plains or oceans, forming away from the mountains. An example of a continental plateau is the
Antarctic Plateau Image:Plateau-surface.jpg, Surface of Antarctic Plateau, at 150E, 77S The Antarctic Plateau, Polar Plateau or King Haakon VII Plateau, is a large area of East Antarctica which extends over a diameter of about , and includes the region of the ...
in
East Antarctica Image of a variety of ice types off the coast of East Antarctica. East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, constitutes the majority (two-thirds) of the Antarctica, Antarctic continent, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the continent, se ...
.


Large plateaus


Asia

The largest and highest plateau in the world is the
Tibetan Plateau The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λ ...
, sometimes metaphorically described as the "
Roof of the World of Central Asia from the Caucasus in the northwest, to Mongolia in the northeast. The Roof of the World or Top of the World is a metaphoric description of the high region in the world, also known as High Asia. The term usually refers to the mounta ...

Roof of the World
", which is still being formed by the collisions of the Indo-Australian and
Eurasian Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it spans from the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Japan ...
tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust is a thin shell on the outside of Earth, accounting for less than 1% of Earth's volume. It is ...
. The Tibetan plateau covers approximately , at about above sea level. The plateau is sufficiently high to reverse the
Hadley cell#REDIRECT Hadley cell The Hadley cell, named after George Hadley, is a global scale tropical atmospheric circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of Atmosphere of Earth, air and together with ocean circulation is the mean ...
convection cycles and to drive the
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
s of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
towards the south. The
Deosai Plains
Deosai Plains
in Pakistan are situated at an average elevation of 4,114 meters (13,497 ft) above sea level. They are considered to be the second highest plateaus in the world. Other major plateaus in Asia are:
Najd Najd ( ar, نَجْدٌ, ), or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic oath, one of the Five Pilla ...

Najd
in the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
elevation 762 to 1,525 m (2,500 to 5,003 ft),
Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
(≈, elevation ), Iranian plateau (≈, elevation ),
Anatolian Plateau The Anatolian Plateau () is a plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks ...
,
Mongolian Plateau The Mongolian Plateau is the part of the Central Asia, Central Asian Plateau lying between 37°46′-53°08′N and 87°40′-122°15′E and having an area of approximately . It is bounded by the Greater Hinggan Mountains in the east, the Yin Mo ...
(≈, elevation ), and the Deccan Plateau (≈, elevation ).


Antarctica

Another very large plateau is the icy
Antarctic Plateau Image:Plateau-surface.jpg, Surface of Antarctic Plateau, at 150E, 77S The Antarctic Plateau, Polar Plateau or King Haakon VII Plateau, is a large area of East Antarctica which extends over a diameter of about , and includes the region of the ...
, which is sometimes referred to as the
Polar Plateau Image:Plateau-surface.jpg, Surface of Antarctic Plateau, at 150E, 77S The Antarctic Plateau, Polar Plateau or King Haakon VII Haakon VII () (born Prince Carl of Denmark; 3 August 187221 September 1957) was the King of Norway The Norwegia ...
or King
Haakon VII Haakon VII (; born Prince Carl of Denmark; 3 August 187221 September 1957) was the King of Norway from November 1905 until his death in September 1957. Originally a Danish prince, he was born in Copenhagen as the son of the future Frederick VII ...

Haakon VII
Plateau, home to the geographic
South Pole The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole, Terrestrial South Pole or 90th Parallel South, is one of the where intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on Earth and lies on the of Earth from the . Situated on the ...
and the
Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station
Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station
, which covers most of
East Antarctica Image of a variety of ice types off the coast of East Antarctica. East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, constitutes the majority (two-thirds) of the Antarctica, Antarctic continent, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the continent, se ...
where there are no known mountains but rather high of superficial ice and which spreads very slowly toward the surrounding coastline through enormous
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice Ice is into a state. Depending on the presence of such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less bluish-white color. In the , ice is abunda ...

glacier
s. The
polar ice cap A polar ice cap or polar cap is a high-latitude In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north– south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at ...
is so massive that the
echolocation
echolocation
measurements of ice thickness have shown that large areas are below
sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquial, ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers, usually the sum of the numbers divided by how many numbers are in th ...

sea level
. But, as the ice melts, the land beneath will rebound through
isostasy Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") or isostatic equilibrium is the state of gravitational Gravity (), or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass Mass is both a property Prope ...

isostasy
and ultimately rise above sea level.


North America

A large plateau in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
is the
Colorado Plateau The Colorado Plateau, also known as the Colorado Plateau Province, is a physiographic and desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States The southwestern United State ...
, which covers about in
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the weste ...

Colorado
,
Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its so ...

Utah
,
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Arizona
and
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
. In northern Arizona and southern Utah the Colorado Plateau is bisected by the
Colorado River The Colorado River ( es, Río Colorado) is one of the principal rivers (along with the Rio Grande) in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The river drains an expansive, arid drainage basin, watershed that encompasses parts of ...

Colorado River
and the
Grand Canyon The Grand Canyon (, yuf-x-yav, Wi:kaʼi:la, , ) is a steep-sided canyon A canyon (; archaic British English spelling: ''cañon'') or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosion, erosive ...

Grand Canyon
. How this came to be is that over 10 million years ago, a river was already there, though not necessarily on exactly the same course. Then, subterranean geological forces caused the land in that part of North America to gradually rise by about a centimeter per year for millions of years. An unusual balance occurred: the river that would become the
Colorado River The Colorado River ( es, Río Colorado) is one of the principal rivers (along with the Rio Grande) in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The river drains an expansive, arid drainage basin, watershed that encompasses parts of ...

Colorado River
was able to erode into the crust of the Earth at a nearly equal rate to the uplift of the plateau. Now, millions of years later, the North Rim of the Grand Canyon is at an elevation of about above
sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquial, ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers, usually the sum of the numbers divided by how many numbers are in th ...

sea level
, and the South Rim of the Grand Canyon is about above sea level. At its deepest, the Colorado River is about below the level of the North Rim. Another high altitude plateau in North America is the
Mexican Plateau The Central Mexican Plateau, also known as the Mexican Altiplano ( es, Altiplanicie Mexicana), is a large arid-to-semiarid plateau that occupies much of northern and central Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the ...
. With an area of and average height of 1,825 m, it is the home of more than 70 million people.


South America

A tepui (), or tepuy (), is a table-top mountain or
mesa A mesa is an isolated, flat-topped elevation, ridge or hill, which is bounded from all sides by steep escarpments and stands distinctly above a surrounding plain. Mesas characteristically consist of flat-lying soft sedimentary rocks capped by ...

mesa
found in the
Guiana Highlands The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish loan-word ''Guayanas'' (''Las Guayanas''), is a region in north-eastern South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, wit ...
of
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
, especially in
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
and western
Guyana Guyana ( or ), officially the Cooperative Republic of Guyana, is a country on the northern mainland of South America and the capital city is Georgetown Guyana, Georgetown. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the ...

Guyana
. The word tepui means "house of the gods" in the native tongue of the
Pemon The Pemon or Pemón (Pemong) are indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries ...
, the
indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
who inhabit the
Gran Sabana La Gran Sabana (, en, The Great Savanna) is a region in southeastern Venezuela, part of the Guianan savanna ecoregion. The savanna spreads into the regions of the Guiana Shield, Guiana Highlands and south-east into Bolívar, Venezuela, Bolívar ...

Gran Sabana
. Tepuis can be considered minute plateaus and tend to be found as isolated entities rather than in connected ranges, which makes them the host of a unique array of
endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ...
plant and animal species. Some of the most outstanding tepuis are
Neblina
Neblina
,
Autana
Autana
,
Auyan
Auyan
and
Mount Roraima Mount Roraima ( es, Monte Roraima; Tepuy Roraima pt, Monte Roraima , and ''Cerro Roraima'';) is the highest of the Pakaraima chain of tepuis (table-top mountain) or plateaux in South America. First described to Europeans by the English explorer ...

Mount Roraima
. They are typically composed of sheer blocks of
Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale The geologi ...

Precambrian
quartz arenite Quartz arenite makes up the Prospect Mountain Quartzite on top of Doso Doyabi, Nevada ">Nevada.html" ;"title="Doso Doyabi, Nevada">Doso Doyabi, Nevada A quartz arenite or quartzarenite is a sandstone composed of greater than 90% detrital quartz, ...
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...

sandstone
that rise abruptly from the jungle, giving rise to spectacular natural scenery. Auyantepui is the source of
Angel Falls Angel Falls ( es, Salto Ángel; Pemon language: ''Kerepakupai Merú'' meaning "waterfall of the deepest place", or ''Parakupá Vená'', meaning "the fall from the highest point") is a waterfall in Venezuela. It is the List of waterfalls by hei ...

Angel Falls
, the world's tallest
waterfall A waterfall is a point in a or where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops. Waterfalls also occur where drops over the edge of a tabular or . Waterfalls can be formed in several ways, but the most common method of fo ...

waterfall
. The Colombian capital city of Bogota sits on an Andean plateau known as the
Altiplano Cundiboyacense The Altiplano Cundiboyacense is a high plateau located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia (), is a country in South America with Insular region of Colombia, territories in North ...

Altiplano Cundiboyacense
roughly the size of Switzerland. Averaging a height of above sea level, this northern Andean plateau is situated in the country's eastern range and is divided into three main flat regions: the
Bogotá savanna The Bogotá savanna is a savanna#Savanna ecoregions, montane savanna, located in the southwestern part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the center of Colombia. The Bogotá savanna has an extent of and an average altitude of . The savanna is situ ...
, the valleys of Ubaté and Chiquinquirá, and the valleys of
Duitama Duitama () is a city and municipality in the department of Boyacá. It is the capital of the Tundama Province. Duitama is located northeast of Bogotá, the capital city of Colombia and northeast of Tunja, the capital Boyacá. Duitama has exis ...

Duitama
and
Sogamoso Sogamoso () is a city in the department of Boyacá Department, Boyacá of Colombia. It is the capital of the Sugamuxi Province, named after the original Sugamuxi. Sogamoso is nicknamed "City of the Sun", based on the original Muisca people, Muisca ...

Sogamoso
. The parallel Sierra of Andes delimit one of the world highest plateaux: the
Altiplano The Altiplano (Spanish for "high plain"), Collao (Quechuan languages, Quechua and Aymara language, Aymara: Qullaw, meaning "place of the Qulla people, Qulla") or Andean Plateau, in west-central South America, is the area where the Andes are ...

Altiplano
, (Spanish for "high plain"), Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau. It lies in west-central South America, where the Andes are at their widest, is the most extensive area of high plateau on Earth outside of Tibet. The bulk of the Altiplano lies within Bolivian and Peruvian territory while its southern parts lie in Chile. The Altiplano plateau hosts several cities like Puno, Oruro, El Alto and La Paz the administrative seat of Bolivia. Northeastern Altiplano is more humid than the Southwestern, the latter of which hosts several ''salares'', or salt flats, due to its aridity. At the Bolivia-Peru border lies
Lake Titicaca Lake Titicaca (; es, Lago Titicaca ; qu, Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep, freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and transl ...

Lake Titicaca
, the largest lake in South America.


Africa

The highest African plateau is the
Ethiopian Highlands The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit are ...
which cover the central part of Ethiopia. It forms the largest continuous area of its altitude in the continent, with little of its surface falling below 1500 m (4,921 ft), while the summits reach heights of up to 4550 m (14,928 ft). It is sometimes called the Roof of Africa due to its height and large area. Another example is the
Highveld The Highveld (Afrikaans: ''Hoëveld'', where ''veld'' means "field") is the portion of the South Africa#Geography, South African inland plateau which has an altitude above roughly 1500 m, but below 2100 m, thus excluding the Lesotho mountain regio ...
which is the portion of the South African inland plateau which has an altitude above approximately 1500 m, but below 2100 m, thus excluding the Lesotho mountain regions. It is home to some of largest South-African urban agglomerations. In Egypt are the
Giza Plateau 300px, From north to south: parts of the city of Giza, the Giza Necropolis, and part of the Giza plateau The Giza Plateau ( ar, هضبة الجيزة) is a plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and - ...

Giza Plateau
and Galala Mountain, which was once called Gallayat Plateaus, raising 3,300 above sea level.


Oceania

The
Western Plateau The Western Plateau (sometimes referred to as the Australian Shield 300px, Basic geological regions of Australia, by age. The Australian Shield, also called the Western Australian Shield or Western Plateau, is a geological Geology (from ...

Western Plateau
, part of the
Australian Shield 300px, Basic geological regions of Australia, by age. The Australian Shield, also called the Western Australian Shield or Western Plateau, is a geological Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ...
, is an ancient
craton A craton (, , or ; from el, κράτος ''kratos'' "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial p ...
covering much of the continent's southwest, an area of some 700,000 square kilometres. It has an average elevation of between 305 and 460 m. The
North Island Volcanic Plateau The North Island Volcanic Plateau (often called the Central Plateau and occasionally the Waimarino Plateau) is a volcanic plateau covering much of central North Island The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two ...
is an area of high land occupying much of the centre of the
North Island The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language ...

North Island
of
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
, with volcanoes, lava plateaus, and crater lakes, the most notable of which is the country's largest lake,
Lake Taupō Lake Taupō (also spelled Taupo; mi, Taupō-nui-a-Tia or ) is a lake in the North Island of New Zealand. It is in the caldera of the Taupō Volcano. The lake is the namesake of the town of Taupō, which sits on a bay in the lake's north-easter ...

Lake Taupō
. The plateau stretches approximately 100 km east to west and 130 km north to south. The majority of the plateau is more than 600 m above sea level.


See also

* * * * * * * *


References


External links


"Plateau" at scienceclarified.com





britannica.com
{{Authority control Slope landforms