TheInfoList

A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast,
dye 300px, Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. A dye is a wiktionary:colored, colored substance that chemically bonds to the wikt:substrate, substrate to which it is being applied. T ...
s are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often
organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, ...
s whereas pigments are often
inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound. However, the distinction is not clearly defined; authorities have differing views on the s ...
s. Pigments of prehistoric and historic value include
ochre Ochre ( ; from grc, ὤχρα, from , , pale), or ocher in American English, is a natural clay earth pigment, a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand. It ranges in colour from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is also t ...
,
charcoal Charcoal is a lightweight black carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an elemen ...

, and .

# Economic impact

In 2006, around 7.4 million tons of
inorganic In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they under ...
,
organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), organ Chemistry * Organic matter, matter that has come from a once-living organism, is capable of decay or ...
, and special pigments were marketed worldwide. Estimated at around US$14.86 billion in 2018 and will rise at over 4.9% CAGR from 2019 to 2026. The global demand for pigments was roughly US$20.5 billion in 2009. According to an April 2018 report by ''
Bloomberg Businessweek ''Bloomberg Businessweek'', previously known as ''BusinessWeek'', is an American weekly business magazine, published 50 times a year. Since 2009, the magazine is owned by New York City-based Bloomberg L.P. The magazine debuted in New York City in ...
'', the estimated value of the pigment industry globally is $30 billion. The value of titanium dioxide Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania , is the inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compoun ... – used to enhance the white brightness of many products – was placed at$13.2 billion per year, while the color
Ferrari Ferrari S.p.A. (; ) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of the Alfa Romeo race division as ''Auto Avio Costruzioni'', the company built Auto Avio Costruzioni 815, its f ...

red is valued at \$300 million each year.

# Physical principles

Like all materials, the color of pigments arises because they absorb only certain wavelengths of
visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum A spectrum (plural ''spectra'' or ''spectrums'') is a condit ...

. The bonding properties of the material determine the wavelength and efficiency of light absorption. Light of other wavelengths are reflected or scattered. The reflected light spectrum defines the
color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Englis ...
that we observe. The appearance of pigments is sensitive to the source light. Sunlight has a high
color temperature The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiation, black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that ...
and a fairly uniform spectrum. Sunlight is considered a standard for white light. Artificial light sources are less uniform. Color spaces used to represent colors numerically must specify their light source. measurements, unless otherwise noted, assume that the measurement was recorded under a D65 light source, or "Daylight 6500 K", which is roughly the
color temperature The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiation, black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that ...
of sunlight. Other properties of a color, such as its saturation or lightness, may be determined by the other substances that accompany pigments. Binders and fillers can affect the color.

# History

Minerals have been used as colorants since prehistoric times. Early humans used
paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color, or provide texture to objects. Paint can be ...

for aesthetic purposes such as body decoration. Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old have been reported in a
cave A cave or cavern is a natural void in the ground, specifically a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves often form by the weathering Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil Soil (often stylized as SOiL) is an American rock b ...
at Twin Rivers, near
Lusaka Lusaka ( ) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Zambia. It is one of the fastest developing cities in southern Africa. Lusaka is in the southern part of the central plateau at an elevation of about . , the city's population was about ...

,
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

.
Ochre Ochre ( ; from grc, ὤχρα, from , , pale), or ocher in American English, is a natural clay earth pigment, a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand. It ranges in colour from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is also t ...
, iron oxide, was the first color of paint. A favored blue pigment was derived from . Pigments based on minerals and clays often bear the name of the city or region where they were originally mined. Raw Sienna and
Burnt Sienna Burnt Sienna may refer to: * Burnt sienna, an earth pigment * ''Burnt Sienna'' (album), a 1992 album by Azalia Snail * "Burnt Sienna" (song), a 1993 song by Margaret Urlich {{disambiguation ...
came from
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena. The city is historically linked to commercial and banking activities, having been a major banking cen ...

,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...

, while Raw Umber and Burnt Umber came from
Umbria it, Umbro (man) it, Umbra (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , ...

. These pigments were among the easiest to synthesize, and chemists created modern colors based on the originals. These were more consistent than colors mined from the original ore bodies, but the place names remained. Also found in many
Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek wikt:παλαιός, palaios - old, wikt:λίθος, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone too ...
and
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...
cave painting Cave paintings are a type of parietal art (which category also includes petroglyphs, or engravings), found on the wall or ceilings of caves. The term usually implies prehistoric origin, but cave paintings can also be of recent production: In the ...
s are Red Ochre, anhydrous Fe2O3, and the hydrated Yellow Ochre (Fe2O3.H2O). Charcoal—or carbon black—has also been used as a black pigment since prehistoric times. The first known synthetic pigment was
Egyptian blue Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10 or CaOCuO(SiO2)4 (calcium copper tetrasilicate)) or cuprorivaite, is a pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes ...

, which is first attested on an alabaster bowl in Egypt dated to
Naqada III Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqada culture of ancient Egyptian prehistory, dating from approximately 3200 to 3000 BC. It is the period during which the process of state formation, which began in Naqada II, became highly visible, ...
(''circa'' 3250 BC). Egyptian blue (blue frit), calcium copper silicate CaCuSi4O10, made by heating a mixture of
quartz Quartz is a hard, crystalline mineral composed of silica (silicon dioxide). The atoms are linked in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon-oxygen Tetrahedral molecular geometry, tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, ...

sand,
lime Lime refers to: * Lime (fruit), a green citrus fruit * Lime (material), inorganic materials containing calcium, usually calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide * Lime (color), a color between yellow and green Lime may also refer to: Botany * Austra ...

, a
flux of \mathbf(\mathbf) with the unit normal vector \mathbf(\mathbf) ''(blue arrows)'' at the point \mathbf multiplied by the area dS. The sum of \mathbf\cdot\mathbf dS for each patch on the surface is the flux through the surface Flux describes ...
and a
copper Copper is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same nu ...

source, such as
malachite Malachite is a copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, ductile metal with very high thermal conductivity, thermal and elec ...

. Already invented in the Predynastic Period of Egypt, its use became widespread by the 4th Dynasty. It was the blue pigment par excellence of
Roman antiquity In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC ...
; its art technological traces vanished in the course of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roma ...
until its rediscovery in the context of the
Egyptian campaign The French campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon, Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman territories of Ottoman Egypt, Egypt and Ottoman Syria, Syria, proclaimed to defend French First Republic, French trad ...
and the excavations in
Pompeii Pompeii (, ) was an ancient city located in what is now the ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is ...

and
Herculaneum Herculaneum ( it, Ercolano) was an ancient town, located in the modern-day ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and f ...

. Later premodern synthetic pigments include
white lead White lead is the basic lead carbonate 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2. It is a complex salt, containing both carbonate and hydroxide ions. White lead occurs naturally as a mineral, in which context it is known as hydrocerussite, a hydrate In chemistry Ch ...
vermilion File:Lacquerware-roundbox-w-children.jpg, A Chinese "cinnabar red" carved lacquer box from the Qing dynasty (1736–1795), National Museum of China, Beijing Vermilion (sometimes spelled vermillion) is both a brilliant red or scarlet (color), sc ...

,
verdigris Verdigris is the common name for a green pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic ...
, and
lead-tin-yellow Lead-tin-yellow is a yellow pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic compound , C ...
. Vermilion, a
mercury Mercury usually refers to: * Mercury (planet) Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System and the closest to the Sun. Its orbit around the Sun takes 87.97 Earth days, the shortest of all the Sun's planets. It is named after the Roman g ...

sulfide Sulfide (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, whi ...

, was originally made by grinding a powder of natural
cinnabar Cinnabar () or cinnabarite (), likely deriving from the grc, κιννάβαρι (), is the bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS). It is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic sou ...

. From the 17th century on, it was also synthesized from the elements. It was favored by old masters such as
Titian Tiziano Vecelli or Vecellio (; 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian ( ), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Ital ...
.
Indian yellow Indian yellow is a complex pigment consisting primarily of euxanthic acid Salt (chemistry), salts (magnesium euxanthate and calcium euxanthate), euxanthone and sulphonated euxanthone. It was also known as purree, snowshoe yellow, gaugoli, gogili ...
was once produced by collecting the urine of cattle that had been fed only
mango A mango is an edible drupe, stone fruit produced by the tropical tree ''Mangifera indica'' which is believed to have originated from the region between northwestern Myanmar, Bangladesh, and northeastern India. ''M. indica'' has been cultivated ...

leaves. Dutch and Flemish painters of the 17th and 18th centuries favored it for its
luminescent Luminescence is spontaneous emission of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined ...
qualities, and often used it to represent
sunlight Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible spectrum, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is light scattering by particles, scattered and attenuation, filtered thr ...

. Since mango leaves are nutritionally inadequate for cattle, the practice of harvesting Indian yellow was eventually declared to be inhumane. Modern hues of Indian yellow are made from synthetic pigments. Vermillion has been partially replaced in by cadmium reds. Because of the cost of , substitutes were often used.
Prussian blue Prussian blue (also known as Berlin blue or, in painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, ...

, the oldest modern synthetic pigment, was discovered by accident in 1704. By the early 19th century, synthetic and metallic blue pigments included , a synthetic form of . Ultramarine was manufactured by treating
aluminium silicate Aluminium silicate (or aluminum silicate) is a name commonly applied to chemical compounds which are derived from aluminium oxide Aluminium oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in American English, American and ...
with
sulfur Sulfur (in nontechnical British English: sulphur) is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consis ...

. Various forms of
Cobalt Cobalt is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbe ...

and
Cerulean blue Cerulean (), also spelled caerulean, is a shade of blue Blue is one of the three primary color, primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB color model, RGB colour model. It lies between V ...
were also introduced. In the early 20th century, , a synthetic metallo-organic pigment was prepared. At the same time,
Royal Blue Royal blue is both a bright shade and a dark shade of azure blue Blue is one of the three primary color, primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB color model, RGB colour model. It lies ...
, another name once given to tints produced from lapis lazuli, has evolved to signify a much lighter and brighter color, and is usually mixed from Phthalo Blue and
titanium dioxide Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania , is the inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compoun ...
, or from inexpensive synthetic blue dyes. The discovery in 1856 of
mauveine Mauveine, also known as aniline purple and Perkin's mauve, was one of the first synthetic dyes. It was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin in 1856 while he was attempting to synthesise the phytochemical quinine for the treatment o ...
, the first
aniline dye Aniline is an organic compound with the chemical formula, formula Carbon, C6Hydrogen, H5Nitrogen, NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the simplest aromatic amine. It is an industrially significant Commodity che ...
, was a forerunner for the development of hundreds of
synthetic dye 300px, Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at living_history_museum.html"_;"title="Conner_Prairie_living_history_museum">Conner_Prairie_living_history_museum. A_dye_is_a_ Conner_Prairie_living_history_museum.">living_hi ...
s and pigments like azo and
diazo The diazo group is an organic moiety consisting of two linked nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford ...
compounds. These dyes ushered in the flourishing of organic chemistry, including systematic designs of colorants. The development of organic chemistry diminished the dependence on inorganic pigments. File:Johannes Vermeer - Het melkmeisje - Google Art Project.jpg, ''The Milkmaid'' by
Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , see below; also known as Jan Vermeer; October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch Baroque Period The Baroque (, ; ) is a style of architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin ...
(c. 1658). Vermeer was lavish in his choice of expensive pigments, including
lead-tin-yellow Lead-tin-yellow is a yellow pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic compound , C ...
, natural
ultramarine Ultramarine is a deep blue color pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder. The name comes from the Latin ''ultramarinus'', literally "beyond the sea", because the pigment was imported into Europe from mines in Afghan ...

, and
madder lake Madder Lake are an Australian progressive rock Progressive rock (shortened as prog; also known as classical rock or symphonic rock; sometimes conflated with art rock) is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and Un ...
, as shown in the vibrant painting. File:Tizian 041.jpg,
Titian Tiziano Vecelli or Vecellio (; 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian ( ), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Ital ...
used the historic pigment
Vermilion File:Lacquerware-roundbox-w-children.jpg, A Chinese "cinnabar red" carved lacquer box from the Qing dynasty (1736–1795), National Museum of China, Beijing Vermilion (sometimes spelled vermillion) is both a brilliant red or scarlet (color), sc ...

to create the reds in the oil painting of , completed c. 1518. File:Accademia - Miracle of the Slave by Tintoretto.jpg, ''Miracle of the Slave'' by
Tintoretto Tintoretto ( , , ; born Jacopo Robusti; late September or early October 1518Bernari and de Vecchi 1970, p. 83.31 May 1594) was an Italian painter identified with the Venetian school. His contemporaries both admired and criticized the speed with ...

(c. 1548). The son of a master
dye 300px, Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. A dye is a wiktionary:colored, colored substance that chemically bonds to the wikt:substrate, substrate to which it is being applied. T ...
r, Tintoretto used Carmine Red Lake pigment, derived from the
cochineal The cochineal ( ; ; scientific name: ''Dactylopius coccus'') is a scale insect Scale insects are small insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of ...
insect, to achieve dramatic color effects. File:Paul Cézanne 160.jpg, ''Self Portrait'' by
Paul Cézanne Paul Cézanne ( , , ; ; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically di ...

. Working in the late 19th century, Cézanne had a much broader palette of colors than his predecessors.

# Manufacturing and industrial standards

Before the development of synthetic pigments, and the refinement of techniques for extracting mineral pigments, batches of color were often inconsistent. With the development of a modern color industry, manufacturers and professionals have cooperated to create international standards for identifying, producing, measuring, and testing colors. First published in 1905, the
Munsell color system In colorimetry, the Munsell color system is a color space A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with color profiling supported by various physical devices, it supports reproducible representations of color -- whethe ...
became the foundation for a series of color models, providing objective methods for the measurement of color. The Munsell system describes a color in three dimensions,
hue In color theory, hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception described through color ''c ...

,
value Value or values may refer to: * Value (ethics) it may be described as treating actions themselves as abstract objects, putting value to them ** Values (Western philosophy) expands the notion of value beyond that of ethics, but limited to Western s ...

(lightness), and chroma (color purity), where chroma is the difference from gray at a given hue and value. By the middle 20th century, standardized methods for pigment chemistry were available, part of an international movement to create such standards in industry. The
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization develops and publishe ...
(ISO) develops technical standards for the manufacture of pigments and dyes. ISO standards define various industrial and chemical properties, and how to test for them. The principal ISO standards that relate to all pigments are as follows: * ISO-787 General methods of test for pigments and extenders. * ISO-8780 Methods of dispersion for assessment of dispersion characteristics. Other ISO standards pertain to particular classes or categories of pigments, based on their chemical composition, such as
ultramarine Ultramarine is a deep blue color pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder. The name comes from the Latin ''ultramarinus'', literally "beyond the sea", because the pigment was imported into Europe from mines in Afghan ...

pigments,
titanium dioxide Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania , is the inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compoun ...
, iron oxide pigments, and so forth. Many manufacturers of paints, inks, textiles, plastics, and colors have voluntarily adopted the
Colour Index International Colour Index International is a reference database jointly maintained by the Society of Dyers and ColouristsThe Society of Dyers and Colourists (SDC) is an international professional society, with headquarters in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK, spe ...
(CII) as a standard for identifying the pigments that they use in manufacturing particular colors. First published in 1925—and now published jointly on the web by the
Society of Dyers and ColouristsThe Society of Dyers and Colourists (SDC) is an international professional society, with headquarters in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK, specializing in colour in all its manifestations. Founded in 1884, it was granted a Royal Charter of Incorporatio ...
(
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

) and the
American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists AATCC—the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists—is a 501(c)(6) not-for-profit professional association that provides test method development, quality control materials, educational development, and networking for textile and app ...
(USA)—this index is recognized internationally as the authoritative reference on colorants. It encompasses more than 27,000 products under more than 13,000 generic color index names. In the CII schema, each pigment has a generic index number that identifies it chemically, regardless of proprietary and historic names. For example,
Phthalocyanine Blue BN Phthalocyanine Blue BN, also called by many names (EINECS 205-685-1), is a bright, crystalline, synthetic blue pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at ...

has been known by a variety of generic and proprietary names since its discovery in the 1930s. In much of Europe, phthalocyanine blue is better known as Helio Blue, or by a proprietary name such as Winsor Blue. An American paint manufacturer, Grumbacher, registered an alternate spelling (Thanos Blue) as a trademark.
Colour Index International Colour Index International is a reference database jointly maintained by the Society of Dyers and ColouristsThe Society of Dyers and Colourists (SDC) is an international professional society, with headquarters in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK, spe ...
resolves all these conflicting historic, generic, and proprietary names so that manufacturers and consumers can identify the pigment (or dye) used in a particular color product. In the CII, all phthalocyanine blue pigments are designated by a generic color index number as either PB15 or PB16, short for pigment blue 15 and pigment blue 16; these two numbers reflect slight variations in molecular structure, which produce a slightly more greenish or reddish blue.

# Figures of merit

The following are some of the attributes of pigments that determine their suitability for particular manufacturing processes and applications: * Lightfastness and sensitivity for damage from ultraviolet light * Heat stability *
Toxicity Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacteria, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a ...

* Tinting strength *
Staining specimen, sandwiched between a glass microscope slide. Staining is a technique used to enhance contrast in samples, generally at the Microscope, microscopic level. Stains and dyes are frequently used in histology (the study of tissue under the ...
*
Dispersion Dispersion may refer to: Economics and finance *Dispersion (finance), a measure for the statistical distribution of portfolio returns *Price dispersion, a variation in prices across sellers of the same item *Wage dispersion, the amount of variation ...
(which can be measured with a Hegman gauge) * Opacity or
transparency Transparency, transparence or transparent most often refer to transparency and translucency, the physical property of allowing the transmission of light through a material. They may also refer to: Literal uses * Transparency (photography), a sti ...
* Resistance to alkalis and acids * Reactions and interactions between pigments

# Swatches

Swatches are used to communicate colors accurately. The types of swatches are dictated by the media, i.e., printing, computers, plastics, and textiles. Generally, the medium that offers the broadest gamut of color shades is widely used across diverse media.

## Printed swatches

Reference standards are provided by printed swatches of color shades.
PANTONE Pantone LLC is a limited liability company headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey. The company is best known for its Pantone Matching System (PMS), a patent, proprietary color space used in a variety of industries, notably graphic design, fashion ...
, RAL, Munsell, etc. are widely used standards of color communication across diverse media like printing, plastics, and
textiles A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, o ...

.

## Plastic swatches

Companies manufacturing color masterbatches and pigments for plastics offer plastic swatches in injection molded color chips. These color chips are supplied to the designer or customer to choose and select the color for their specific plastic products. Plastic swatches are available in various special effects like pearl, metallic, fluorescent, sparkle, mosaic etc. However, these effects are difficult to replicate on other media like print and computer display. Plastic swatches have been created by 3D modelling to including various special effects.

## Computer swatches

The appearance of pigments in natural light is difficult to replicate on a
computer display A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or text form. A monitor usually comprises a electronic visual display, visual display, electronic circuit, some circuitry, a casing, and a power supply. The display dev ...
. Approximations are required. The Munsell Color System provides an objective measure of color in three dimensions: hue, value (or lightness), and chroma. Computer displays in general fail to show the true chroma of many pigments, but the hue and lightness can be reproduced with relative accuracy. However, when the gamma of a computer display deviates from the reference value, the hue is also systematically biased. The following approximations assume a display device at
gamma Gamma (uppercase , lowercase ; ''gámma'') is the third letter of the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician ...
2.2, using the
sRGB color space sRGB is a standard RGB (red, green, blue) color space that HP and Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactur ...
. The further a display device deviates from these standards, the less accurate these swatches will be. Swatches are based on the average measurements of several lots of single-pigment watercolor paints, converted from
Lab color space The CIELAB color space also referred to as ''L*a*b*'' is a color space A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with color profiling supported by various physical devices, it supports reproducible representations o ...

to
sRGB color space sRGB is a standard RGB (red, green, blue) color space that HP and Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactur ...
for viewing on a computer display. The appearance of a pigment may depend on the brand and even the batch. Furthermore, pigments have inherently complex
reflectance The reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is reflected at the boundary. Reflectance is a component of the response of the electronic st ...

spectra that will render their color appearance greatly different depending on the spectrum of the source illumination, a property called metamerism. Averaged measurements of pigment samples will only yield approximations of their true appearance under a specific source of illumination. Computer display systems use a technique called chromatic adaptation transforms to emulate the
correlated color temperature The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiation, black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that ...
of illumination sources, and cannot perfectly reproduce the intricate spectral combinations originally seen. In many cases, the perceived color of a pigment falls outside of the
gamut , displayed in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram The CIE 1931 color spaces are the first defined quantitative links between distributions of wavelengths in the electromagnetic visible spectrum, and physiologically perceived colors in human color ...
of computer displays and a method called
gamut mapping In digital imaging systems, color management (or colour management) is the controlled Data conversion, conversion between the color representations of various devices, such as image scanners, digital cameras, monitors, TV screens, film printers, ...
is used to approximate the true appearance. Gamut mapping trades off any one of
lightness Lightness is a visual perception of the luminance (L) of an object. It is often judged relative to a similarly lit object. In colorimetry and color appearance models, lightness is a prediction of how an illuminated color will appear to a standa ...

,
hue In color theory, hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception described through color ''c ...

, or saturation accuracy to render the color on screen, depending on the priority chosen in the conversion's
ICC ICC may refer to: Buildings * International Commerce Centre, a skyscraper in Hong Kong * International Commercial Center, a skyscraper in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia * International Convention Centre (disambiguation), any of several convention centers * ...
rendering intent.

# Biological pigments

In
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Developmenta ...

, a pigment is any
color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Englis ...
ed material of plant or animal cells. Many biological structures, such as
skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticle, animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have differe ...

,
eye Eyes are organs of the visual system The visual system comprises the sensory organ (the eye) and parts of the central nervous system (the retina containing photoreceptor cells, the optic nerve, the optic tract and the visual cortex) which ...

s,
fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicles ...

, and
hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Phy ...

contain pigments (such as
melanin Melanin (; from el, μέλας ''melas'', "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individu ...

). Animal skin coloration often comes about through specialized cells called
chromatophores Chromatophores are cells that produce color, of which many types are Biological pigment, pigment-containing cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods. Mammals and ...

, which animals such as the
octopus An octopus (pl. octopuses/octopi, see below for variants) is a soft-bodied, eight- limbed mollusc Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the Arthropoda. The members are known as molluscs or mollusks (). Ar ...

and
chameleon Chameleons or chamaeleons (Family (biology), family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of Old World lizards with 202 species described as of June 2015. These species come in a range of colors, and many species have th ...

can control to vary the animal's color. Many conditions affect the levels or nature of pigments in plant, animal, some
protista A protist () is any eukaryotic organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a synonym f ...
, or
fungus A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of Eukaryote, eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and Mold (fungus), molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as ...

cells. For instance, the disorder called
albinism Albinism is the congenital absence of any pigmentation or colouration in a person, animal or plant, resulting in white hair, feathers, scales and skin and pink eyes in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish and invertebrates as well. Va ...
affects the level of melanin production in animals. Pigmentation in organisms serves many biological purposes, including
camouflage Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or by disguising them as something else. Examples include the leopard's spotted coat, the battl ...

,
mimicry In evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolution, evolutionary processes (natural selection, common descent, speciation) that produced the Biodiversity, diversity of life on Earth. In the 1 ...

,
aposematism Aposematism is the advertising by an animal to potential predation , predators that it is not worth attacking or eating. This unprofitability may consist of any defences which make the prey difficult to kill and eat, such as toxicity, venom, f ...
(warning),
sexual selection Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection in which members of one biological sex mate choice, choose mates of the other sex to mating, mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the ...
and other forms of
signalling In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such as audio signal processing, sound, image processing, images, and scientific measurements. Sig ...
,
photosynthesis File:Photosynthesis equation.svg, upright=1.8, Overall equation for the type of photosynthesis that occurs in plants Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energ ...

(in plants), as well as basic physical purposes such as protection from
sunburn Sunburn is a form of radiation burn A radiation burn is a damage to the skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. ...

. Pigment color differs from
structural color A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as o ...

in that pigment color is the same for all viewing angles, whereas structural color is the result of selective reflection or
iridescence Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States Englis ...
, usually because of multilayer structures. For example,
butterfly Butterflies are insect Insects (from Latin ') are pancrustacean Hexapoda, hexapod invertebrates of the class (biology), class Insecta. They are the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three ...

wings typically contain structural color, although many butterflies have cells that contain pigment as well.

# Pigments by elemental composition

*
Cadmium Cadmium is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, silvery-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12 element, group 12, zinc and mercury (element), mercury. Li ...

pigments: ,
cadmium red Cadmium pigments are a class of pigments that contain cadmium. Most of the cadmium produced worldwide has been for use in rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries, which have been replaced by other rechargeable nickel-chemistry cell varieties such ...
, cadmium green, , cadmium pigments, cadmium sulfoselenide * Chromium pigments: chrome yellow and chrome green (viridian) * Cobalt pigments: cobalt violet, cobalt blue, cerulean blue, aureolin (cobalt yellow) * Copper pigments: Azurite, Han purple, Han blue,
Egyptian blue Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10 or CaOCuO(SiO2)4 (calcium copper tetrasilicate)) or cuprorivaite, is a pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes ...

, Malachite, Paris green,
Phthalocyanine Blue BN Phthalocyanine Blue BN, also called by many names (EINECS 205-685-1), is a bright, crystalline, synthetic blue pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at ...

, Phthalocyanine Green G,
verdigris Verdigris is the common name for a green pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic ...
* Iron oxide pigments: sanguine, caput mortuum (pigment), caput mortuum, Iron oxide red, oxide red, red ochre, yellow ochre, Venetian red,
Prussian blue Prussian blue (also known as Berlin blue or, in painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, ...

, Sienna, raw sienna, burnt sienna, raw umber, burnt umber * Lead pigments: lead white, cremnitz white, Naples yellow, red lead,
lead-tin-yellow Lead-tin-yellow is a yellow pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic compound , C ...
* Manganese pigments: manganese violet, YInMn Blue, YInMn blue * Mercury (element), Mercury pigments:
vermilion File:Lacquerware-roundbox-w-children.jpg, A Chinese "cinnabar red" carved lacquer box from the Qing dynasty (1736–1795), National Museum of China, Beijing Vermilion (sometimes spelled vermillion) is both a brilliant red or scarlet (color), sc ...

* Titanium pigments: titanium yellow, titanium beige, titanium white, titanium black * Zinc pigments: zinc white, zinc ferrite, zinc yellow * Aluminum pigment: Aluminum powder * Carbon pigments: carbon black (including vine black, lamp black), ivory black (bone charcoal) * Ultramarine pigments (based on sulfur):
ultramarine Ultramarine is a deep blue color pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder. The name comes from the Latin ''ultramarinus'', literally "beyond the sea", because the pigment was imported into Europe from mines in Afghan ...

## Biological and organic

* Biological origins: alizarin, gamboge, Carmine, cochineal red, rose madder, Indigo dye, indigo,
Indian yellow Indian yellow is a complex pigment consisting primarily of euxanthic acid Salt (chemistry), salts (magnesium euxanthate and calcium euxanthate), euxanthone and sulphonated euxanthone. It was also known as purree, snowshoe yellow, gaugoli, gogili ...
, Tyrian purple * Non biological Organic compound, organic: quinacridone, magenta, phthalo green, phthalo blue, pigment red 170, diarylide yellow

* List of Stone Age art * Rock art * Subtractive color

# References

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